Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to Independence and Partition of India ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 Independence and Partition of India Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter Independence and Partition of India provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
Independence and Partition of India Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions
(1) Why was Cabinet Mission sent to India?
Ans. Mr. Attlee, the Prime Minister of England sent the Cabinet Mission to India in 1946 A.D. in order to discuss and finalise plans with the Congress and the Muslim League for the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership. The mission would aim to help Indian leaders decide the form of government that would suit them after the transfer of power.
(2) What was stated in the provision of the Cabinet Mission plan with respect to the formation of federal government?
Ans. (i) Cabinet Mission: It recommended a two-tier federal type of government for the whole of India including British India and Princely States.
(ii) Central Government was to have important subjects under its jurisdiction, namely defence, foreign affairs and communication and also have the power to raise finances required for these subjects.
(3) Describe the composition of the Constituent Assembly as proposed by the Cabinet Mission?
Ans. A Constituent Assembly consisting of 389 members – 296 members to be elected from British provinces and 93 from Indian Princely States would draft the constitution of India.
(4) On what basis did the Cabinet Mission group the provinces in India?
Ans. (i) Group A (Hindu Majority) – Madras, Bombay, U.P. Bihar, the Central Province Orissa.
(ii) Group B (Muslim Majority) – Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province, British Baluchistan.
(iii) Group C (Others) – Bengal and Assam
(5) State any two provisions of Cabinet Mission Plan?
Ans. (i) Formation of Interim Government : An Interim Government would be formed at the Centre with 14 members. For the time being the Viceroy would reconstitute his Executive Council consisting of representatives of all communities.
(ii) Freedom to join the Commonwealth : The Union of India would be free to remain in or walk out of the British Common wealth.
(iii) Representation of Minorities : Separate representation was to be given to Muslim and Sikhs.
(6) What was the reaction of Indian National Congress towards Cabinet Mission Plan?
Ans. Reaction of the Congress : Congress Working Committee agreed to join the Constituent Assembly (a sovereign body) with a view of framing the Constitution of a united democratic India. Major objections of the Congress were :
(i) The Plan will divide India into small states.
(ii) It objected grouping of provinces on a communal basis.
(iii) It objected the inclusion of Assam, a Hindu-majority province with the Muslim-majority Bengal province.
(iv) It opposed the League’s claim that it alone had the right to nominate all the Muslim members to the Executive Council.
(v) Interim Government would have a limited status.
(7) Why did Cabinet Mission reject the demand of Pakistan?
Ans. The Cabinet Mission rejected the Muslim Leagues’ demand for Pakistan for the following reasons. (i) It would be difficult to disintegrate the Armed forces, Postal and telegraph systems which had been built for India as a whole. (ii) Partition would make the problem of Princely states more complex. (iii) The two halves of proposed Pakistan would be separated by some 700 miles. Communication between them would depend on the goodwill of India. (iv) No justification for including within Pakistan, the non-Muslim districts of Bengal, Assam and Punjab.
(8) What concern did the Sikh and scheduled caste face in the Cabinet Mission Plan?
Ans. The Sikhs were against the proposals because Punjab was placed in Group B along with Muslim – majority provinces. Dr. Ambedkar, the leader of Schedule caste opposed the plan because only one seat was offered to them in the Interim Government.
(9) Which party came to power in England after the Second World War?
Ans. Labour Party with Mr. Clement Attlee as the Prime Minister. came to power in England after second World War.
(10) When was the Cabinet Mission sent to India? Write an international event that led to the Cabinet Mission?
Ans. Cabinet Mission was sent to India on March 24, 1946. The end of the Second World War had changed the balance of power. The USA and the Soviet Union emerged as the Super Powers and both supported India’s demand for freedom.
(11) What was the main objective of the Cabinet Mission?
Ans. The main purpose was to bring about a settlement between the League and the Congress for speedy transfer of power from British to the Indian hands.
(12) Name the persons who constituted the Cabinet Mission.
Ans. (i) Lord Pethic Lawrence (Secretary of State for India)
(ii) Sir Stafford Cripps and (President of the Board of Trade)
(iii) Mr. A .V. Alexander (The first lord of Admiralty)
(13) What was the reaction of the Muslim League on the proposals of Cabinet Mission?
