Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to The Union Executive ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 The Union Executive Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter The Union Executive provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
The Union Executive Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions
(1) Who is the chief executive of our state ?
Ans. The Indian Union Executive consists of the President, the Vice President and the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. The President of India is the Chief Executive. He is the Constitutional Head of the Republic.
(2) State the qualifications for the election of the president ?
Ans. In order to qualify as a candidate for the Presidential election, a person
(i) must be a citizen of India,
(ii) must have completed 35 years of age,
(iii) must be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha.
(iv) He must not hold any office of profit under the Centre or a State Government.
(3) Describe in brief the impeachment of the president ?
Ans. (i) The resolution to impeach the President may be moved in either House of the Parliament, after a notice of 14 days has been given. A list of charges must be supported by one fourth of the total members of the House.
(ii) Such a resolution must be passed by a two-third of the total majority of the members of that House.
(iii) Then the charges against the President are investigated by the other House. The President can appear in person or through a counsel to defend himself.
(iv) If the charges are approved by 2/3rd of the total majority of the house that investigates, the impeachment is finalised and the President is removed from the day the impeachment resolution is passed.
(4) What does the electoral college for presidential election comprise of ?
Ans. The joint body of elected M.P.s and M.L.As which elects the President, is known as the Electoral College. Nominated M.Ps and nominated M.L.As have no hand in electing the President. The name of a Presidential candidate must be proposed by 50 members and seconded by another 50 members of the Electoral College.
(5) Why do we conduct indirect elections for the president ?
Ans. (i) The State Assemblies are included in electoral college order to make the President more truly representative of the choice of the nation.
(ii) Direct election would involve tremendous work, time and heavy expenditure.
(iii) If the President is elected directly by the people, he can become a rival at the Centre to the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
(6) State the executive powers of president ?
Ans. Executive Powers :
(i) Administrative Head of the Union.
(ii) Appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
(iii) Appoints high officials, like the Attorney General of India, the Comptroller and the Auditor General of India, the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
(iv) Controls State Government during an emergency on account of failure of Constitutional machinery in a State. The Governor administers the State on behalf of the President.
(v) Every Union Territory in India is under the President and it is administered by him.
(7) State the legislative powers of the President ?
Ans. Legislative Powers :
(i) Power to summon and prorogue Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha.
(ii) The President nominates 12 M.P.s to the Rajya Sabha from amongst the outstanding contributors in literature, science, social service or art. He may also nominate two M.Ps of the Anglo-Indian community to the Lok Sabha.
(iii) Prior sanction before introducing certain Bills.
(iv) To address Parliament or send messages
(v) President’s assent on a Bill is necessary to become a law.
(8) When can the President promulgate an Ordinance ?
Ans. (i) The President can promulgate an Ordinance under two conditions;
(a) When the Parliament is not in session.
(b) When the President is satisfied that immediate necessary legislative action is required. (POTO – Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 2002.)
(9) State the Financial powers of the President ?
Ans. Financial Powers :
(i) A Money Bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only with the prior recommendation of the President.
(ii) The Contingency Fund is at the President’s disposal. Contingency Fund : An amount kept in reserve to use in times of unforeseen events (e.g. natural calamities.)
(iii) The President appoints a Finance Commission after every five years.
(10) What role does the President play in administration of justice ?
Ans. Judicial Powers :
(i) He can grant pardon, reprieve or remission of punishment passed by any Court.
(ii) The President can seek legal advice of the Supreme Court on any question of law. The opinion of the Supreme Court is not binding on the President.
(iii) No criminal proceedings can be administered against the President while in office.
(11) State the types of emergencies as per the constitution ?
Ans. The President is empowered to declare three types of Emergencies e.g.
(a) National Emergency caused by war, external aggression or armed rebellion inside the country, (Article – 352)
(b) Constitutional Emergency caused by the break down of the constitutional machinery in a State (Article- 356) and
(c) Financial Emergency caused by a threat to financial stability of India (Article – 360).
(12) National Emergency disrupts the regular federal functioning of the Government Explain How ?
Ans. National Emergency disrupts the regular functioning of the Governments at central and the state level.
(i) On Centre-State Relations :
(a) The Parliament gets the power to legislate on any subject of the State List.
