Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Medicine
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Why do children cured by enzyme-replacement therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency need periodic treatment ?
Answer : As this therapy does not cure the disease completely it requires periodic treatment.
Question. What happens when Meloidogyne incognita consumes cells with RNAi gene ?
Answer : Using Agrobacterium vectors, the nematode specific genes are introduced into the host plant. The introduction of DNA initiates RNAi and thus silences the specific mRNA of Meloidogyne incognita. As a consequence, the parasite can not survive in the transgenic host expressing specific interfering RNA.
Question. Suggest a molecular diagnostic procedure that detects HIV in suspected AIDS patients.
Answer : PCR and ELISA.
Question. State the role of C peptide in human insulin.
Answer : C-peptide is an extra stretch of polypeptide. It makes the insulin inactive.
Question. Biotechnologists refer to Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a natural genetic engineer of plants.
Give reasons in support of the statement.
Answer : Agrobacterium tumefaciens is referred to as the natural genetic engineer of plants because the genes which are carried by its plasmid bring out their effects in various parts of the plants
Question. Mention the chemical change that proinsulin undergoes, to be able to act as mature insulin.
Answer : Removal of C-peptide (from pro-insulin).
Question. Bt-toxins are released as inactive crystals in the bacterial body. What happens to it in the cotton boll worm body that it kills the boll worm.
Answer : It is converted into an active protein (due to alkaline pH of the gut of the boll worm). The toxin binds to midgut cells / create pores / causes
cell swelling and lysis that kills the bollworm.
Question. What are Cry genes ? In which organism are they present ?
Answer : The genes which code for Bt toxin / Cry proteins
(toxic proteins), Bacillus thuringiensis.
Question. Write the possible source of RNA interference (RNAi) gene.
Answer : The source of RNA gene could be from an infection by viruses having RNA genomes or mobile genetic elements (transposons) that replicate via an RNA intermediate.
Question. List the type of cry genes that provide resistance to corn plants and cotton plants respectively against lepidopterAnswer :
Answer : cryIAc / cryIIAb – cotton.
cryIAb – corn.
Question. Name the technique by which Gene expression can be controlled with the help of RNA molecule.
State a method of cellular defense which works in all eukaryotic organisms.
Answer : RNA interference.
Question. Why do toxic insecticides proteins secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis kill insects ?
Answer : It is because of Cry proteins produced by the spores of Bacillus thuringiensis which are toxic when ingested by some insects.
Question. What is Gene therapy ?
Answer : Correction of genetic defect / involves delivery of a normal gene to take over the function of nonfunctional gene.
Short Answer Type Questions – l
Question. Write the function of –
(i) Cry 1 AC gene
(ii) RNA interference (RNA)
Answer : (i) It produces inactive pro-toxin in the host cell / produces proteins to control cotton bollworms.
(ii) It produces dsRNA which silences host m-RNA / cellular defence mechanism / prevents infestation by nematodes.
Question. Explain how Eli Lily an American company produced insulin by recombinant DNA technology.
Answer : In 1983, Eli Lily and American company prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin, introduced them in plasmids of E. coli to produce insulin chains. Chains A and B were produced separately, extracted and combined by creating disulfide bonds to form human insulin.
Question. Write the function of adenosine deaminase enzyme. State the cause of ADA deficiency in humAnswer : Mention a possible permanent cure for a ADA deficiency patient.
Answer : Adenosine deaminase enzyme is involved in purine metabolism. It is needed for the breakdown of adenosine from food. The disease is caused by a mutation in a gene on chromosome 20. The gene codes for the enzyme ADA. It is an inherited disorder that damages the immune system.
Treatment : (i) Bone marrow transplantation.
(ii) Transfusion of RBC. If the gene isolated from bone marrow cells producing ADA is introduced in to cells at early embryonic stages, it could be a permanent cure.
Question. Why is proinsulin called so ? How is insulin different from it ?
