Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to Agriculture and Cash Crops ICSE Class 10 Geography previous year questions and solutions. below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions that have come in previous years. This will help you to understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 Geography and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 Geography Agriculture and Cash Crops Last Year Questions
Students should learn the important questions and answers given below for Chapter Agriculture and Cash Crops in Geography for ICSE Class 10. These board questions are expected to come in the upcoming exams. Students of ICSE Class 10th should go through the board exams questions and answers for ICSE Class 10 Geography which will help them to get more marks in exams.
Board Exam Questions Agriculture and Cash Crops ICSE Class 10 Geography
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question: Mention one problem faced by the sugarcane cultivators in India.
Answer: One problem faced by the sugarcane cultivators in India-
(i) Sugarcane is a soil-exhausting crop and thus need good amount of fertilizers which
increases the cost of production.
(ii) The location of sugar mills are far from the fields, thus, a delay of more than 24 hours results in the reduction of sucrose content in the canes.
Question: Explain the term Ratooning and name the crop with which it is associated.
Explain the method of propagation and name the crop associated with Ratoon cropping.
Explain briefly the term Ratooning.
Answer: Ratooning is a method in which during harvesting of sugarcane plant, the roots and the lower parts
of the plant are left uncut to give the ratoon or the subtle crop. It is associated with Sugarcane.
Question: Explain the term oil cake.
Answer: Oil cake is the residue of the oil seeds from which the oil has been extracted.
Question: The yield per hectare of sugarcane is higher in the Southern States. Give a geographic reason.
Answer: As the mills are closer to the fields hence there is less loss of sucrose content/ use of better quality cane/ larger farms, hence mechanised farming is possible/ co-operative farming is practised, ensuring a better yield with better seeds, increased use of better fertilizers, better irrigation method and better crop protection measures/Frost free growing season/ tapering shape of peninsular- Sea breeze/Longer crushing season/regur soil responsible for better yield.
Question: Oilseeds are an important commercial crop grown in India. Give a geographical reason.
Ans. Any one of the following:
Oil of the oil seeds is useful, gives edible oil and raw material for products like paints, varnishes, soaps etc.
Provides employment The oil cake used for fodder Exported and so earns foreign exchange.
Question: Explain the propagation of sugarcane by ratooning.
Answer: (i) After harvesting of sugarcane plant, the roots and the lower parts of the plant are left uncut
to give the ratoon or the subtle crop.
(ii) The successive crops that grow from the left out subtle is called the Ratoon.
Question: Oilcake is a useful residue. Give a geographical reason.
Answer: Oilcake is used as animal fodder and is also used as good manure in the farms.
Question: Name one state which is an important producer of groundnuts.
Answer: Gujarat is an important producer of groundnuts.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question: Name two non-edible oilseeds grown in India. State one use of each.
Answer: Two non-edible oilseeds grown in India-
(i) Linseed- It is used in paints, varnishes, linoleum, oil cloth, printing inks. Linseed oil
was often used for tempering wood (especially new bats—cricket, hockey etc).
(ii) Castor seed- Its oil is used in lubricants, soaps, inks, varnishes and linoleum.
Question: Give the geographical requirements for the cultivation of Sugarcane.
Answer: 1. Temperature- Grows best in areas with temperature between 20°C and 24°C.
2. It requires 100 cm-150 cm of rainfall throughout the year.
3. The crop grows well in well drained rich alluvial, heavy loams or lava soil.
Question: Name one non-edible oil seed and mention its different uses.
Answer: Castor seed is a non-edible oil seed. Its oil is used in lubricants, soaps, inks, varnishes and linoleum.
Question: State two reasons to explain why the cultivation of oil seeds is lagging behind in recent times.
Answer: (i) Due to climatic fluctuations and low market value, the farmers prefer other commercial crops.
(ii) Lack of high yielding varieties, irrigation facilities and chemical fertilizers
Long Answer Type Questions
Question: Give the geographic term for each of the following:
(i) Cultivation of sugarcane from the root stock of the cane which has been cut.
(ii) The residue left behind after the crushing of oilseeds.
(iii) The process by which latex is converted into a thick, spongy mass by adding acetic acid or formic acid
Answer: (i) Ratooning
(ii) Oil cake
Question: Answer the following questions with reference to Sugarcane:
(i) Mention two different ways in which it is propagated.
(ii) Why is a lot of labour required for its cultivation?
(iii) Why must the sugar mills be near the sugar fields?
Answer: (i) Sett Method and Ratoon Method
(ii) Sugarcane is a labour intensive crop and needs skilled labour for cutting the stalks from the ground carefully and efficiently.
