Please refer to MCQ Questions Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division ICSE Class 10 Biology below. These multiple choice questions have been prepared based on the latest syllabus and examination guidelines issued by ICSE for Biology in Class 10th. Students should refer all MCQs for Class 10 ICSE Biology to prepare for the upcoming exams. These objective questions with answers will help you to get more marks in exams.
Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division MCQ Questions for Class 10 ICSE Biology
Please refer to the multiple-choice questions and answers below for the important chapter Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division in Biology in Class 10th ICSE. These MCQ questions with answers have been prepared by expert faculty to help you understand all topics properly.
ICSE Class 10 Biology MCQ Questions Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Multiple Choice Type
Check Our MCQ Questions for Class 10 ICSE Biology pdf with Answers free download. Biology Class 10 ICSE MCQ Questions are prepared according to the latest exam pattern of Icse boards. We have Provided you MCQ on Biology Class 10 ICSE with Answers to make your preparation to score good marks in the Class 10 exam.
Question. The chromatin material is formed of
(a) DNA only
(b) DNA and Histones
(c) Histones only
DNA and Histones
Question. The number of chromosomes in a certain type of cell division is halved. This kind of cell division occurs in
(a) Only testis
(b) only ovary
(c) both ovary and testis
(d) all body cells
both ovary and testis
Question. The term “chromosomes” literally means
(a) Inherited bodies
(b) Twisted threads
(c) Coloured bodies
(d) Shining threads
Question. Synthesis phase in the cell cycle is called so for the synthesis of more of
(b) RNA and proteins
Question. In which one of the following options the stages of mitosis have been given in correct sequence?
(a) Prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase
(b) Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
(c) Anaphase, telophase, prophase, metaphase
(d) Telophase, anaphase, prophase, metaphase
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Name the following:
Question. The repeating components of each DNA strand lengthwise.
Question. The complex structure consisting of DNA strand and a core of histones.
Question. The type of bond which joins the complementary nitrogenous bases.
Question. The three components of nucleotide.
Phosphate, Sugar and Nitrogenous base.
Question. Imagine one cell (A) has undergone one mitotic division and another cell (B) has completed its meiotic division. How many cells would the two produce?
Cell A: ……………………….
Cell B: ………………………..
Cell A produce 2 cells
Cell B produce 4 cells
Fill in the blanks
Question. DNA replicates in the …………………. of the cell cycle.
DNA replicates in the synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle.
Question. Mitosis occurs in our ………………… cells.
Mitosis occurs in our somatic (body) cells.
Question. Mitosis produces two daughter cells, whereas meiosis produces …………………………… daughter cells.
Mitosis produces two daughter cells, whereas meiosis produces four daughter cells.
Question. Meiosis occurs only in………………….. cells.
Meiosis occurs only in reproductive cells.
Question. Modern humans have 46 chromosomes. Their sperms and eggs will have ………. chromosomes each.
Modern humans have 46 chromosomes. Their sperms and eggs will have 23 chromosomes each.
Question. During the pairing of chromosomes in meiosis, the ………………………..chromosomes come to
During the pairing of chromosomes in meiosis, the homologous chromosomes come to lie side by side.
Match the events given in column A with the phase in mitotic cell division in column B
|Column “A”||Column “B”|
|(a) Chromosomes become arranged in a horizontal plane at the equator.||Anaphase|
|(b) Daughter chromosomes move to the opposite poles of a spindle||Prophase|
|(c) Chromosomes become visible as fine long threads.||Telophase|
|(d) Chromosomes lose their distinctiveness and gradually become transformed into a chromatin network.||Metaphase|
Question. What is the difference between chromatin fibre and chromosome?
State the difference between:
Question. Chromosome and chromatid,
Question. Centrosome and Centromere,
Question. Aster and spindle fibres.
Question. Haploid and diploid
Correct the following statements if there is any mistake.