Answer : It is like a proenzyme or prohormone. It contains an extra stretch of C-peptide. It needs to be processed to become fully mature and functional hormone like insulin.
Question. (i) State the role of DNA ligase in biotechnology.
(ii) What happens when Meloidogyne incognita consumes cells with RNAi gene ?
Answer : (i) Linking of DNA fragment is done by DNA ligase / linking of Okazaki fragments or discontinuous synthesis fragments / linking of desired gene with plasmid to form recombinant DNA.
(ii) Specific mRNA of the nematode silenced, parasite dies.
Question. Why does the Bt toxin not kill the bacterium that produces it but kills the insect that ingests it ?
Answer : Exists as inactive protoxins. Becomes active in the gut of insect due to alkaline pH.
Question. What is gene therapy ? Name the first clinical case where it was used.
Answer : (i) Collection of methods that allows correction of a gene defect that has been diagnosed in a child / embryo.
(ii) Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency.
Question. Explain the process of RNA interference.
Ans. This method involves silencing of a specific mRNA of the parasite due to complementary dsRNA molecule that binds to and prevents translation of the mRNA (silencing). The source of this complementary RNA could be from an infection from viruses having RNA genomes or mobile genetic elements (transposons) that replicate via RNA intermediate.
Question. Why does a patient of ADA-deficiency requires repeated infusion of genetically engineered lymphocytes ? Suggest a possible permanent remedy.
Why is the introduction of genetically engineering lymphocytes into a ADA deficiency patient not a permanent cure ? Suggest a possible permanent cure.
Why is the introduction of genetically engineered lymphocytes into an ADA deficiency patient not a permanent cure ? Suggest a possible permanent cure.
Ans. (i) ADA patients lacks functional T-lymphocytes and so fails to fight infectious pathogens.
(ii) The therapy includes reactivation of patient’s immune system by introduction of functional ADA gene.
(iii) The cells are not immortal and requires repeated infusions.
(iv) Introduction of ADA gene into early embryonic stages is the permanent cure.
Question. How did Eli Lily synthesise the human insulin ? Mention one difference between this insulin and the one produced by the human pancreas.
Answer : (i) In 1983, Eli Lily an American company prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin and introduced them in plasmids of E. coli to produce insulin chains.
(ii) Chains A and B were produced separately,
extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds to form human insulin.
Insulin produced by human pancreas has an additional C peptide.
Question. Explain how a hereditary disease can be corrected.
Give an example of first successful attempt made towards correction of such diseases.
Ans. Introduction of required genes into cells and tissues to treat diseases / by delivery of normal gene to take over the function of non-functional gene / by gene therapy. First gene therapy was given to four year old girl with Adenosine deaminase deficiency.
Question. Name the insect pest that is killed by the product of cry IAc gene. Explain how the gene makes the plant resistant to the insect pest.
Answer : Cotton bollworms
The protein coded by cryIAc gene control the cotton bollworms. CryIAc is responsible for producing a toxic crystalline protein known as cry protein (Bt toxin). It is non-toxic to the bacterium because it exist as an inactive protoxin. When this toxin enters the insect, it get converted into active form due to the alkaline pH of the gut. The activated toxin binds to the surface of the midgut epithelial cells and create pores and causes cell to swell, lyse and hence causing the death of the insect
Question. How is Bt cotton made to attain resistance against bollworm ?
Answer : (i) Specific Bt toxin genes were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and incorporated into the several crop plants such as cotton. The choice of genes depends upon the crop and the targeted pest, as most Bt toxins are insect-group specific.
(ii) The toxin is coded by a gene named cry. There are a number of them for example, the proteins encoded by the genes cryIAc and cryIIAb control the cotton ballworms and that of cryIAb controls corn borer.
Question. Why is functional insulin produced considered better than the ones used earlier by diabetic patient ?
Answer : The functional protein is produced by rDNA. It does not produce allergic reaction and complication while earlier insulin was produced or extracted from pancreas of cattle and pig. It caused allergy and many complication to the diabetic patients.