(b) The Union Government can alter the distribution of revenue between the Centre and the States.
(ii) Effect on Life of Legislatures : While the proclamation of emergency lasts, the Parliament may extend the duration of the Lok Sabha or the State Legislative Assemblies for a year at a time.
(13) What are the other terms used for State Emergency ?
Ans. Under the Article – 356 – President’s Rule is the term used in India for State Emergency when a state government is dissolved and is placed under direct rule of the Union. It is called the President’s rule as the President of India governs the state instead of an elected Chief Minister. It is also known as Constitutional Emergency as it is caused due to the break down or collapse of the Costitutional Machinery of the state whereby the government in the state can not be run as per the constitution.
(14) What is the duration of Constitutional / State Emergency ?
Ans. Duration of State Emergency is only for two months subject to approval of the Parliament. It can last for a year at the most and shall not exceed for more than three years under any circumstances.
(15) What are the effects of State Emergency ?
Ans. It has the following effects on the State :
(i) The Legislative Assembly is dissolved or suspended.
(ii) The Parliament gets the power to legislate for the State.
(iii) The President may authorise the Governor to exercise all the executive powers.
(iv) The Annual Budget of the State is passed by the Parliament.
(16) How does the President observe financial discipline during Financial Emergency?
Ans. (i) The President may issue certain directions of financial rules to the States with regard to the utilization of funds in the manner it thinks fit.
(ii) The President may reduce the salaries and allowances of the Government staff, including judges of Supreme Court and High Court.
(iii) All Money Bills passed by the State legislatures may be reserved for the consideration of the President.
(17) Mention the component parts of the Union Executive? Ans. The parts of the Union executive are
(i) The President.
(ii) The Vice-President
(iii) The Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers.
(18) Name the Chief Executive in India. Why is he elected indirectly?
Ans. The President is the Chief Executive in India. He is elected indirectly because :
(i) Direct elections would involve tremendous work and heavy expenditure.
(ii) Directly elected member cannot become a Constitutional head or else he can become rival to the Prime Minister. Direct elections can make him a nominee of the ruling party just as the Prime Minister if membership in the two Houses of Parliament is likely to be dominated by one party.
(19) Can the President be a member of the Parliament?
Ans. The President cannot be a member of either House of Parliament. If he is, he has to vacate his seat in the House on the date on which he stands for Presidential elections. (20) In which situation does the office of the President fall vacant ? Ans. The office of the President falls vacant if :
(i) He dies.
(ii) He resigns.
(iii) He is removed by impeachment.
(iv) His term of five years expires.
(21) To whom does the President send his resignation?
Ans. The President sends his resignation to the Vice President. The Vice President would then refer his resignation to the speaker of Lok Sabha.
(22) When and how can the President of India be removed from office? OR What do we call the official process by which a President who has violated the Constitution is removed from office ?
Ans. The President can be removed from his office for violation of the Constitution by Impeachment process initiated and passed by the Parliament.
(23) By what majority is an impeachment resolution passed ?
Ans. The impeachment resolution must be passed by two-thirds of the total membership in both the Houses.
(24) What is the term of office of the President of India?
Ans. The President of India is elected for 5 years but he continues to hold office until his successor takes charge. He can be removed before expiry of his term through impeachment or he can resign.
(25) What is the name of the body that elects the President? What is the role of nominated members in it?
Ans. Electoral College is the body that elects the President. Nominated MP’s and nominated MLA’s have no hand in electing the President.
(26) What is the number required to propose and second a Presidential candidate?
Ans. 50 members are required to propose and another 50 members to second the Presidential candidate.
(27) Who administers the Oath of Office to the President ?
Ans. The Oath of Office to the President is administered by the Chief Justice of India.
(28) What does the President solemnly undertake to do when he takes the oath of office?
Ans. The President undertakes
(i) To faithfully execute the office of President or discharge the functions of the President of India.
(ii) To preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law,
(iii) Devote himself to the service and well being of the people of India.
(29) Who administers the Union Territory ?
Ans. The Union Territory is administered by the President. He exercises his power through an administrator appointed by him.
(30) Who are the high officials appointed by the President on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers ?
Ans : (i) The Chief Election Commissioner and the other Election Commissioners.
(ii) The Attorney General and the Solicitor General of India.