(iii) So that sugarcane can be processed within 48 hours of cutting to preserve the sucrose content.
Question: (i) The yield of sugarcane is higher in the Deccan. Give two reasons for this.
(ii) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of ratoon cropping.
Answer: (i) 1. The mills are closer to the fields hence there is less loss of sucrose content.
2. Use of better quality cane and longer crushing season.
3. Grown in large farms and hence mechanised farming is possible.
4. Frost free growing season. [Any two points]
(ii) One advantage of ratoon cropping-
This method is inexpensive as no preparation of the field is required.
One disadvantage of ratoon cropping- Ratoons produce low quality crop as with successive year the canes are thinner with low sucrose content.
Question: (i) What are the geographical conditions necessary for the cultivation of groundnuts?
(ii) What climatic condition adversely affects the groundnut crop?
(iii) Name two non-edible oilseeds grown.
Answer: (i) Geographical conditions necessary for the cultivation of groundnuts are-
1. Temperature- 20°C to 25°C
2. Rainfall- Between 50 cm-100 cm
3. Black soil, sandy loams and loamy soil are ideal for the crop.
(ii) The climatic condition that adversely affects the groundnut crop are-
1. Prolonged drought
2. Continuous rains
3. Stagnant water
(iii) Linseed and Castor.
Question: Name the state which is the largest producer of Castor seed. State one important use of its oil and oil cake.
Answer: Gujarat is the largest producer of Castor seed. Important use of its oil: Used in paints, varnishes,
printing ink, etc. Important use of oil cake: Used as animal fodder.
Question: Mention two problems faced by the sugarcane cultivators in India. State the role of Central Government in solving these problems.
Answer: Problems of Sugarcane Cultivation-
(i) Sugarcane is a soil-exhausting crop and thus need good amount of fertilizers which increases the cost of production.
(ii) In India the yield per hectare is extremely low as compared to other countries of the world.
(iii) Sugarcane has a short crushing season normally from 4 to 7 months in a year which results in financial problems for the industry as the mills and the workers remain idle.
(iv) The location of sugar mills are far from the fields, thus, a delay of more than 24 hours results in the reduction of sucrose content in the canes.
(v) Sugarcane is an annual crop but the land available for sugarcane is less as compared to other crops, thus, the farmers are unable to cultivate any other crop.
(vi) The production cost of sugarcane in India is the highest in the world due to uneconomic process of production, inefficient technology and heavy excise duty.
(vii) Small and uneconomic size of mills.
(viii) Old and obsolete machinery are used in most of the Indian sugar mills and needs rehabilitation.
(ix) Sugar industry is facing competition with gur and khandsari since Khandsari industry is free
from excise duty and can offer higher prices of cane to the cane growers.
(x) Sugarcane cultivation needs good amount of water but lacks irrigation facilities.
(xi) The government has fixed prices for the sugarcane farmers which is not profitable for them.
Role of Government in Solving Farmer’s Problems-
(i) The government has set up a number of Cooperative Societies.
(ii) To develop various means of irrigation to provide regular supply of water to the sugarcane fields.
(iii) To provide adequate and timely loans to farmers on easy terms so that they can buy farm machinery and other agricultural items.
(iv) To educate farmers with latest farming techniques and help farmers through specially developed programmes on radio and television.
Question: Give three uses of groundnuts.
Answer: (i) Groundnut is mainly used for the manufacture of hydrogenated oil and is used in making
margarine, soap, medicines, cooking oil, etc.
(ii) It is eaten raw, roasted and salted.
(iii) Its oilcake is used as cattle fodder.
(iv) Being a leguminous plant it plays an important role in crop rotation.
Question: Name the seed obtained from the flax plant. Name two commercial uses of its oil and one use
of its oil cake.
Answer: Linseed is obtained from the flax plant. Commercial Uses of its Oil-
(i) It is used in paints, varnishes, linoleum, oil cloth, printing inks.
(ii) It is often used for tempering wood (especially new bats—cricket, hockey etc).
(iii) Oil cake is used as cattle fodder.
Cash Crops Cotton Jute Tea and Coffee
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question: Tea is cultivated on hill slopes. Give a geographic reason.
Tea plantations are found on hill slopes. Explain why?
Answer: To allow excess water to drain off as tea cannot tolerate stagnant water.
Question: Explain the term Withering.
Answer: It means to reduce the moisture content in the tea leaves, make the leaves soft and to allow the flavour
compounds to develop.
Question: Tea bushes are pruned at regular intervals. Give a geographical reason.
