Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to Non-Aligned Movement ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 Non-Aligned Movement Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter Non-Aligned Movement provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
Non-Aligned Movement Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions
(1) On what background Non-Aligned Movement was staged?
Ans. The Super Powers, the USA and USSR tried to win over newly independent countries of Asia and Africa to their respective Blocs. But the third world countries abhorred the idea of submission to any of the rival camps. They wanted to pursue an independent foreign policy rather than falling in line with any Power Bloc. They adopted NAM which was the strategy that helped combat the tensions of the Cold War in a Bipolar world.
(2) What is meant by Non-Alignment ?
Ans. (i) Non-Alignment is the international policy of a sovereign state according to which it does not align itself with any of the power blocs and at the same time actively participates in the world affairs to promote international peace, harmony and cooperation.
(ii) Non-Alignment is a policy which gives freedom to decide the course of action that a country wishes to adopt in relation to world politics.
(3) Mention state the features of the policy of Non-Alignment.
Ans. (i) Non-Aligment does not mean ‘isolation’ or ‘passivism’ but stands for action. It does not remain aloof from international problems, but judges each issue on it’s merit.
(ii) It does not support any power bloc. (Capitalist bloc / Communist bloc). It was against the Cold War, hence opposed to any military alliances like NATO, SEATO etc.
(iii) It upholds the rights of Third World countries to facilitate freedom and justice.
(4) Mention any two factors responsible for the development of the policy of Non-Alignment.
Ans. (i) Global tension caused by Cold War : Most of the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa felt that by maintaining a distance from both Super Powers, they would put off the danger of another war or a nuclear holocaust.
(ii) Struggle against imperialism and neo-colonialism : The newly independent nations opted non-alignment because most of these countries wanted to enjoy their newly acquired freedom and the power that had come with it.
(5) How did the Non-Alignment policy favour the countries of Third World ?
Ans. (i) Right of independent judgement : The newly independent nations were able to keep their own identity by not aligning with any of the power blocs.
(ii) Economic development : Most of newly independent countries were facing the problems of poverty and underdevelopment. To come out of this, they needed financial and technical assistance from both the power blocs.
(iii) Moral Force : Afro-Asian countries believed that by their collective reason they could maintain and promote world peace.
(6) What were the highlights of Delhi Conference held in 1949 ?
Ans. In 1949, a convention for Asian unity was held at New Delhi to discuss the Indonesian problem. This convention was attended by delegates from 19 countries and called upon the Dutch troops to withdraw from the areas under the control of Indonesia.
(7) When and where did the Asian Relations Conference take place? What was its objectives?
Ans. Asian Relation Conference took place in New Delhi in March- April 1947. It was hosted by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The objectives of the conference were ‘to bring together the leading men and women of Asia on a common platform to study the problem of common concern to the people of the continent’.
(8) Who were the architects/founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement?
Ans. The architects/founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement were Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia and Joseph Broze Tito of Yugoslavia, Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their action is known as ‘The Initiative of Five’.
(9) Except the founding fathers name the other founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement
Ans. (i) Among the other founder members of the NAM were Archbishop Makarios of Cyprus, U No of Burma (Myanmar), Emperor Haile Sellasie of Ethiopia and king Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal.
(10) What is Panchsheel ?
Ans. In 1954, India and China signed an agreement containing five principles of peaceful co-existence. These principles are collectively known as ‘Panchsheel’, which became guidlines to NAM.
(11) State the principles enunciated in Panchsheel ?
Ans. These five principles were :
(i) Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
(ii) Mutual non-aggression.
(iii) Equality and mutual benefit.
(iv) Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
(v) Peaceful co-existence. These five principles or Panchsheel were given a practical shape at a conference held at Bandung (Indonesia) in April 1955.
(12) The Bandung Conference paved the way for Non-Aligned Movement. Explain.