(iii) The Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
(iv) The Chairman and Members of the Union Public Service Commission.
(v) The Central Vigilance Commissioner.
(vi) India’s High Commissioners, the ambassadors and other diplomatic officials in the other countries.
(vii) The commanding officers of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
(31) When was the first proclamation of a national emergency issued ? Why?
Ans. In October 1962 due to the invasion of China on Indian territory.
(32) Do you agree with the statement that ‘the ministers remain in the office during the pleasure of the President’? What is the reality ?
Ans. (i) Constitutionally, the ministers remain in office during the pleasure of the President.
(ii) In reality, they remain in office as long as it is the pleasure of the Prime Minister.
(iii) Any minister who disagree with the Prime minister has to resign or is dismissed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
(33) When can the President proclaim and emergency?
Ans. (i) National or General Emergency : There is a danger of foreign aggression or danger to the peace and security of the country because of a civil war, insurgency or any other such cause (Article 352). Civics 196 ICSE X Robomate+
(ii) Breakdown of Constitutional Machinery : The Constitutional machinery in a State has broken down or there is a deadlock because of political uncertainties or otherwise (Article 356). (iii) Financial Emergency : A set-back to the financial stability or credit feasibility of the country is likely to occur or has occurred (Article 360).
(34) Within what time limit does the approval of the Parliament must be taken after the declaration of any type of emergency. OR How has the power of the President to declare an emergency been subjected to the control of the Parliament?
Ans. The National Emergency must be approved by Parliament within one month of its declaration while the Constitutional and Financial emergency must be approved within two months.
(35) What is the effect of the national emergency on the Fundamental Rights?
Ans. The effect of national emergency on the Fundamental Rights is as under
(a) The Right of Freedom under Article-19 may be suspended.
(b) The Right to move any court for enforcement of such rights may be suspended but the Rights guaranteed under Articles – 20 and 21 remain unaffected.
(36) Can the President return Prime Minister’s advice for reconsideration ? What happens if the same advice is given for the second time after reconsideration ?
Ans. The President can return the Prime Minister’s advice for reconsideration. But when the same advice is given for the second time, the President is bound to accept it.
(37) What is meant by President’s discretionary powers ?
Ans. The President has the power to take some decisions on his own judgment, without the advice of the Prime Minister. These ‘Discretionary Powers’ are:
(i) Appointment of the Prime Minister in a situation where no single party commands the clear support of the majority of the Lok Sabha members and there is a hung Parliament.
(ii) Appointment of an interim Prime Minister in case of sudden death.
(iii) It is at the discretion of the President to either dissolve the House or ask another party to prove its majority on the floor of the House. If the ruling party has lost majority and a vote of no cofidence is passed against it.
(iv) The President can dismiss Ministers in case the Council of Ministers loses the confidence of the House but refuses to resign.
(38) How is the Vice-President elected? Do MLAs have any role in it? OR Mention one difference in the election of the Vice-President and that of the President of India, as far as the electorate is concerned.
Ans State Legislatures have no hand in the election of the Vice-President. Both the Houses of Parliament sitting together elect the Vice-President whereas the President is elected by electoral college comprising of elected MPs and elected MLAs.
(39) Under what circumstances can there be imposition of President’s Rule in a State?
Ans. The President can impose President’s Rule in a State on receipt of a report from the Governor that the constitutional machinery in the state has broken down; and that the administration cannot be run as per the constitution.
(40) Under what circumstances can the financial emergency be declared?
Ans. Financial emergency can be declared by the President when the financial stability or the credit feasibility of the country has suffered a set back.
(41) Mention two consequences of the declaration of financial emergency.
Ans. (a) The Centre may issue certain directions of financial discipline to the State.
(b) The President may reduce the salaries and allowances of Government staff, including Judges of Supreme Court and High Court.
(c) Money bill passed by the Lok Sabha are to be submitted to President for consideration.
(42) What is the duration of Constitutional Emergency ?
Ans. Its duration is only two months and if it is to continue beyond two months, it must be approved by the Parliament.
(43) What is the impact of Constitutional Emergency on State Legislative Assembly?
Ans. During the Constitutional Emergency the President may :
(i) dissolve the Vidhan Sabha of the State and dismiss the Council of Ministers; or
(ii) keep the Assembly and the Council of Ministers in suspended animation.