Answer: Tea bushes are pruned to maintain the height of the bush to facilitate the plucking of leaves and to have
new shoots bearing plenty of soft leaves.
Question: What type of soil is best suited to jute cultivation?
Answer: New alluvium fertile soil in the Ganga delta region is most suitable for jute cultivation.
Question: Explain the term Ginning.
Answer: Ginning is a process of separation of cotton fibre from the cotton seed
Short Answer Type Questions
Question: (i) Which state in India is the largest producer of coffee?
(ii) State the climatic conditions that favour the cultivation of coffee.
(i) Name two states where coffee plantations are found?
(ii) What conditions of soil and climate are favourable for the cultivation of coffee?
Answer: (i) Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
(ii) Temperature- Between 15°C and 28°C. Rainfall- Between 150 cm and 200 cm of annual rainfall. Stagnant water is harmful.
Soil- Well drained, rich friable loams containing a good deal of humus and minerals like iron and calcium are ideal for coffee cultivation.
Question: Give geographical reasons for the following-
(i) Regular pruning is essential for tea bushes.
(ii) Coffee beans are roasted.
Answer: (i) Pruning is an essential part of tea cultivation as it helps in maintaining the proper shape of tea
bush to a height of about one metre to facilitate the plucking of leaves.
(ii) The coffee beans are roasted at temperatures of about 99°C and then ground into coffee powder. Roasting gives the brown colour, aroma and taste.
Question: State an important difference between the climatic requirements for growing Cotton and Jute.
Question: Give a geographical reason for each of the following:
(i) Cotton grows widely in Maharashtra.
(ii) Clonal planting is the best method for tea propagation.
Answer: (i) 21°C to 30°C; 50 to 75 cm of rain; black soil.
(ii) The new tea plant has all the qualities of the mother plant from which the cutting is taken and sown
Question: Explain in brief the following:
Answer: (i) Retting- It is a microbiological process which loosens the outer bark and facilitates removal
of the fibre from the stalk.
(ii) Ginning- It is a process of separation of cotton fibre from the cotton seed.
Question: Name a state which produces short staple cotton. Which climatic and soil conditions favour the cultivation of cotton in the state mentioned.
Answer: Uttar Pradesh produces short staple cotton.
Temperature- 21°C and 30°C.
Rainfall- 60 cm to 120 cm.
Question: Name the state in India which leads in cotton cultivation. Mention two climatic factors which affect the cotton cultivation adversely.
Answer: Gujarat leads in cotton cultivation. Two climatic factors which affect the cotton cultivation adversely are-
1. Cotton plant is extremely sensitive to frost.
2. Rainfall during the cotton ball opening and harvesting periods is harmful for the plants.
Question: Which state is the leading producer of Jute? Give any two factors responsible for this.
Answer: West Bengal is the leading producer of Jute. Rainfall- 150cm -200 cm. Soil- New Alluvial fertile soil in the Ganga- Brahmaputra delta.
Question: Define the following terms-
Answer: (i) Ginning- It is a process of separation of cotton fibre from the cotton seed.
(ii) Arabica- An evergreen shrub or tree yielding seeds that produce a high quality coffee.
Question: India is the largest producer of tea. State the climatic factors necessary for its growth.
Answer: Temperature- 24°C to 30°C. Rainfall- 150 cm- 500cm. Soil- Well drained, deep friable loamy soil.
Question: State two geographical requirements for the growth of cotton.
Answer: (i) Temperature- 21°C and 30°C with at least 200 frost free days.
(ii) Rainfall- 60 cm to 120 cm.
(iii) Soil- Deep black clay soil.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question: Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Name one State where this crop grows well.
(ii) Why are mostly women employed to harvest it?
(iii) Mention two geographical conditions suitable for the cultivation of this crop.
Answer: (i) Assam / West Bengal / Kerala / Tamil Nadu
(ii) Mostly women harvest the tea because it involves fine plucking, (two leaves and a bud) and women labourer can patiently pluck the same.
(iii) Two geographical conditions are: Temperature – 24°C to 30°C Rain – 150 cm to 350 cm
Soil – well drained deep friable loams, rich in organic matter.
Laterite soil Examiners’ Comment Candidates wrote correct answer to (i) and (ii) However in (iii) Some candidates omitted important factors of range of temperature and rainfall.
Question: Give geographical reasons for the following:(i) Jute has to be retted.
(ii) Tea is grown in hill slopes.
(iii) Silver oak and banana trees are grown on coffee plantations.
Answer: (i) Jute has to be retted to facilitate the removal of the fibre from the stalk.