Ans. The League accepted it in its entirety in June 1946 because it felt that the grouping of Muslim majority provinces in a way meant the formation of Pakistan. The League asked Wavell, the Viceroy, to constitute an Interim Government.
(14) Why were the Cabinet Mission’s proposals rejected by the Sikhs?
Ans. They rejected the proposals because Punjab was placed in Group B along with the Muslim majority provinces. They felt that the Muslim League would play a dominant role in the region.
(15) Name the territories which were to be included in Pakistan under the Two Nation Theory.
Ans. Punjab, Afghan Province, Kashmir and Sind and Baluchistan.
(16) Why did the Muslim League first accept and then reject the Cabinet Mission proposals?
Ans. The League initially accepted the plan since it felt that grouping of Muslim majority provinces meant formation of Pakistan. But later on it was rejected because it failed to win more seats than the Congress.
(17) Who was Attlee? Why was Attlee’s announcement welcomed by the Muslim League ?
Ans. Clement Attlee of Labour Party was the Prime Minister of Britain when India became independent. He was the person who announced that the British would quit India by June, 1948. It was accepted by the Muslim League because the Prime Minister had made it clear that power would not necessarily be handed over to a single government for the whole of India.
(18) What was the significance of Nehru’s resolution in Constituent Assembly ?
Ans. Nehru moved his famous resolution on December 11th, 1946. The resolution declared the Assembly’s resolve to make India an Independent Sovereign Republic.
(19) Which territorial provisions were suggested by Lord Mountbatten to implement the partition of India?
Ans. Following are territorial provisions suggested by Lord Mountbatten :
(i) Bengal and Punjab : The partition of Bengal and Punjab was proposed provided that the Legislative Assemblies of the two provinces decided in favour of partition.
(ii) Sindh : The Legislative Assembly of Sindh was to take its own decision at a special meeting.
(iii) The North-West Frontier Province : A plebiscite was to be held to ascertain whether the people wanted to join India or Pakistan.
(iv) The District of Sylhet : It was to be decided by a referendum whether Sylhet would join East Bengal or remain in Assam.
(20) What made Lord Mountbatten present the plan of partition of India?
Ans. The Cabinet Mission Plan failed to bring a settlement between the Congress and the League for the speedy transfer of power from the British to the Indian hands. Communal riots broke out. The uncompromising attitude of Jinnah and Muslim League made it difficult to preserve the unity of India. It looked as if that Partition was the only option left otherwise a brutal civil war could take place.
(21) When did Lord Mountbatten assume his office? What was his immediate task?
Ans. Lord Mountbatten assumed the office of the Viceroy and Governor- General on 3rd June 1947. His immediate task was to restore peace among the two warring sections – the Congress and the League – both in his Executive Council, and in the country at large.
(22) Which legislation formally declared freedom for India?
Ans. The Indian Independence Act 1947 was the legislation passed and enacted by the British Parliament that officially announced the independence and the partition of India. The Indian Independence bill was passed by the British Parliament on July 1, 1947.
(23) State the highlights of Indian Independence Act of 1947.
Ans. (i) Two independent Dominions – India and Pakistan came to be created from 15th August, 1947.
(ii) Princely States would become independent.
(iii) The abolition of the Office of the Secretary of State.
(iv) Division of the Indian Army and the sharing of assets.
(v) Safeguarding the interests of the existing officers.
(24) State the clauses of the Indian Independence Act regarding Governor General and Constituent Assemblies.
Ans. (i) Separate Governor General : British king would appoint a Governor- General for each of the Dominions who shall function as a Constitutional Head. M.A. Jinnah was appointed as the Governor General of Pakistan, and Lord Mountbatten continued as the Governor General of India.
(ii) Power to Constituent Assemblies to make Laws : The Constituent Assemblies of the two dominions were to serve as their Central Legislatures also till the new legislature was elected as per new constitution.
(25) Who replaced Lord Wavell?
Ans. Lord Mountbatten replaced Lord Wavell as the last Viceroy and Governor General in 1947. He was also the first governer-general of free India.
(26) Name any two provisions of the Mountbatten Plan.
Ans. (i) The country would be divided into two Dominions i.e., India and Pakistan.
(ii) The Princely States would have the option to join either of the two Dominions or to remain independent.