Ans. The Bandung Conference was presided over by the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, Chinese Prime Minister Chou En Lai and Gamal Abdel Nasser, Prime Minister and later President of Egypt. The delegates at the conference condemned colonialism and emphasised the need for economic growth in the third world countries. The Bandung Conference, thus, paved the way for cooperation among newly independent nations, which later on blossomed into Non-Aligned Movemnet.
(13) When and where was the first Non-Aligned Summit held?
Ans. The first summit of the Non-Aligned nations was held in 1961 at Belgrade, Yugoslavia. It was attended by 25 Afro-Asian nations who adopted 27 Point Declaration.
(14) Which international issues were addressed by Nehru under the policy of Non-Alignment?
Ans. (i) During the Korean crisis of 1950, when North Korea attacked South Korea, India under the leadership of Nehru strongly condemned it.
(ii) Because of her non-aligned stand, she was offered the chairmanship of the International Control Commission sponsored by the UN in Indo- China.
(iii) In 1957, India condemned the Anglo-French attack on Egypt over the Suez Canal issue. Nehru made efforts to find solution to this problem.
(iv) Nehru had always condemned the aggressive policies of Israel.
(v) Nehru was the champion of human rights and people’s cause under the colonial rule.
(15) Belgrade Conference, 1961 adopted a 27-Point declaration. Which principles included in the declaration were emphasised by Nehru?
Ans. Nehru laid emphasis on the following principles.
(i) Negotiation for peace.
(iii) Ending colonialism and imperialism in all its forms.
(iv) Condemnation of racial discrimination being practiced in South Africa or elsewhere.
(v) Stress on social-economic developments of Afro-Asian nations on the basis of mutual benefit and equality.
(16) State the objectives of NAM.
Ans. (i) Abolition of imperialism and colonialism.
(ii) International Peace.
(iii) End of Racism
(v) To strengthen the role of UN.
(vi) Creation of New International Economic Order (NIEO).
(vii) Protection of Environment.
(viii) Sovereign Equality to all nations.
(ix) Enforcement of Human Rights.
(17) What were Jawaharlal Nehru’s views regarding Non-Alignment?
Ans. He said, “Non Alignment does not mean passivity of mind or action. It does not mean submission to what we consider evil. It is a positive and dynamic approach to such problems that confront us.”
(18) How would the Non Alignment Movement facilitate a new international economic order?
Ans. (i) Most of the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa were economically backward and had a low standard of living.
(ii) Since they needed both capital and technical know-how to boost their economic development, they considered it worthwhile to get both the things from wherever they could without any strings attached with them.
(19) What was the role of Nehru as a spokesperson of Afro Asian unity?
Ans. (i) Nehru promoted the cause of freedom of many countries of Asia and Africa which were still under foreign domination.
(ii) Nehru, gradually led the countries of Asia and Africa towards the concept of non-alignment. He convinced these countries that they had great moral force and with their collective efforts could exert pressure on the issues of war and peace.
(iii) Nehru was acknowledged as the greatest spokesman for neutrality of Asian and African states in the Cold War era.
(20) What was the Pandit Nehru stance on Cold War alliances?
Ans. (i) Nehru did not approve of the military or economic alliances like NATO, CENTO SEATO, etc., intiated by the USA to contain communism or the ones promoted by the Soviet Union like the Warsaw Pact, Cominform, Comecon, etc.
(ii) He opposed these alliances as he believed that they encouraged colonialism and imperialism and were likely to produce a race for armaments. Nehru was against the mad race for armaments and called for disarmament and abolition of stock piles of nuclear weapons.
(21) State the ideas of Nehru which differed from the philosophy advocated by the super powers?
Ans. (i) Nehru was against the philosophy advocated by the two power blocs. He rejected communist state as “monolithic” and described Marxism as an outdated theory.
(ii) He did not favour capitalism either and was influenced by socialism. He therefore, strongly advocated the priniciples of democratic socialism.
(1) With reference to the policy of Non-Alignment adopted by several Afro- Asian nations, answer the following questions :
(a) Explain what is meant by Non-Alignment.
(b) State the objectives of NAM.
(c) Explain with examples how India under Nehru’s leadership took a bold stand on some of the international crises.