Question. The four nitrogenous bases in the DNA are Guanine, Thiamine, Adrenaline and Cytosine.
Ans. The four nitrogenous bases in the DNA are Guanine, Thymine, Adenine and Cytosine.
Question. Genes are specific sequences of bases on a chromosome.
Ans. Genes are specific sequences of nucleotides on a chromosome.
Question. A nucleotide is composed of a sulphate, a sugar (pentose) and a nitrogenous base.
Ans. A nucleotide is composed of a phosphate, sugar (pentose) and a nitrogenous base.
Question. Nucleosomes are groups of cysteine molecules surrounded by DNA strands.
Ans. Nucleosomes are groups of histone molecules surrounded by DNA strands.
Question. If there are 46 chromosomes in a cell there will be 23 chromatin fibres inside the nucleus during interphase.
Ans. If there are 46 chromosomes in a cell there will be 46 chromatin fibres inside the nucleus during interphase.
Question. What are the rungs of the “DNA ladder” made of?
Ans. The rungs of the DNA ladder made of four types of nitrogenous bases. These are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).
Question. “First meiotic division is the reduction division”. What does the word ‘reduction’ refer to in this statement?
Ans. In the above statement, reduction means that the number of chromosomes in the sex cells is halved. For example, out of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, only single chromosomes i.e. one number of each pair are passed on to the sex cells.
Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). Give reason in support of your answer.
Question. As you grow from childhood to adult hood, your skin cells divide only to replace such cells that are lost from the surface.
Ans. False. Because, surface skin cells are continuously lost and replaced by the underlying cells.
Question. The unfertilized human egg has half the number of chromosomes of the body cells.
Ans. True. Because, all types of human cells, have 46 chromosomes. The only type of cell which does not have 46 chromosomes are the sex cells, which have only half of the number, so they have 23 chromosomes. The egg cell is a sex cell (found in female). So it must have 23 chromosomes.
Question. Nuclear membrane in a mitotically dividing cell remains intact up to the metaphase and disappears only in the telophase.
Ans. False. Because, nuclear membrane disappears in Prophase itself, however it reappears during Telophase.
Question. Mitotic cell division can be a mode of reproduction.
Ans. True. Because, mitotic cell division can be a mode of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms like amoeba or yeast cell which divides into two daughter cells.
Question. Crossing-over between chromatids can occur only between homologous chromosomes.
Ans. True. Because, while the maternal and paternal chromosomes are separating, the chromatid material gets exchanged between the two members of a homologous pair resulting in genetic recombination.
Question. “Gametes must be produced by meiosis for sexual reproduction”. Why is it so?
Ans. Gametes must be produced by meiosis for sexual reproduction because, when the male and female gametes fuse during fertilization, the normal double double number of chromosomes is reacquired.
Question. What are chromosomes?
Ans. appear to contain any particular thing inside. But when the same cell is stained with suitable dyes, several structures become noticeable in the nucleus. The nucleus contains most of the cell’s DNA which is organized into discrete units called chromosomes. Each chromosome contains one long DNA molecule associated with many proteins. This complex of DNA and Proteins is called the chromatin. When a cell is not dividing, the chromatin under an electron microscope appears to be in the form of very long and extremely thin darkly stained fibre.
Enumerate the various changes that occur in the nucleus of the cell during
Question. prophase (b) anaphase of mitotic division.
Ans. (a) Prophase
1. Centrioles start moving apart and reach opposite poles.
2. Chromosomes become distinct.
3. Chromosomes are already duplicated as paired chromatids.
4. Sister chromatids attached to each other at a small region called centromere.
5. Spindle fibres appear between daughter centrioles forming the achromatic spindle.
6. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear.
1. Centromere attaching the two chromatids divides/splits.
2. The two sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and are drawn apart towards opposite poles pulled by shortening of spindle fibres.
3. A furrow starts in the cell membrane at the middle in animal cell.
Question. Name and explain the various stages of the cell cycle.