(27) What was the impact of Mountbatten Plan on the Constituent Assembly?
Ans. The Constituent Assembly was allowed to work but the Constitution framed by it would not apply to Pakistan.
(28) What was the composition of Pakistan according to the Independence Act, 1947?
Ans. East Bengal, West Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, North-West Frontier Province and the district of Sylhet in Assam.
(29) Who was the first President of the Indian Union ?
Ans. Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
(30) What was the provision regarding the transfer of power in the Mountbatten Plan ?
Ans. The Plan ended with the declaration that the transfer of power would take place not in June 1948, but much earlier than that. The British parliament would pass an Act for transfer of power before August 15, 1947.
(31) With what aim did the Muslim League join the Interim Government ?
Ans. The Muslim League joined the Interim Government to disturb the working of the Assembly and to create such a situation which would force the British Government to think about Pakistan.
(32) Why was Mountbatten Plan accepted by the Muslim League ?
Ans. The Muslim League accepted it because it contained the provision for creation of Pakistan.
(33) What were the two proposals for the Princely states in the Mountbatten Plan of 1947?
Ans. (i) The Treaties made with the Britishers would come to an end. (ii) They would be free to join India or Pakistan or to remain sovereign.
(34) What is the importance of Indian Independence Act ?
Ans. It was the Act which marked the end of British rule in India and India became free on 15th August, 1947.
(35) Mention any two provisions of the Independence Act, 1947.
Ans. (i) Constituent Assembly : There were two separate Constituent Assemblies for the two Dominions. Each would serve a Central Legislature.
(ii) Princely States : The Princely States became independent and all the powers exercised by the British authority were terminated.
(36) What was decided for princely states under Independence Act?
Ans. The Princely States would become independent and all the powers exercised by the British authority were to be terminated. All treaties and agreements made by the British with reference to States would lapse from August 15, 1947. They would be free to associate themselves with either Dominion or to remain independent.
(37) How would the Cabinet Mission form an Interim Government
Ans. An Interim Government would be formed at the Centre with 14 members. For the time being, the Viceroy would reconstitute his Executive Council consisting of representatives of all communities.
(38) What was Direct Action Day?
Ans. The League fixed August 16th, 1946 as the day for observing the Direct Action Day throughout the country. There were clashes and communal riots all over the country. Nearly 5,000 lives were lost, over 15,000 people were injured and many became homeless. Property worth crores of rupees was destroyed.
(39) State the provision of partition of Bengal and Punjab in the Indian Independence Act.
Ans. Both Bengal and Punjab would be divided if so desired by the people. The Provincial Assemblies of the two parts would meet separately representing Hindu majority districts and Muslim majority districts and would decide through a majority vote whether they wanted the division of the province or not.
(40) How did the Indian Independence Act facilitate the formation of new dominions?
Ans. India would be partitioned and two independent Dominions – India and Pakistan – would be created from August 15, 1947. The Act provided legislative supremacy of both the Dominions. The territories of the two Dominions were divided in such terms that Pakistan would comprise Sindh, British Baluchistan, North West Frontier Province, the West Punjab and East Bengal. India was to comprise all the remaining territories included in the British India. The exact boundaries of the Dominions would be determined by a Boundary commission.
(41) State any two provisions of Indian Independence Act which marked the end of jurisdiction of the British Parliament.
Ans. (a) The authority of the British Parliament would cease from 15th August 1947. Each Dominion would be governed as per Government of India Act 1935 till the new constitution was framed.
(b) Governor General was given power to modify and adopt the Government of India Act 1935 by March 31, 1948.
(c) The titles of “Emperor of India” and “king of England” were dropped from a royal style.
(1) ‘The Cabinet Mission Plan made efforts to resolve the Constitutional deadlock’. In this context answer the following :
(a) Main proposals of the Cabinet Mission Plan
(i) Federal Union
(ii) Grouping of Provinces
(iii) Formation of Constituent Assembly
(b) Failure of Cabinet Mission Plan
Ans. (a) Clauses of the Cabinet Mission Plan The Cabinet Mission proposed a two-tier federal plan which was expected to maintain national unity while conceding the largest measure of regional autonomy.