Ans. (a) Non-Alignment is the international policy of a sovereign state according to which it does not align itself with any of the power blocs and at the same time actively participates in the world affairs to promote international peace, harmony and cooperation. Nehru said, “Non Alignment does not mean passivity of mind or action. It does not mean submission to what we consider evil. It is a positive and dynamic approach to such problems that confront us ………. when freedom is menaced, justice is threatened or when aggression takes place, we cannot be and shall not be neutral.”
(b) The main objective of NAM at the beginning was to keep away the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa from the super power rivalry and to protect and preserve their newly acquired independence. The other important objectives of the NAM are the following:
(i) To eliminate all those causes which could lead to war.
(ii) To protect the nascent freedom of the new-born independent countries of Asia and Africa from colonial domination.
(iii) To oppose colonialism, imperialism and racial disrimination.
(iv) To advocate sovereign equality of all states.
(v) To encourage friendly relations among countries.
(vi) To advocate peaceful settlement of international disputes.
(vii) To oppose the use of force and the use of nuclear weapons.
(viii)To strengthen the United Nations as an organ of world peace.
(ix) To protect human rights and to protect the environment.
(x) To build a New International Economic Order (NIEO) based on enquity, equality and justice.
(c) 1. During the Korean Crisis of 1950, when North Korea attacked South Korea, India under the leadership of Nehru strongly condemned it.
2. In 1957, India condemned the Anglo-French attack on Egypt over the Suez Canal Issue.
3. Nehru had always condemned the aggressive policies of Israel (a U. S. Satellite), and insisted upon vacation of Arab territories occupied by Israel.
4. Likewise, when Soviet Russian forces and tanks appeared in the streets of Budapest (Hungary) in 1956, India condemned the Soviet action in equivocal terms inspite of its friendly relations with Soviet Union.
5. Similarly in the Cuban Crisis of 1962, India supported the popular leader Fiedel Castro to set up people’s government there.
6. In Indo-China, Crisis of 1956, India under Nehru and due to her faith in NAM stood by the Democratic Republic of Ho-Chi-Minh, who was the popular mass leader. Vietnam was finally merged into one country in 1975.
(2) With reference to the Non-Aligned Movement state the role of Pandit Nehru in:
(i) Asian-Relations Conference, 1947
(ii) Enunciation of Panchsheel 1954 (iii) Belgrade Conference, 1961
Ans. (i) Asian-Relations Conference, 1947 : India with Nehru as her Interim P. M. convened the Asian Relations Conference in New Delhi in March, 1947. He laid down the basic principle of Non Alignment, when he said, “We have no design against any body; ours is the great design of promoting peace and progress all over the world”.
(ii) Enunciation of Panchsheel 1954 : Later in 1954, Nehru along with the Chinese Premier, Chou-En-Lai, enunciated the five principles of Peaceful coexistence, popularly known as Panchsheel. These principles provided the firm basis on which friendly relations between nations could be maintained, as well as economic development and peace in the world. This was Nehru’s singular contribution to international relations.
(iii) Belgrade Conference, 1961 : The first formal NAM Summit / Conference was held, from September 1 to 6 in 1961 at Belgrade in Yugoslavia, in which 25 nations participated. This conference adopted a 27-Points Declaration, in preparing which Nehru is said to have played a crucial role. In the Belgrade Conference, he laid emphasis on the following principles:
(a) Negotiation for peace,
(c) Ending Colonialism and Imperialism in all its forms,
(d) Condemnation of racial discrimination being practised in South Africa or else where,
(e) Stress on socio-economic development of Afro-Asian nations on the basis of mutual benefit and equality. The Belgrade Summit also made an appeal to Super-Powers to help in maintaining peace and security in the world. The Conference also invited other Afro-Asian and Latin American nation to join the NAM. Jawaharlal Nehru, Marshall Tito and Colonel Nasser were the most prominent leaders of the NAM at Belgrade. The Trio carried a great influence.