Question. Name the source and types of cry genes isolated from it for incorporation into crops by biotechnologies. Explain how have these genes brought beneficial change in the genetically modified crops ?
Answer : Bacillus thuringiensis is the source of cry gene.
Types of crygenes isolated from it are cryIAc, cryIIAb, cryIAb.
These genes act as biopesticides when introduced.
They produce toxic insecticidal protein which, when activated cause death of the insects.
Short Answer Type Questions – ll
Question. How has RNAi technique helped to prevent the infestation of roots in tobacco plants by a nematode Meloidegyne incognitia ?
Answer : RNAi technique is helpful in preventing the infestation of roots in tobacco plants. This can be done by introduction of nematode-specific genes using the Agrobacterium vectors into the host plant. The introduction of DNA was such that it produced both sense and anti-sense RNA in the host cells. These two RNA’s being complementary to each other formed a double stranded (dsRNA) that initiated RNAi and thus, silenced the specific mRNA in the nematode. The consequence was that the parasite could not survive in transgenic host expressing specific interfering RNA. The transgenic plant therefore got itself protected from the parasite.
Question. CrylAb is introduced in a plant to prevent infestation by corn borer.
(i) What is the resultant plant referred as ?
(ii) Summarize the action of the gene introduced ?
Answer : (i) Bt corn.
(ii) Cry I Ab / Bt toxin gene codes for crystal protein, the Bt toxin protein exists as an inactive protein, but once an insect ingests it, it gets converted into an active form due to the alkaline pH of the gut which solubilizes the crystal. The activated toxin binds to the surface of mid gut and creates pores that cause swelling, lysis and eventually death of the insect
Question. Explain enzyme-replacement therapy to treat adenosine deaminase deficiency. Mention two disadvantages of this procedure.
Answer : Functional adenosine deaminase is given to the patient by injection.
Therapy is not completely curative, periodic infusion of enzyme required.
Question. Name the organism from which the ‘cry‘ genes are isolated. Mention with the help of suitable example why and how bio-technologists have made use of ‘cry‘ genes ?
Answer : Bacillus thuringiensis
(i) Source of insecticidal (crystal) protein that control the cotton bollworms / corn borer.
(ii) Specific Bt toxin genes were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis, incorporated into several crop plants such as cotton.
Question. What was the challenge for production of insulin using rDNA techniques ? How did Eli Lily produce insulin using rDNA technology ?
Answer : The challenge for production of insulin using
rDNA technique was getting insulin assembled into a mature form.
(i) Prepared two DNA sequence corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin.
(ii) Introduced them in plasmids of E. coli to produce insulin chains.
(iii) Chains A and B were produced separately.
(iv) Extracted and combined by creating disulfide bonds to form human insulin
Question. GM plants are useful in many ways. How would you convince farmers to grow GM plants on their field ? Explain giving three reasons.
Answer : Make crop more tolerant to abiotic stresses / Reduce reliance on chemical pesticides / Help to reduce post harvest loses / Increase efficiency of
mineral usage / Enhance nutritional value of food.
Question. Why do lepidopterans die when they feed on Bt cotton plant ? Explain how does it happen.
Answer : Bt cotton contains inactive toxin protein / protoxin / insecticidal protein / crystal protein, once the insect ingest it, the inactive protoxins are converted into active form due to alkaline pH in gut, which solubilise the crystals, activated toxins binds to surface of midgut (epithelial cells), create pores, causes cell swelling, lysis eventually leading the death of the insect pest.
Question. (i) What is Gene therapy?
(ii) Describe the procedure of such a therapy that could be a permanent cure for a disease. Name the disease.
Answer : (i) Collection of methods that allows correction of gene defect that has been diagnosed in a child / embryo. Here, the genes are inserted into a person’s cells and tissues to treat a hereditary disease. It compensate the nonfunctional gene. This involves delivery of a normal gene into the individual / embryoto take over the function of non-functional / defective gene.