(i) Federal Union: o There was to be a federal union of the British Provinces and the Princely States. The Union Government (Central Government) should deal with the following subjects: (i) Foreign Affairs;
(ii) Defence; and
(iii) Communication. o The Union Government should have the power to raise the finances required for the above mentioned subjects. o The Union would have its own executive and legislature composed of members elected by all Provinces. o The Provinces would enjoy full autonomy for all subjects other than the Union Subjects.
(ii) Grouping of Provinces : The British Provinces would be divided into groups. Each group could determine the provincial subjects to be taken in common.
Group A: This would include six Hindu Majority Provinces, viz.
(iii) Central Provinces;
(iv) United Provinces;
(v) Bihar; and
Group B : This would include three Muslim Majority provinces, viz.
(ii) North West Frontier Province (NWFP); and
Group C: This would include
(i) Bengal; and
(ii) Assam. Of the Chief Commissioner’s Provinces, viz., Delhi, Ajmer-Marwar and Coorg to join Group A and Baluchistan to join Group B. A province could opt out of any group and join another by a majority of votes.
(iii) Formation of a Constituent Assembly : A Constituent Assembly would be set up to frame the new Constitution of the Indian Union. The composition of the 389 member Constituent Assembly would be as under :
(i) 296 members to be elected from the British Provinces.
(ii) 93 members to be elected from the Princely States. The members of the Constituent Assembly would be elected by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. Adult suffrage (all eligible voters voting) for this was ruled out to avoid delay in the making of the Constitution. It would be necessary to work out a Treaty between the Constituent Assembly and the United Kingdom for matters arising out of the transfer of power.
(b) The Cabinet Mission failed because of following reasons.
(i) League’s Reaction : The League criticized the proposals because the demand for Pakistan was not accepted in clear cut terms.
(ii) The Sikhs’ and the Scheduled Castes’ Reaction : The Sikhs were against the proposals because Punjab was placed in Group B along with Muslim – majority provinces. The Scheduled castes criticised the proposals because they were not given proper representation in the Interim Government.
(iii) Congress Reaction : The Congress accepted the proposals with reservations. It accepted only that part of the scheme which dealt with the Constitution making. The Congress wanted the grouping of the Provinces as optional and not compulsory. The Cabinet Mission accepted the complete freedom of the Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution, but insisted on the compulsory grouping of the Provinces. The Congress, however, rejected the Viceroy’s offer to form an interim Government because of its limited status and powers and also because the principle of parity with Muslim League was not acceptable to it.
(2) In context to the Cabinet Mission Plan, answer the following questions
(a) Why did Mission reject the demand of a separate state for the Muslims?
(b) Under what circumstances was the Mission sent to India ?
(c) What were its main objectives ?
Ans. (a) (i) Not a solution to the communal problem : The establishment of Pakistan would not provide any solution to the communal problem because the distribution of the Muslims in whole of India was uneven.
(ii) Argument of Non-Muslim districts : There was no justification for including within Pakistan the non-muslim districts of Bengal,Assam and the Punjab.
(iii) Problem of West Punjab and East Bengal : Two halves of the proposed Pakistan State i.e., West Punjab and East Bengal would be separated by a long distance (700 miles) and it will be difficult to communicate.
(iv) Problem of Princely States : Partition would make the problem of the Princely State more complex.
(b) 1. Changes in Britain
(i) The United States of America and the Soviet Union, emerged from the War as the two big powers. Both supported India’s demand for freedom.
(ii) Even though Britain was on the winning side of the War, its economic and military power was shattered.
(iii) There was a change of government in Britian. The Conservatives were replaced by the Labour Party, many of them supported the Congress demands.
(iv) The British soldiers were weary of the War, having fought and shed their blood for six years.
2. Revolts in the Administravtive Agencies
(i) There was a revolt of the Indian Naval ratings at Mumbai in February 1946.
(ii) There were also widespread strikes in the Royal Indian Air Force.
The Indian signal corps at Jabalpur also went on strike.
(iii) The Police and the Civil Service, were showing signs that they could no longer be safely used to suppress the National Movement.
3. Mood of the Indian People
Along with the struggle for the release of INA prisoners, in 1945-46 there were numerous agitations, strikes, hartals and demonstrations all over the country, even in many Princely States such as Hyderabad, Travancore and Kashmir.
4. Labour Unrest
(i) In July 1946, there was an all-India strike by the postal and telegraph workers.