(3) With reference to the Non-Aligned Movement, identify the personalities in the given picture and answer the following questions :
(a) Factors that led to the formation of NAM.
(b) Relevence of NAM after the end of Cold War.
(c) Mention the major achievements of the organisation.
Ans. The three personalities are :
(i) Col Gamal Abdul Nasser – Egypt (ii) Jawaharlal Nehru – India
(iii) Joseph Broze Tito – Yugoslavia
(a) (i) Global tension caused by Cold War : Most of the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa realised that the division of the world into two power blocs was not in their larger interest and this might endanger world peace. These nations felt that by maintaining distance from both the Super Powers they would put off the danger of another war.
(ii) Struggle against imperialism : The newly independent nations opted for non-alignment because most of these countries remained under big powers for a long period of time. They wanted to enjoy their newly acquired freedom and the power that had come with it.
(iii) Right of independent judgement : The newly independent nations were able to keep their own identity by not aligning with any of the power blocs. They wanted to solve their problems themselves without any outside interference or influence.
(iv) Use of moderation in relations to all big powers : The newly independent nations wanted to promote goodwill and co-operation among the nations of Asia and Africa and to explore and advance their mutual interests by establishing friendly relations with all the nations.
(v) Economic development : Most of the newly independent countries were facing problem of poverty and underdevelopment. To come out of this they needed financial and technical assistance from both the power blocs.
(b) Relevance in the Post Cold War Period.
(i) NAM is a free and equal association of states united by common interest to pursue independent foreign policy. NAM is playing a significant role in the stabilisation of world peace.
(ii) With the emergence of Neo-Colonialism, NAM has become all the more relevant to protect small countries from interference of IMF and World Bank.
(iii) Only the NAM truly represents the Third World countries. It has done a great service in helping these countries to win their independence from the imperialist powers.
(iv) There are certain apprehensions that since the United States has become the only Super Power in the world still maintaining her arsenal of nuclear weapons and has not dissolved the military pacts especially the NATO pact, she can dictate terms to other countries of the world. Under these circumstances, the NAM assumes an important role.
(v) The NAM has seriously taken the issues of reshaping the UN Security Council in order to make it more democratic, representative and an effective body.
(c) (i) NAM played a significant role in easing of tension between the two power blocs and ultimately in bringing about the end of the Cold War.
(ii) NAM has supported the cause of international peace, justice and freedom. It has vehemently stood against any injustice, be it the Suez crisis in 1956, aggressive policies of Israel or the unilateral attack by the USA against Iraq. (iii) NAM has advocated New International Economic Order (NIEO) based on greater economic cooperation and justice. In fact, the first UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) held in 1964 was largely the outcome of the efforts made by the non-aligned countries.
(iv) NAM has made the developed countries realise that the continued deprivation of the third world would affect the economy of the world and their own prosperity.
(v) A universal appeal of disarmament was a basic goal set by NAM.
(4) Illustrate the role of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in the Non-Aligned Movement with the help of following points.
(a) Pioneer of Afro Asian unity in the Cold War Era
(b) Opposer of Cold War Alliances
(c) Believer of democratic socialism
Ans. (a) Pioneer of Afro Asian unity in the Cold War era :
(i) Nehru promoted the cause of freedom of many countries of Asia and Africa which were still under foreign domination.
(ii) He advocated mutual respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. It was Nehru, who gradually led the countries of Asia and Africa towards teh concept of nonalignment.
(iii) He convinced these countries that they had great moral force and with their collective reason could exert pressure on the issues of war and peace.
(iv) Nehru was acknowledged as the greatest spokesman for neutrality of Asian and African States in the Cold War era.
(b) Opposer of Cold War Alliances :
(i) Though Nehru was committed to western concept of liberalism amd democracy, he did not approve of the military or economic alliances like NATO, CENTO, SEATO, etc., initiated by the USA to contain communism or the ones promoted by the Soviet Union like the Warsaw Pact, Cominform, Comecon, etc.
(ii) He opposed these alliances as he believed that they encouraged colonialism and imperialism and were likely to produce a race for armaments.