(44) In which cases is the president empowered to use judicial powers?
Ans. The President has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted for an offence:
(a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial;
(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to Union and Concurrent Lists;
(c) in all cases where there is a death sentence.
(45) Who passes the resolution of Financial Emergency if in case Lok Sabha is dissolved?
Ans. If the Lok Sabha is dissolved when such a proclamation of an Emergency is made and a resolution supporting it is passed by the Rajya Sabha, the proclamation will cease to exist at the expiry of thirty days from the date on which the Lok Sabha first sits after it’s reconstitution.
(46) Explain the removal of the Vice-President?
Ans. Vice-President may be removed for violation of the Constitution or incapacity by a resolution of the Rajya Sabha. Such a resolution must be approved by Lok Sabha.
(47) Explain the powers and functions of the Vice-President ?
Ans. The Vice-president performs the following function as ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
(1) He is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
(2) He decides about the admissibility of a question or a resolution in the Rajya Sabha.
(3) The Vice-President decides about the serial order and time limit of speech of a member
(4) He issues directions to the Chairmen of different committees of the House.
(48) When does the President address the Parliament?
Ans. The President addresses both Houses of Parliament assembled together for the first session after each General Election to the Lok Sabha and the commencement of the first session of each year.
(49) In the light of the President’s financial powers, discuss his control on :
(a) Contingency Fund.
(b) Money Bill / Budget.
Ans. (a) The Contingency Fund is at President’s disposal and he can make advances out of it to meet any unforeseen expenditure, before the same is approved by the Parliament.
(b) A Money Bill / Budget (Annual financial Statement) can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only with the prior recommendation of the President.
(50) What are the President’s judicial powers, with special reference to modifying the judgment of the Supreme Court
Ans. The President can modify the judgement of the Supreme Court : (i) In case of death punishment.
(ii) In case where the punishment is given by a Court Martial.
(iii) Where the punishment is for an offence against the Union law.
(51) In which condition does the Vice President act as the President?
Ans. (a) death of the President in office,
(b) resignation of the President
(c) removal of the President
(d) In case of illness or absence. In case the Vice-President resigns, the Chief justice of India officiates till the election of the new Vice-President.
(1) The President of India is the Head of the Indian Republic. In this context, answer the following questions :
(a) Besides being a citizen of India, state other qualifications required by a person to be eligible to be the President of India.
(b) Composition of the electoral college that elects the President.
(c) Procedure of Impeachment
(d) Describe the circumstances under which the President can declare an emergency in the country.
Ans. (a) Besides being a citizen of India, the President :
(i) Should be of 35 years of age or above.
(ii) Should not hold any office of profit.
(iii) Should not be a member of the Legislature.
(iv) is qualified for election as a member of Lok Sabha
(b) The President is elected indirectly by the members of an Electoral College consisting of:
(i) the elected members of both Houses of Parliament;
(ii) the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States including National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Nominated members of either house of Parliament and State Assemblies are not eligible to be included in the Electoral college.
(c) 1. When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, either House of Parliament can level the charge as follows:
(i) Resolution which is moved after at least fourteen days’ notice in writing signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of the House; and
(ii) The resolution is passed by a majority of not less than twothirds of the total membership of the House.
2. When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House will investigate the charge and the President has the right to appear and to be represented at such an investigation.
3. If, as a result of the investigation, a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House (by which the charge was investigated), declaring that the charge has been sustained, such a resolution will have the effect of removing the President from his office.
(d) 1. National emergency : Under Article 352 this type of emergency can be declared by the President of India if he is satisfied that the situation is very grave and the security of India or any part thereof is threatened
(i) By war or external aggression.
(ii) By armed rebellion in the whole of India or a part of its territory.
(iii) The President can declare such an emergency only on the basis of a written request by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
(iv) Such a proclamation must be approved by the Parliament within one month. Such an emergency can be imposed for six months. It can be extended by six months by repeated Parliamentary approval.
2. Breakdown of Constitutional machinery : The Constitutional machinery in a State has broken down or there is a deadlock because of political uncertainties or otherwise (Article 356).