(ii) If the desired gene is isolated and introduced into cells at early embryonic stages, it can provide a permanent cure. ADA/Adenosine deaminase deficiency.
Question. What is GMO? List any five possible advantages of a GMO to a farmer.
People are quite apprehensive to use GM crops. Give three arguments in support of GM crops so as to convince the people in favour of such crops.
Answer : Plants / bacteria / fungi / animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation.
Tolerance to abiotic stresses / like cold / drought / salt / heat, reduced reliance on chemical pesticides / pest resistant crops, reduce post harvest losses, increased efficiency of mineral usage by plants, enhanced nutritional value to create tailor made plant.
Question. A person is born with a hereditary disease with a weakened immune system due to deficiency of an enzyme. Suggest a technique for complete cure for this disease. Identify the deficient enzyme and explain the technique used for cure.
Answer : Gene Therapy.
ADA (Adenosine deaminase) deficiency.
Lymphocytes from the blood of the patient are grown in a culture, a functional ADA cDNA is introduced into these lymphocytes, which are subsequently returned to the patient. The permanent cure is done by introducing ADA cDNA into cells at early embryonic stages.
Question. How has the study of biotechnology helped in developing pest resistant cotton crop? Explain.
Answer : Some strains of Bacillus thuringiensis produce proteins that kill insects (pests), these crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein, once the insect ingests this (inactive) toxin, it is converted into an active form, due to alkaline pH of the gut, activated toxin binds to surface of midgut epithelial cells and creates pores, causing swelling and lysis leading to death of pest.
Question. Explain how Eli Lily, an American company produced insulin by recombinant DNA technology.
How did an American Company, Eli Lily use the knowledge of r-DNA technology to produce human insulin ?
Explain how the company Eli lily was able to produce human insulin using rDNA technique.
Recombinant DNA-technology is of great importance in the field of medicine. With the help of a flow chart, show how this technology has been used in preparing genetically engineered human insulins.
Answer : Prepared two DNA sequences, corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin, introduced in the plasmids of E.coli, to produce insulin chains, chains A and B were produced separately and extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds
Question. Why is molecular diagnosis preferred over conventional methods ? Name any two techniques giving one use of each.
Answer : To allow early detection.
Example : rDNA technology / PCR / ELISA / Probe
PCR-to detect low concentration of bacteria / virus (HIV). ELISA–to detect antigen / to detect antibodies produce by those antigens / to detect HIV. Probe-to detect a mutated gene from a normal one (any two corresponding functions).
Question. Rearrange the following in the correct sequence to accomplish an important biotechnological reaction :
(a) In vitro synthesis of copies of DNA of interest
(b) Chemically synthesized oligonucleotides
(c) Enzyme DNA-polymerase
(d) Complementary region of DNA
(e) Genomic DNA template
(f) Nucleotides provided
(h) Thermostable DNA-polymerase (from Thermus aquaticus)
(i) Denaturation of ds-DNA
Ans. Correct sequence is
Question. Mention the cause of ADA deficiency in humans. How has genetic engineering helped patients suffering from it ?
Ans. Deletion / mutation of the gene which forms the enzyme – adenosine deaminase.
Lymphocytes from the blood of the patient, can be grown in a culture outside the body, ADA cDNA gene can be inserted into the lymphocyte using retroviral vector, then lymphocytes can be returned to the patient. (They can start producing ADA).
Question. Name the nematode that damages the roots of tobacco plants. How is a transgenic tobacco plant made resistant to nematode using biotechnology ?
Answer : (i) Nematode – Meloidogyne incognita. A nematode Meloidogyne incognita infect the roots of tobacco plants and causes a great reduction in yield. RNAi takes place in all eukaryotic organisms as a method of cellular defence. This method involves silencing of a specific mRNA due to a complementary dsRNA molecule that builds to and prevents translation of the mRNA (silencing).