(c) Believer of democratic socialism :
(i) Nehru was against the philosophy advocated by the two power blocs. He rejected the communist state as “monolithic” and described Marxism as an outdated theory. He did not favour capitalism either and was influenced by socialism. He therefore, strongly advocated the priniciples of democratic socialism.
Notes for Non-Aligned Movement
Meaning of The Non-Aligned Movement: New independent states followed a policy to keep themselves far away from power blocs in order to protect their independence is called NAM.
Factors Responsible for the Foundation of The NAM
• 1961: NAM began but there are various causes behind it.
The Asian Relation Conference(3-1947)
• International held Asian Relatation Conference at Delhi.
• To shows Asian countries will not be puppet of any powers.
Military Alliances and Division of World Into Two Power Bloc
• After WWII friendship between USSR and Western allies ended.
• It makes two blocs i.e. American Bloc and Soviet Bloc.
• Soviet bloc wanted to expand communism in Eastern Europe.
• America formed NATO to prevent Soviet Bloc.
• Soviet bloc laid down Warsaw pact.
Race of Armament
• Both blocs started to make weapons.
• It was a great danger to the world peace.
• Newly independent states wanted peace.
Search for a Respectable Place by the New Independent nations
• When countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America got independence world divided into two powerful blocs.
• In such situation they make policies in their interest.
• They wanted to develop their economic development.
Struggle against Imperialism and Neo-Colonialism
• They wanted from colonialism
Formation of collective force
• New states wanted unity for world peace.
Formation And Chief Architects of NAM
The Bandung Conference(1955)
• All above causes laid foundation of NAM movement in 1961 after Bandung Conference.
• 1955: Panchsheel was the basis of Bandung Conference called by President Sukarno of Indonesia.
• 23 Asian and 6 African nations took part in it.
Chief Architect of NAM
✓ Pandit Jawahar lal Nehru(India)
✓ Marshall Tito(Yugoslavia)
• 7-1956: The idea propounded at Bandung were given a practical shape at Belgrade(Yugoslavia).
• 1961: conference held Belgrade in september gave birth to NAM.
Role of Jawahar Lal Nehru in The NAM
Nehru and the Asian Relations Conference in Delhi(3-1947)
• Due to efforts of Nehru it held before Independence.
• He encouraged unity.
• He told no need to become puppet of any nation.
Promoting the newly Independent states not to entangle with Power Blocs
• Nehru want that newly Independent states follow concept of NAM.
• He told remain neutral and take help with both blocs.
He Urged the newly Independent states to maintain their unity
• It was the idea of Nehru to remain united with their own identity.
Panchsheel and P. Nehru
• 1954: Nehru proposed Panchsheel concept.
✓ Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
✓ Mutual non-aggression.
✓ Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
✓ Equality and cooperation for mutual benefit.
✓ Peaceful co-existence.
• According to his concept by following it nations can secure their sovereignty.
The Bandung Conference and P. Nehru
• Jawahar lal Nehru played important role in it
Major Objective or Principles of NAM
• New states should avoid alignment
• New states should have not participate in wars
• NAM states should have work to remove colonisation
• NAM states should keep themselves far away from power blocs.
• NAM states should have co-existence and peace among them.
• NAM states want to establish economic relations.
• NAM states should respect Human Rights.
Role of the NAM in World Affairs
• 1961: began NAM
• It was political movement against colonialism.
• After 14 meetings its aims increases.
• NAM raise voice against economic oppression is called a new economic order.
• It raise voice against apartheid of S.A. and Palestinian problem and etc.
Relevance or Future of NAM
• Some says no need of NAM because of UN.
• But some says it has great future.
• They give the following arguments.
✓ UN is dominated by powerful nations.
✓ NAM is only which truly represents the 3rd world countries.
✓ UN is not powerful institution which can not stop powerful nation.
Third World definition: The nonaligned nations — which are often developing nations — of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. They are in a “third” group of nations because they were
allied neither with the United States nor with the former Soviet Union.