3. Financial emergency : The President may declare financial emergency under Article 360 when financial stability or credit feasibilities of India has suffered a set back.
(2) With reference to legislative powers of the President discuss :
(a) Summon and prorogue the Parliament.
(b) Dissolve the Lok Sabha.
(c) Assent to State Bills.
(d) Promulgation of Ordinance
Ans. (a) The President summons the sessions of both the Houses of Parliament and prorogues them. He inaugurates the Parliament by addressing it after the general elections, at the beginning of the first session every year. He can also direct a joint session of both the Houses to be held in case of a deadlock.
(b) The President has the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha. He can do so on the advice of the Prime Minister, before the expiry of its full term. When the Lok Sabha completes its full term of five years, the President announces the dissolution of the Lok Sabha on his own. But he cannot dissolve the Rajya Sabha, because it is a Permanent House.
(c) A State Governor may reserve a Bill passed by the State Legislature for the consideration of the President. He can refuse to give his assent, or he can return it for reconsideration. A State Bill which may affect the powers of the High Court is always reserved for President’s assent.
(d) Under Article 123, the President can promulgate an Ordinance, which has the same status as an Act of Parliament. The President may withdraw the Ordinance at any time. The power to promulgate an Ordinance is subject to the following conditions:
(i) The President must be satisfied that circumstances make it necessary for him to take immediate action.
(ii) The Ordinance can be promulgated at a time when both Houses of Parliament are not in session. However, if one House is in session, there is no bar in issuing of Ordinances.
(iii) The Ordinance so promulgated should be laid before both Houses of Parliament when they reassemble. If the Parliament does not approve the Ordinance, it lapses. If an ordinance is not dissapproved, it will automatically cease to operate at the end of six weeks from the date the Parliament re-assembles.
(iv) The Ordinance lapses if it is replaced by an Act of Parliament.
(3) With reference to the President’s power to declare National Emergency discuss :
(a) Circumstances leading to it.
(c) Effect on Centre-State relations.
(d) Effect on Fundamental Rights.
Ans. (a) The national emergency is declared when the President is satisfied that the security of India or any part of it is threatened by war or external aggression or internal armed rebellion.
(b) Every proclamation of Emergency must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament within one month by a special majority (i.e., by a majority of the total membership of the House and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting). It cannot remain in operation for more than six months at a time. At the end of six months it has to be renewed by Parliament by a special majority else it lapses. If the Lok Sabha passes a resolution disapproving the Emergency, the President has to revoke the Proclamation.
(c) The country has to forgo its federal spirit as the states will function under a unitary system with local subdivisions. The effects of national emergency on Centre State relations are as under :
(i) The Parliament gets the power to legislate on any subject of the State List.
(ii) The Union government gets the power to direct the States in the exercise of their executive authority.
(iii) The Union government gets the power to alter the distribution of revenue between the Centre and the States.
(d) Effect of National Emergency on Fundamental Rights is as under :
(i) The Right of Freedom under Article-19 is suspended.
(ii) The Right to move any court for enforcement of such rights may also be suspended, but the Rights guaranteed under Articles – 20 and 21 remain unaffected. Articles 20 and 21 remains suspended. Article 20 states that “no person shall be punished for the same offence more than once”. Article 21, declares that “no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.”
(4) With reference to Constitutional Emergency, discuss the following :
(a) Circumstances leading to it.
(c) Effect of President’s rule on the State.
Ans. (a) The circumstances leading to Constitutional Emergency are as follows
(i) When the President receives a report from State Governor or he is satisfied that the government of a State cannot run according to the provisions of the Constitution.
(ii) When a State government is unable to carry out the directions of the Union Government due to a political deadlock or failure.
(b) Its duration is only two months. If it is to continue beyond two months, it must be approved by the Parliament. Even then it ceases to operate after six months from the date of proclamation. It can, however, be extended for another six months with the approval of the Parliament again. Thus, a Constitutional Emergency can last for a year. It can be extended beyond one year (but never beyond three years) under two conditions, viz.
(i) When national emergency is declared in whole of India.
(ii) When the Election Commission certifies that holding of election in the State is not possible.
(c) It has the following effects on the State:
(i) Legislative Assembly is dissolved or suspended.
(ii) Parliament gets the power to legislate for the State.