(ii) Railway workers in South India went on strike in August 1946.
(iii) Peasant movements acquired a fresh thrust after 1945.
(iv) The Tebhaga struggle by the share croppers of Bengal who declared that they would pay not one – half but one – third of the crop to the landlords.
(v) Struggles for land and against high rents took place in Hyderabad, Malabar, Bengal, U.P. Bihar and Maharashtra.
(c) The main aim of the Commission was to go to India to seek an agreement with the Indian leaders on the principles and procedure relating to the constitutional issues and the gradual transfer of power to India.
(3) With regards to the conflict between Congress and Muslim League, explain.
(a) Why did the Muslim League observe the Direct Action Day?
(b) Conflict between Congress and Muslim League
(c) Attlee’s Announcement
Ans. (a) Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July, 1946. The Congress won 201 seats and the Muslim League only 73. Jinnah declared his intention to create Pakistan. The Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan.
(i) On August 14, 1946, the Viceroy invited Jawahar Lal Nehru to form the government. On the next day, Jinnah announced August 16, 1946 would be ‘Direct Action Day’ for the purpose of winning a separate Muslim state.
(ii) League walked out of Constituent Assembly and demanded a separate Constituent Assembly for Pakistan. However, it was not agreed by the British.
(b) (iii) Direct Action Day : In Calcutta, August 16 began with public demonstration, hartals and hoisting of Muslim League flags. Many were killed. Houses and shops were looted and burnt.
(iv) The Congress formed the Government on September 2nd, 1946. The Muslim League observed it as a ‘day of mourning’.
(v) Swearing-in of the Interim Government : On September 2nd, 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and his colleagues were sworn in as members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council. The Muslim League kept itself out of the Government.
(vi) Later the Muslim League became a part of Nehru’s interim government. Its objective was to obstruct the working of the government. League’s nominees did not accept Nehru’s Leadership. They openly rejected the idea of collective responsibility.
(c) (i) Mr. Attlee, the British Prime Minister, announced on February 20th, 1947, in the House of Commons that Britain would withdraw from India and transfer power to responsible Indians by June 1948.
(ii) Lord Wavell was recalled and Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the new Viceroy. Lord Mountbatten assumed office on March 24th, 1947.
(4) The Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946 tried to please both the Congress and the League. In this context, answer the following :
(a) Why did the League earlier accept and later reject the proposals of the Cabinet Mission ?
(b) The partial acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan by the Congress.
(c) Cabinet Mission Plan was accepted by the Muslim League in entirety. What were the reactions of the Congress and the Muslim League to Cabinet Mission Plan ?
Ans. (a) The League had accepted the Plan because it felt that the grouping of Muslim-majority provinces in a way meant the formation of Pakistan. Later the Muslim League passed a resolution on July 29th, 1946 withdrawing its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan because :
(i) The League could win only 73 seats. It feared that it would be over dominated by the Congress.
(ii) It also feared that British withdrawal from India would mean transfer of power to Hindus.
(b) The Congress accepted the proposals with reservations.
(i) It accepted only that part of the scheme which dealt with the Constitution making. It considered the Constituent Assembly as a sovereign body for drafting the Constitution.
(ii) The Congress wanted the grouping of the Provinces as optional and not complusory. The Cabinet Mission accepted the complete freedom of the Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution, but insisted on the complusory grouping of the Provinces.
(iii) The Congress however, rejected the Viceroy’s offer to form an Interim Government because of its limited status and powers.
(iv) The principle of parity with Muslim League was not acceptable to it. It was also opposed to the League’s claim that it alone had the right to nominate all the Muslim members to the Executive Council.
(c) The League accepted it in its entirety in June 1946 because it felt that the grouping of Muslim majority Provinces in a way meant the formation of Pakistan. The League asked Wavell, the Viceroy, to constitute an Interim Government.
(5) The Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947 was accepted by all parties. In this context, explain the clauses of the Plan as :
(a) Clauses related to partition.
(b) Clauses related to constitution.
(c) Clauses related to territories
(d) The reasons that made the Congress accept the partition proposals.
Ans. (a) (i) Division of the Country : The country would be divided into two Dominions i.e., India and Pakistan.
(ii) Relations between the two new Dominions : It was for the two Dominions to decide what relations they would have with the British Commonwealth and with each other.