(ii) Tea is grown on hill slopes because water logging at the roots of the plant is injurious and so it prevents from water stagnation.
(iii) The coffee plant cannot stand direct sunrays and is thus grown under shady trees such as silver oak and banana trees.
Question: With reference to the cultivation of coffee in Southern India-
(i) Name the two varieties of coffee plants grown on commercial scale.
(ii) Why are coffee estates inter-planted with orange trees, cardamom and pepper vines?
(iii) Name one state where coffee is grown extensively.
Answer: (i) Coffee Arabica and Coffee Robusta.
(ii) The coffee plant cannot stand direct sunrays and is thus inter-planted with orange trees, cardamom
and pepper vines.
Question: (i) Name two main varieties of coffee.
(ii) Why are the following trees commonly grown in a coffee estate?
1. Dalap and Silver Oak
2. Orange and Plum.
Answer: (i) The two main varieties of coffee are-
(ii) 1. Dalap and Silver Oak are grown in coffee estates as shade trees as they protect the coffee plants from the direct rays of the sun.
2. Orange and Plum are grown to provide extra income to the farmers.
Question: Why is tea considered a labour intensive crop? Name two states in India where tea is widely grown.
Answer: Tea is considered a labour intensive crop because most of the tea cultivation activities are done manually by the skilled and unskilled farmers and labourers like sowing, pruning, plucking, etc. Two states in India where tea is widely grown are : Assam and West Bengal
Question. Mention the climatic conditions necessary to grow soyabean.
Answer: Soyabean requires temperature in the range of 13ºC -24ºC. Temperature above 13ºC is necessary for the normal growth of soyabean. Soyabean grows in regions with 40 cm to 60 cm of rainfall. The rainfall should be well distributed throughout the growing season. It is grown on friable loamy acidic soils.
Question. Why is it prudent to grown only one ratoon crop between two seasons of Sett crop seasons?
Answer: The roots of the sugarcane weaken and begin to die away at the end of one ratoon crop. Therefore the farmers can take only one ratoon crop between two seasons of sett crop cultivation.
Question. What geographical requirements and climatic conditions are suitable for the cultivation of groundnuts ? OR What conditions of temperature and rainfall favour the growth of groundnut ?
Answer: Groundnuts thrives well in the tropical and subtropical climates and is highly susceptible to frost. The groundnut is a rabi crop in Odisha and in southern states. In the rest of India, it is a kharif crop. Sandy loams, loams and well drained soils are best suited. Temperature : Groundnut requires about 20ºC to 25ºC temperature. Dry weather is needed during the time of ripening. Rainfall : Groundnuts require light to moderate rainfall between 50 to 100 cm. Rainfall should be well distributed. Prolonged drought, continuous rains, stagnant water and frost harm the crop adversely. In Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra it is raised under irrigation.
Question. Give the method of cultivation of groundnut
Answer: (i) The sandy soil is ploughed. Then the seeds are sown by broadcasting or drilling in June or July.
(ii) When the plants mature, they flower. After self pollination the flower stalk elongates, turns downwards buries the fruit where it matures. The mature fruits have wrinkled shells with one to four seeds per pod.
(iii) The whole crop takes 4 to 5 months to be ready for harvest.
(iv) Groundnut is a Kharif crop in most part of India. The crop is sown in June-July and harvested in November – December. But Tamil Nadu it is a summer crop sown in February-March and harvested in June- July.
Question. What is the uniqueness of soyabean as compared to other oilseeds? Which three states are the leading producers?
Answer: It is the most appropriate substitute for animal protein. It contains all essential amino acids necessary for healthy growth. Leading producers are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
Question. State the amount of rainfall required for the growth of sugarcane.
Answer: Sugarcane grows well in tropical regions with 100 – 150 cm of rainfall well distributed throughout the year. However, irrigation is necessary in areas
of lower rainfall or even in areas of higher rainfall during the long dry spells. The sucrose content decreases if heavy rains continue for long and a rainfall deficiency produces a fibrous crop. A slightly dry sunny weather is necessary during the ripening stage of the cane.
Question. What kind of the soil is required for sugarcane production ? What extra care needs to be taken for soil health when sugarcane is cultivated ?
Answer: (i) Sugarcane is grown in well drained rich alluvial, heavy loams or lava soil.
(ii) It is largely grown on loams and clayey loams of the Great Plains (Northern plain) and on black soils, brown or reddish loams and laterites in the Peninsular India.
(iii) Sugarcane exhausts the fertility of the soil. Hence, the soil is supplemented with manures and nitrogenous fertilizers.
Question. Mention the main uses of groundnut.