Ans. The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to the duplication of its DNA and the subsequent division of the cell to produce two daughter cells. A cell cycle consists of two phases:
1. a non-dividing phase called the interphase, and
2. a dividing phase called the M-phase or simply mitosis.
Interphase The two daughter cells produced from a mother cell are relatively small, with a full- sized nucleus but relatively little cytoplasm. These cells are said to be in interphase. The interphase itself has three phases –
(i) First growth phase (G1):- RNA and proteins are synthesized the volume of cytoplasm increases.
(ii) Synthesis phase (S):- More DNA is synthesised, the chromosomes are duplicated.
(iii) Second growth phase (G2):- This is a shorter growth phase, in which RNA and proteins necessary for cell division continue to be synthesised.
Mitosis Mitosis is the cell division in which one parent cell divides into identical daughter cells. Mitosis completed in two steps are Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis. Karyokinesis: – It is the division of the nucleus during cell division. It occurs in four phases:
Prophase:- Chromosomes have become short and thick and clearly visible inside the nucleus.
Metaphase:- The duplicate chromosomes arrange on the equatorial plane. Each chromosome gets attached to a spindle by its centromere.
Anaphase:- The centromere attaching the two chromatids divides and the two sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and are drawn apart towards opposite poles.
Telophase:- Spindle apparatus disappears. Chromosome become thinner and turns into a network of chromatin threads.
Cytokinesis:- At the end of telophase, a furrow appears in the cell membrane in the middle, which deepens and finally splits the cytoplasm into two, thus producing two new cells
Question. What are genes?
Ans. Genes are specific sequences of nucleotides on a chromosome, that encode particular proteins which express in the form of some particular feature of the body. They are the units of heredity which are transferred from parents to off springs and are responsible for some specific characteristics of the offspring Lots of regions in between genes are just nonfunctional. Such areas (about 99 percent of the total DNA) show tremendous variations from person to person and help in identification of the individual by what is popularly known as DNA fingerprinting.
Question. Why is meiosis referred to as ‘reductional division’?
Ans. Meiosis (meion = to lessen, referring to the reduction of the chromosome number) is the kind of cell division that produces the sex cells or the gametes. It takes place in the reproductive organs (testis and ovary) in human to produce sperms and ova. In the flowering plants, it takes place in the anthers and the ovary to produce pollen grains and ovules. The most significant aspect of meiosis is that the number of chromosomes in the sex cells is halved. For example, out of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans only single chromosomes i.e. one member of each pair (haploid) are passed on to the sex cells. This is essential because when the male and female gametes fuse during fertilization, the normal double (diploid) number of chromosomes is reacquired. The diploid number, as a rule, is expressed as “2n” and the haploid number as “n”.
Question. Given below is a schematic diagram of a portion of DNA.
Question. How many strands are shown in the diagram?
Ans. There are 2 strands shown in the diagram.
Question. How many nucleotides have been shown in each strand?
Ans. There 2 nucleotides have been shown in each strand.
Question. Name the parts numbered 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively.
Ans. 1 = Phosphate 2 = Sugar 3 = Bases 4 = Hydrogen Bond 5 = Base
Question. Name the DNA unit constituted by the parts 1, 2 and 3 collectively.
Ans. The DNA unit constituted by the parts 1, 2 and 3 collectively is Nucleotide.
Question. The three sketches given below (A, B and C) are intended to represent the replication of DNA.
What should be their correct sequence starting with the first and ending with the last? ……….
B, C and A
Question. Draw a labelled diagram to show the metaphase stage of mitosis in an animal cell having ‘6’ chromosomes.
The diagram below represents a stage during cell division. Study the same and then answer the questions that follow:
Question. Name the parts labelled 1, 2 and 3.
Ans. 1= Centromere
2= Spindle fibres
Question. Identify the above stage and give a reason to support your answer.