(iii) A Boundary Commission : A Boundary Commission would be set up to decide about the boundary disputes.
(iv) The Princely States : The Princely States would be free to choose their own option, (either join India or Pakistan) and treaties signed with them would soon come to an end.
(b) (i) The Constituent Assembly : The existing Constituent Assembly would continue to work, but the Constitution framed by it would not be applied to Pakistan. A separate Constituent Assembly would be constituted for those parts which decided in favour of partition.
(c) (i) Bengal and Punjab : The provinces of Bengal and Punjab were also to be divided as per the opinion of their respective Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) Sindh : The Legislative Assembly of Sindh was to take its own decision at a special meeting.
(iii) North-West Frontier Province : A plebiscite was to be held in the North- West Frontier Province to ascertain whether the people wanted to join India or Pakistan.
(iv) The District of Sylhet : The Muslim majority district of Sylhet was to decide by referendum whether it would join East Bengal or remain in Assam.
(d) (i) Non-Cooperative attitude of the League : The League had joined the Interim Government to obstruct the working of the Congress and not to cooperate with it.
(ii) Communal Riots : The large scale communal riots that engulfed the whole country convinced all that the only solution to the communal problem lay in the partition of India. These riots were the outcome of ‘Direct Action Day’ observed by the League.
(iii) The country would have witnessed a brutal civil war.
(iv) Immediate end of the British rule : The Mountbatten plan announced transfer of power to take place before June 1948. The British Parliament would pass an Act for the transfer of power before August 15, 1947. All the people and leaders wanted to get rid of British rule immediately and were ready to pay any price. Hence, partition was a price for immediate independence.
(6) Indian Independence Act received the Royal assent on July 18, 1947. In this context, discuss :
(a) Main provisions of the Indian Independence Act of 1947.
(i) Two New Dominions
(ii) Provisions of Partition
(iii) Governor-General for Each Dominion
(iv) Constituent Assemblies to serve as Central Legislatures
(v) End of Jurisdiction of the British Parliament
(b) Enforcement of the Act.
Ans. (a) After the Mountbatten Plan was accepted by the Indian leaders, the British Prime Minister introduced the Indian Independence Bill in the House of Commons. The Bill was passed by both houses of the British Parliament on July 1, 1947. The main provisions of the Act were as follows:
(i) Two New Dominions India would be partitioned and two independent Dominions—India and Pakistan—would be created from August 15, 1947. The Act provided legislative supremacy of both the Dominions. The territories of the two Dominions were divided in such terms that Pakistan would comprise Sindh, British Baluchistan, North West Frontier Province, the West Punjab and East Bengal. India was to comprise all the remaining territories included in the British India. The exact boundaries of the Dominions would be determined by a Boundary Commission.
(ii) Provisions of Partition
(a) Both Bengal and Punjab would be divided if so desired by the people. The Provincial Assemblies of the two parts would meet separately representing Hindu majority districts and Muslim majority districts and would decide through a majority vote whether they wanted the division of the province or not.
(b) A plebiscite would be held in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) as well as in Sylhet district (Muslim majority area) in East Bengal to determine whether they would like to join Pakistan or India. (Both these provinces joined West and East Pakistan respectively.)
(iii) Governor-General for Each Dominion There would be a Governor-General who would be appointed by the British King on the advice of the Cabinet of the concerned Dominion. This arrangement would work till the framing of the Constitutions.
(iv) Constituent Assemblies to serve as Central Legislatures The Constituent Assemblies of both the dominions were to act as the Central Legislatures and would have full powers to make laws for their respective Dominion. They would act as sovereign bodies for legislative purposes.
(v) End of Jurisdiction of the British Parliament
(a) The legislative authority of the British Parliament would cease from August 15,1947.
(b) The titles of the ‘Emperor of India’ and the ‘King of England’ were dropped from the royal style.
(c) Till the new Constitution was framed, each of the Dominions and all Provinces were to be governed in accordance with the Act of 1935.
(d) The Governor-General was given the powers to modify or adopt the Government of India Act 1935 by March 31, 1948.
(e) The right of the King to veto laws was given up. This right was given to the Governor-General.