(iii) The President authorizes the Governor to exercise all executive powers.
(iv) The President may sanction expenditure out of the Consolidated Fund of India, when the Lok Sabha is not in session.
(v) It may be noted that the President cannot suspend the operation of any provision of the Constitution relating to High Court.
(5) Discuss the proclamation of financial emergency :-
Ans. Circumstances : If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of the nation is threatened, he can declare a Financial Emergency. Duration : Such a proclamation has to be laid before both Houses of Parliament and is valid for two months unless it is approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament. If the Lok Sabha is dissolved when such a proclamation is made and a resolution supporting it is passed by the Rajya Sabha, the proclamation will cease to exist at the expiry of thirty days from the date on which the Lok Sabha first sits after its reconstitution. Effects :
(a) The President may appoint a Finance Commission to suggest methods to get out of the financial crisis. He may adopt suitable measures to restore financial stability in the light of recommendations of the Finance Commission.
(b) The President can reduce the salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons, including the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
(c) All Money Bills passed by the Lok Sabha are to be submitted to the President for his/her consideration.
(d) The President can issue instructions to the States in regard to the utilisation of funds int the manner he thinks fit.
(e) The President may order the State to submit Money Bill to him for his assent.
(6) Discuss the position of the President, with reference to :
(a) His Discretionary Powers
(b) Financial Powers
(c) Limitations on his Powers.
Ans. (a) The President of India enjoys certain discretionary powers. There are certain grey areas where President may have to use his wisdom and judgment. These are:
(i) Appointment of the Prime Minister in a situation where no single party commands the clear support of the majority of the Lok Sabha members and there is a hung Parliament. This is because the President cannot appoint the new Prime Minister on the advice of the outgoing Prime Minister who may have lost the election or the support of the House.
(ii) Appointment of an interim Prime Minister in case of sudden death (for example, by assassination as in the case of Mrs. Indira Gandhi) of the incumbent, where the ruling legislature party is unable to meet immediately to elect a leader.
(iii) When the ruling party who has lost majority support in the Lok Sabha or when a vote of no-confidence may have been passed against it, recommends to the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha, then it is at the discretion of the President to either dissolve the House or ask another party to prove its majority on the floor of the House.
(iv) The President can dismiss Ministers in case the Council of Ministers loses the confidence of the House but refuses to resign.
(b) Financial Power:
(i) Money Bills can be introduced only on the recommendation of the President.
(ii) The Annual Budget contains the estimates of income and expenditure of the Union Government for the coming year. The Finance Minister on behalf of the President places the Annual Budget before Parliament.
(iii) The Annual Financial Statement is also laid before the Parliament in the beginning of every Financial Year on behalf of the President.
(iv) The President can authorise withdrawal of advances from the Contingency Fund of India to meet unforeseen expenditure. Such expenditure should be subsequently approved by Parliament.
(v) After every five years the President appoints a Finance Commision comprising a Chairman and four other members. The Commission makes recommendations to the President on financial matters.
(c) The limitations on his powers are as under :
(i) The Powers of the President are exercised on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. President can return an advice received from the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers for reconsideration. But when the same advice is given again, the President is bound by it.
(ii) Proclamation of emergency if not approved by the Parliament, it becomes null and void and ceases to operate.
(iii) The third limitation is the power of impeachment of the President by the Parliament for violating the Constitution.
(7) Write a critical note on the role of the Vice-President, with reference of his :
(i) He must be a citizen of India.
(ii) Must not be less than 35 years of age.
(iii) Must be qualified for election as member of the Rajya Sabha.
(iv) Should not hold any office of profit under the Centre or the State Government.
(b) State Legislatures have no hand in the election of the Vice-President. The Electoral College consisting of members of both the Houses of the Parliament elect the Vice-President. The election is by proportional representation and single transferable vote system. The nomination papers for Vice-Presidential candidate must be proposed by 20 and seconded by another 20 MP’s.
(c) He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
(i) He regulates the debates and proceedings of this House.
(ii) He decides about the admissibility of a question or a resolution in the Rajya Sabha.
(iii) He may suspend the proceedings of the House, in case of grave disorder.
(iv) He issues directions to the Chairman of different Committees of the House.
(v) When the President is unable to function, the Vice President steps in.