Answer: (i) Groundnut is mainly used for the manufacture of hydrogenated oil.
(ii) It is also used in making margarine, medical emulsions and soap manufacture.
(iii) Groundnut oil is used as a cooking medium.
(iv) Its oil cake is used as cattle feed.
Question. What is the world position of India in the production of ground nuts? What are the two types of groundnuts grown in India?
Answer: India is the second largest ground nut producer in the world.
The two types : a) Bunch type b) Runner type.
Question. After oil extraction, what other uses can the oilseeds be put to?
Answer: The residue left after extraction of oil from oil seeds can be used as a fodder for animals and also serves as a good manure.
Question. Name two non-edible oilseeds.
Answer: Castor, linseed are two non-edible oilseeds.
Question. Why is a lot of labour required for sugarcane cultivation ?
Answer: (i) A lot of labour is required for sugarcane cultivation from the time of sowing. Such as before sowing, ground is prepared, furrous are mad, cuttings (setts) are made by the sugarcane. Besides this pesticides and insecticides are sprayed, manuring is done two to three times.
(ii) Thus a lot of labour is required for sugarcane cultivation.
Question. Explain Ratooning method.
Answer: (i) In ratooning method during the first harvest the sugarcane is cut leaving a little bit of the stalk in the soil with roots. The stalk soon puts out new shoots or ratoons. The second or any other successive crop obtained from the roots of the leftover crop is called Ratoon.
(ii) Sugarcane is a perennial crop and, in theory, the same plants could continue to produce canes for many years. This is not done because the yield from each successive ratoon crop is lesser than the previous one.
(iii) After two or three ratoons, the old roots are no longer economical and new setts must be planted.
Question. State the advantages and disadvantages of ratooning.
Answer: (i) Advantages of Ratooning
(a) Crop need not be planted again, it saves labour.
(b) The ratoon matures early.
(c) This method is cheaper as it does not involve any extra inputs.
(ii) Disadvantages of Ratooning :
(a) The yield is of thinner canes with lower sucrose content.
(b) There is more risk of pests and diseases.
Question. Why is the sugarcane production increasing in Maharashtra?
Answer: Sugarcane production is increasing in Maharashtra owing to the favourable maritime climate free from the effects of summer loo and winter frost, sufficient irrigation and new farming techniques.
Question. Give two uses of oilseeds, besides production of cooking oil.
Answer: (i) The residue of the oil seeds is used for making of oilcakes.
(ii) Oil is also used in the manufacturing of medical emulsions and soap.
Question. Mention two different ways in which sugarcane is propagated.
Answer: Sugarcane is planted by following methods:
(i) Sett Methods : New canes are usually planted by taking cuttings from old plants. These cuttings known as setts, quickly become established and after a few days buds sprout to each cutting.
(ii) Ratooning : In this method during the first harvest the sugarcane is cut leaving a little bit of the stalk in the soil with roots. The stalk soon puts out new shoots or ratoons. The second or any other successive crop obtained from the roots of the leftover crop is called Ratoon. Sugarcane is a perennial crop and, in theory, the same plants could continue to produce canes for many years.
Question. How is soyabean consumed ?
Answer: Soyabean has a high protein content. The beans may be eaten as vegetable or made into soya sauce. Soyabean is used as a substitute for animal protein. It is consumed as soya milk and tofu (cheese)
Question. Name the state in the Deccan region which is the largest producer of sugarcane.
Answer: In the Deccan region, Maharashtra is the largest producer of sugarcane.
Question. State the different methods of cultivation of sugarcane crop.
Answer: The two methods are :
i ) Sett method
ii) Ratooning method
Question. Why must the sugar mills be located near the sugar fields?
Answer: Sugar mills must be located near the sugar fields since the sucrose content reduces as soon as the cutting of sugarcane takes place and thus the
crushing of cane should take place within 48 hours.
Question. Which two states in India are the leading producers of groundnut?
Answer: Telangana and Tamil Nadu together account for more than half of the groundnuts produced in India.
Question. State the problems associated with sugarcane cultivation.
Answer: Problems of Sugarcane Cultivators :
(i) Sugarcane is a soil exhausting crop and therefore the cost of fertilisers increases the cost of production.
(ii) The farms are far from the mill and a delay of more than 24 hours between harvesting and crushing reduces the sugar content.
(iii) The cost of transport increase the cost of production.
(iv) The crop is an annual crop and therefore, the farmers are unable to cultivate any other crop, thereby, limiting their income.
(v) It requires high input of irrigation meAnswer:
(vi) The price is fixed by the government which is most of the times not profitable for the farmers..