(ii) Using Agrobacterium vectors, nematode-specific genes were introduced into the host plant. The introduction of DNA was such that it produces both sense and anti-sense RNA in the host cells.
These two RNAs being complementary to each other formed a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that initiated RNAi and thus silenced the specific mRNA of the nematode. As a consequence the parasite could not survive in a transgenic host expressing specific interfering RNA.
Question. (i) Tobacco plants are damaged severely when infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Name and explain the strategy that is adopted to stop this infestation.
(ii) Name the vector used for introducing the nematode specific gene in tobacco plant.
Answer : (i) Nematode specific gene introduced into host plant (using Agrobacterium), produced dsRNA, RNAi initiated, specific mRNA of the nematode silenced and parasite dies.
(ii) Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Question. (i) How has biotechnology helped in producing Meloidogyne incognita resistant tobacco plant ?
(ii) Why does this nematode die on eating such a GM plant ?
Answer : (i) Nematodes like Meloidgyne incognitia infects the roots of tobacco plants and causes reduction in yield. The infestation of these nematodes can be prevented by the process of RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is present in all eukaryotic organisms as cellular defence by silencing of specific mRNA due to complementary dsRNA molecules that bind to and prevents translation of the mRNA.
The source of complementary dsRNA may be from an infection by viruses having RNA genomes or mobile genetic elements that replicate through RNA intermediate.
(ii) Nematode specific genes were introduced into host plant using Agrobacterium vectors. The parasite could not survive in a transgenic host expressing specific interfering RNA.
Question. How is the Bt cotton plant created as a GM plant ?
How is it protected against bollworm infestation ?
(i) Why are certain cotton plants called Bt cotton plants ?
(ii) Explain how Bt cotton is resistant to pests.
Answer : (i) Certain cotton plants are called Bt cotton because specific Bt toxin genes were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and incorporated into these cotton plants.
The proteins encoded by the genes cryIAc and cryIIAb control the cotton bollworms and that for cryIAb controls corn borer.
(ii) Specific Bt toxin genes were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and incorporated into several crop plants such as cotton. The choice of genes depends upon the crop and the targeted pest, as most Bt toxin is insect-group specific. The toxin is coded by a gene named cry. There are a number of them, for example, the proteins encoded by the genes cryIAc and cryIIAb control the cotton boll worms, that of cryIAb controls corn borer.
Question. Expand ‘ELISA‘. Why is this method preferred over conventional method of diagnosis of disease ?
Answer : Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
Infection by pathogen detected by the presence of antigens (protein, glycoprotein etc.), antibodies synthesised against the pathogen.
Conventional methods cannot provide early diagnosis which is made possible by ELISA.
Question. How has the use of Agrobacterium as vectors helped in controlling Meloidogyne incognitia infestation in tobacco plants ? Explain in correct sequence.
How did the process of RNAi interference help to control the nematode from infecting the roots of tobacco plants ?
How is a transgenic tobacco plant protected against Meloidogyne incognita ?
Answer : (a) Using Agrobacterium vector, nematode specific genes are introduced into host plant.
(b) Sense and antisense strands of mRNA are produced.
(c) ds RNA is formed.
(d) ds RNA initiates RNAi.
(e) Prevents translation of mRNA / Silencing of mRNA of parasite / nematode.
(f) Parasite will not survive.
Question. Plasmid is a boon to biotechnology. Justify this statement quoting the production of human insulin as an example.
Answer : The plasmids is a boon to biotechnology. It is a good vector in production of human insulin. It has a specific restriction site, where restriction endonuclease enzymes make a cut and a segment of DNA which codes for human insulin is inserted there. The recombinant plasmid so formed is introduced into E. coli and host cell where it replicates and produces insulin in large amount.
The plasmid has number of origin of replication (ori) where replication starts.
Question. How does Agrobacterium tumefaciens act as a suitable vector in the biotechnological experiments? Cite an example where it has been successfully used as a vector.