(b) Enforcement of the Act : The Governor-Generals in both the Dominions were made responsible to bring the Act in operation. Dominion of India came into being on 15th August, 1947. Nehru requested Lord Mountbatten to continue as Independent India’s first Governor-General. Mohammed Ali Jinnah became the first Governor- General of Independent Pakistan. The Governor-General was vested with necessary powers for bringing the Indian independence into effective operation. Thus the last curtain fell on the British rule over India and Indian Independence was achieved after a lot of struggle, sacrifice and at a heavy price i.e. the Partition of India.
Notes for Independence and Partition of India
The Cabinet Mission Proposals
Causes of Sending the Cabinet Mission:
• 1945: Labour party came to power in England.
• It sent cabinet mission to India.
• After WWI British became weak.
• USA and USSR supported India for Independence.
• 2-1946: Indian naval forced revolted in Bombay.
• Peasants opposed his policies.
Arrival of the Mission(2-1946):
• The labour party’s PM clement Attlee sent cabinet mission.
• Members- Sir Stafford Cripps, Lord Patrick Lawrence, AV Alexander.
• They studied the Indian problems.
• They negotiated leaders of different parties and submitted report or plan called cabinet mission plan.
• Main Provisions and clauses of The Cabinet Mission Plan:
• There shall be federation of all the states.
• The federal centre shall control defence and foregin affairs and communication.
• The states shall control other subjects.
• The union shall have its legislature with executive.
• Union legislature can makes laws on Union list.
Provinces(states) were grouped into three: UP, MP, Madras, Bihar, Bombay, Orrisa(a): Punjab, NWFP, Sindh(b): Bengal and Assam(c)
• Each group shall have its own constitution.
• The states shall not be under Union.
• A constituent assembly(389 members, 292 from provinces and 4 from chief Commissioner’s provinces and 93 from Indian states) shall form to make constitution of India.
• Interim government shall have 14 members.
• The plan can be accepted or rejected.
Reaction of the Congress and the League:
• 6-6-1946: accepted by League.
• Congress rejected Scheme of Interim government.
• Sikhs were against division of India.
• SC rejected because no reservation to them.
• Hindu Mahasabha rejected it because it accepted the principle of Pakistan.
The Interim government and Conflict between Congress and league:
• British government postponed formation on Interim government.
• 7-1946: congress won 201 seats out of 292.
• Muslim League won 73 seats out of 292.
• League wanted separate constituent assembly.
• League affirmed that Muslim could no longer depend on British and Congress.
• 29-7-1946: League rejected cabinet plan.
• 14-8-1946: Nehru invited to form interim government.
• 16-8-1946: Direct action adopted to achieve aim of Pakistan.
• 5000 died.
• 15000 injured.
• 1 lakh were rendered homeless.
• Bloody riots started.
• Peace restored by Gandhi Ji.
Mountbatten Plan and Its acceptance by the Congress
• 1947: Lord Mountbatten became viceroy of India.
• He was practical man.
• When he came to India hostility among communities reached its peak.
• In Bengal situation was explosive.
• He had long discussed with leaders of congress and league.
• He came to the conclusion that partition can solve the problems.
• 3-6-1947: announced plan of partition(Mountbatten Plan)
• Nation would be divided into India and Pakistan.
• States have right to join any Independent nation.
• 15-8-1947: Powers transferred.
The Indian Independence Act of 1947
• 16-7-1947: passed by the British parliament on the basis of Mountbatten Plan.
• Two independent nation shall be set up namely India and pakistan.
• 15-8-1947: British government has no power over both nation after 15 august.
• The office of viceroy has end.
• Separate constituent assembly shall form.
• Constituent assembly shall exercise the power of the central legislature.
• The office of the secretary of state for India was to be abolished
• The title ‘EMPEROR OF INDIA’ and ‘KING OF ENGLAND’ abolished.
Contribution of Nehru to Freedom movement
• He was prominent leader of movement.
• Born at Allahabad.
• He was great political leader.
• He went England for higher studies.
• He came to India as Barrister in 1912.
• He took active part in politics.
• 1929: became president of congress.
• 1937: took an active part in elections.
• Due to his efforts congress was able to form Ministries in 7 states.
• He fought for motherland.
• 1946: He became vice president of the interim government’s executive.
• India got independence.
• He became first PM.
• He was true patriot.
• He was famous author.