Ans. By observing the above diagram we can say that it is the late anaphase of mitosis in an animal cell. It can be identified by the two sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and are drawn apart towards opposite poles pulled by spindle fibres. A furrow starts in the cell membrane at the middle in animal cell.
Question. Mention where in the body this type of cell division occurs.
Ans. The division is mitotic and this kind of cell division occurs in all the cells of the body except for the reproductive cells.
Question. Name the stage prior to this stage and draw a diagram to represent the same.
Ans. The stage prior to the late anaphase stage is metaphase
Question. The diagram given below represents a certain phenomenon which occurs during meiosis.
Name and explain the phenomenon by using the terms – homologous chromosomes, chromatids, and crossing-over.
Ans. Crossing-over is the phenomenon is an exchange of chromatids between homologous.
1. Chromosome number is halved in gametes (sex cells), so that on fertilization, the normal number (2n) is restored.
2. It provides for mixing up of genes which occurs in two ways:
(i) The maternal and paternal chromosomes get mixed up during the first (reduction) division as they separate from the homologous pairs.
(ii) While the maternal and paternal chromosomes are separating, the chromatid material very often gets exchanged between the two members of a homologous pair.
Question. Given below is a diagram representing a stage during mitotic cell division in an animal cell.
Examine it carefully and answer the questions which follow.
Question. Identify the stage. Give one reason in support of your answer.
Ans. By observing the given figure we can say that it is the late prophase stage. Because, the nuclear membrane and nucleolus have disappeared.
Question. Name the cell organelle that forms the ‘aster’.
Ans. Centrioles is the cell organelle that form the aster.
Question. Name the parts labelled 1, 2 and 3.
Ans. 1= Centromere 2= Chromatids 3= Spindle fibre
Question. Name the stage that follows the one shown here. How is that stage identified?
Ans. By observing the given figure the stage that follows the one shown here is Metaphase. It is identified by the centromere of chromosomes are drawn to the equator by equal pull of two chromosomal spindle fibres that connects each centromere to the opposite poles, forming a metaphasic plate.
Question. Mention two points of difference between mitosis and meiosis with regard to:
(i) The number of daughter cells produced.
(ii) The chromosome number in the daughter cells.
Shown below are four stages (A, B, C, D) (not in sequence) of a certain kind of cell division.
Question. Is it a plant cell or an animal cell? Give two reasons………….
Ans. By observing the figure we can say that it is the animal cell. Because, outline is circular and cell wall is absent and centrosomes on centrioles are present.
Question. Is it undergoing mitosis or meiosis? ………………
Ans. It is undergoing in mitosis.
Question. What should be the correct sequence of these four stages among themselves? ………………
Ans. The correct sequence is B, C, D and A
Question. Name the stage that should precede the earliest of these stages…………..
Ans. The stage that should precede the earliest of these stages interphase.
Question. Draw the stage named above inside the blank space provided.
Given below are three diagrammatic sketches (A, B and C) of one and the same particular phase during mitotic type of cell division.
Question. Identify the phase…………..
Question. What is the diploid number of chromosomes shown in them? …………….
Ans. The diploid number of chromosomes shown in them is 4
Identify whether these are animal cells or plant cell? Give reasons.
Ans. This is the animal cell.
Ans. This is the animal cell.
Ans. This is the plant.
Given below is a diagram representing a stage during mitotic cell division. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Question. Is it a plant cell or an animal cell? Give a reason to support your answer.
Ans. By observing the given diagram we can say that it is the plant cell. Because, centrioles are not shown in the diagram.
Question. Identify the stage shown.
Ans. Prophase is the stage that is given above.
Question. Name the stage that follows the one shown here. How is that stage identified?
Ans. The stage is Metaphase. Chromosomes arrange themselves on the metaphase or equatorial plate.
Question. How will you differentiate between mitosis and meiosis on the basis of the chromosome number in the daughter cells?
Question. Draw a duplicated chromosome and label its parts.
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