Answer : Agrobacterium tumefaciens (a pathogen of several dicot plants) is able to deliver a piece of DNA known as ‘T DNA’ to transform normal cells into tumor cells. The tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium (cloning vector) is no more used for pathogenic purposes, but the mechanism is used to deliver gene of interest, into plant where it multiplies. Agrobacterium vector is used to transfer Nematode specific gene in the host plant (Tobacco) to develop Nematode resistant plant.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Explain the application of rDNA technology to produce insulin.
Answer : Human insulin is synthesised as a pro-hormone.
The pro-hormone contains an extra C-peptide.
The C-peptide is not present in mature insulin and is removed during maturation. Eli-Lilyan American company prepared two DNA sequences, corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin and introduced them in plasmids of E. coli to produce insulin chains. Chain A and B were produced separately, extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds.
Question. (i) What is a plasmid ?
(ii) What is meant by ADA deficiency ? How is gene therapy a solution to this problem ? Why is it not a permanent cure ?
Answer : (i) Plasmids are extra-chromosomal, selfreplicating, usually circular double-stranded DNA molecules found in bacteria and in some yeast.
(ii) ADA is adenosine deaminase deficiency, this enzyme is crucial for the immune system to function. The patient lacks functional T-lymphocytes and fails to fight the infecting pathogens. Children with ADA deficiency are cured by bone marrow transplantation or enzyme injection. By using gene therapy techniques, lymphocytes are taken from the patient’s bone marrow and the normal gene for ADA is introduced into the lymphocytes using retrovirus. These cells are re-introduced in the patient’s immune system.
As these cells are not immortal, the patient requires periodic infusion of such genetically engineered lymphocytes. Hence, it is not a permanent cure.
If the functional gene is introduced into the bone marrow cells at early embryonic stage, it would be a permanent cure.
Question. Explain the application of biotechnology in producing Bt cotton.
Answer : Bt toxin gene has been cloned from the bacteria and has been expressed in plants, to provide resistance to insects (without the need for synthetic insecticide). Bt toxin gene forms protein crystals. These crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein. Bt toxin protein exists as inactive protoxin in the host, but once the insect ingests the inactive toxin, it is converted into active form of toxin, due to alkaline pH of the gut which solubilises the crystals, causing death of the insect.
Question. (i) Name the source from which insulin was extracted earlier. Why is this insulin no more in use by diabetic people ?
(ii) Explain the process of synthesis of insulin by Eli Lily company. Name the technique used by the company.
(iii) How is the insulin produced by human body different from the insulin produced by the abovementioned company ?
Answer : (i) Insulin from an animal source, though it caused some patients to develop allergy or
other types of reactions to the foreign protein. Insulin consists of two short polypeptide
chains : chain A and chain B, which are linked together by disulphide bridges. In mammals, including humans, insulin is synthesized as a pro-hormone, which contains an extra stretch called the C-peptide.
(ii) In 1983, Eli Lily, an American company, prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin and introduced them in plasmids of E.coli to produce insulin chains. Chains A and B were produced separately, extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds to form human insulin.
(iii) The insulin produced by human body is different from the insulin produced by the above mentioned company. Insulin is synthesized as a prohormone (like a proenzyme, the prohormone also needs to be processed before it becomes a fully mature and functional hormone), which contains an extra stretch called the C peptide. This C peptide is not present in the mature insulin and is removed during maturation into insulin.
The main challenge for production of insulin using rDNA techniques was getting insulin assembled into a mature form.
Transgenic Animals and Bioethical Issues
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Mention two objectives of setting up GEAC by our government.
GEAC is one of the organization set up by Indian
Government. Write it’s full form. Give it’s two objectives
Answer : Indian Government has set up organisations like
GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval Committee), which make decision about the validity of GM research and the safety of GM-organisms for public services.
Question. Can you suggest a method to remove oil (hydrocarbon) from seeds based on your understanding of rDNA technology and chemistry of oil ?
Answer : It is possible to remove gene for oil synthesis from seeds by recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering.
Question. What are transgenic animals. Give an example.
Answer : Animals whose DNA is manipulated to possess and express an extra (foreign) gene e.g. Rosie – transgenic cow.
Question. Name the Indian variety of rice patented by an American Company.
Answer : The Indian variety of rice patented by American Company—Rice Tec inc. in 1997 was basmati rice.
Question. What is biopiracy ?
Answer : Illegal / non authorized / non compensated use of bioresources by organisations.
Question. What was the speciality of milk produced by the transgenic cow-Rosie.
Answer : Rosie was the first transgenic cow. The milk produced by it was protein rich. It contained human alpha lactalbumin. This milk was nutritionally richer and balanced as compared to that of normal cow.
Question. A multinational company outside India tried to sell new varieties of turmeric without proper rights, what is such an act referred to ?
Answer : Biopiracy.
Short Answer Type Questions – l
Question What is Biopiracy ? State the initiative taken by the Indian Parliament towards it.
Answer : (i) Use of bio resources without authorisation, compensation.
(ii) The govt. has cleared patent terms, emergency provisions, research and development initiative.
Question. How is ‘Rosie’ considered different from a normal cow ? Explain.
Answer : Rosie is a transgenic cow. Rosie produced human protein enriched milk, containing human alpha – lactalbumin.
Question. (a) While cloning vectors, which of the two will be preferred by biotechnologists – bacteriophages or plasmids. Justify with reason.
(b) Name the first transgenic cow developed and state the improvement in the quality of the product produced by it.
Answer : (a) Bacteriophages, because they have very high copy numbers of their genome within the bacterial cells whereas some plasmids may have only one or two copies per cell and others may have 15-100 copies per cell.
(b) Rosie, it produced human protein-enriched milk (2.4 gms per litre).
Question How have transgenic animals proved to be beneficial in :
(i) Production of biological products.
(ii) Chemical safety testing.
Answer : (i) Rosie – transgenic cow produced human protein / alpha lactalbumin enriched milk, alpha-1 antitrypsin used to treat emphysema.
(ii) Toxicity Testing – more sensitive to toxic substances, results obtained in less time.
Question. Biopiracy should be prevented. State why and how ?
Answer : Biopiracy is the term used to refer to the use of bioresources by multinational companies and other organizations without proper authorization from the countries and people concerned without compensatory payment.
There has been growing realization of the injustice, inadequate compensation and benefit sharing between developed and under developed countries.
Therefore, some nations have developing laws to prevent such unauthorized exploitation of their bioresources and traditional knowledge.
Short Answer Type Questions – ll
Question. The Indian Government refuted the attempt by a multinational company (MNC) to patent the antiseptic property of curcumin derived from
Turmeric. Analyze the unethical practice adopted by the MNC, state its implications and suggest provisions in the Indian Law to prevent such malpractices
Answer : (i) MNC wanted to encash on our rich legacy by biopiracy.
(ii) It leads to injustice, inadequate compensation and unauthorized exploitation of traditional knowledge of the country.
(iii) Second amendment of the Indian Patents Bill takes into consideration issues related with patent terms, emergency provisions and research and development initiative.
Question. What is GEAC ? What are its objectives ?
Answer : GEAC stands for Genetic Engineering Approval
Committee. It is an Indian Government organization. It has following objectives :
(i) To examine the validity of GMO i.e. genetic modification of organisms research.
(ii) Safety of introducing GMOs for public use.
Question (a) What are transgenic animals ?
(b) Name the transgenic animal having the largest number amongst all the existing transgenic animals.
(c) Mention any three purposes for which these animals are produced.
Answer : (a) Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra / foreign gene.
(c) (i) Normal physiology and development.
(ii) Study of disease.
(iii) Biological products.
(iv) Vaccine safety.
(v) Chemical safety testing.