Students should refer to Agro-Based Industry ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.
ICSE Class 10 Geography Agro-Based Industry Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Agro-Based Industry in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.
Agro-Based Industry ICSE Class 10 Geography
Agro-Based Industry ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes
Importance and Classification of Industries
➢ India is one of the newly industrialized country and making a significant progress in the industrial development.
➢ Industrialisation can help the progress of agriculture, trade, transport and all other economic activities.
➢ Industrialisation is the key to economic development in India with its vast manpower and varied resources.
➢ It is the process of manufacturing consumer goods and capital goods and of building infrastructure.
➢ Need for Rapid Industrialisation in India :
(i) India is an agricultural country and through industrialisation the development of agriculture can be initiated.
(ii) Only agriculture cannot generate employment and thus establishment of industries can generate employment opportunities at a large scale.
(iii) The development of industries producing capital goods i.e. machines, equipment etc. enables a country to produce a variety of goods in large quantities and at low costs and make for technological progress.
(iv) Through industrialization infrastructures like railways, roadways, dams, etc. can be constructed which can enhance the future growth of Indian economy.
(v) Industrialisation is a necessity for country’s security because only through industrial development self-reliance in defence can be achieved where she can produce her own defence materials.
(vi) Expansion of industries in the backward regions of India are needed to counter the regional imbalance.
(vii) India through industrialisation should free herself from the adverse effects of fluctuations in the prices globally and should adopt the policy to import less of primary products and export more manufactured goods.
➢ Factors affecting the Location of Industries :
1. Geographical Factors
2. Commercial Factors
1. Geographical Factors :
(i) Raw Materials
(ii) Water Supply
2. Commercial Factors :
(i) Government’s role
(ii) Financiers and Capitalists
(iii) Organisational or Management Skills
➢ Classification of Industries :
1. On the Basis of Raw Material, industries can be divided into–
(a) Agro-Based Industries : Industries that are depended on the raw materials produced by the agricultural sector e.g. cotton, jute, textile, sugar, tea, coffee, etc.
(b) Mineral-Based Industries : These industries are depended on minerals, both metallic and non-metallic as raw materials and are based on ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgical processes e.g. iron and steel, heavy engineering, cement, machine tool, basic and light chemicals, fertilizers, etc.
(c) Forest-Based Industries : These industries uses forest resources like wood, rubber, lac, resin, etc.
(d) Animal-Based Industries : The industries which utilizes the raw materials provided by animals like woollens, silk, dairy products, hides, skin and leather industry, poultry, etc.
2. On the Basis of Nature of Products, industries can be divided into :
(a) Heavy Industries : These industries produce capital goods and consumer durables which are heavy and bulky and thus called heavy industries, e.g. huge capital, large quantity of raw material, scientific knowledge, etc.
(b) Light Industries : These industries produce light weight goods like sewing machines, cycles, toys, electronic goods, etc. They require less capital and less number of workers.
3. On the Basis of Size and Investment :
(a) Large Scale Industries : These kinds of industries need huge capital, large number of workers-skilled and non-skilled and produce large goods and machineries for industries like iron and steel, ship building, automobile, etc.
(b) Medium Scale Industries : These industries are neither big nor small and includes industries like cycle manufacturing industry, paper mills, radio and television, etc.
(c) Small Scale Industries : These industries are mostly managed by private individuals on a small scale with less capital investment, less workers, etc. e.g. weaving industry, toy industry, food processing industry, etc.
4. On the Basis of Ownership :
(a) Public Sector Industries : These industries are owned and managed by Central Government or State Government which includes industries of public utility like post and telegraph, railways, oil refineries, heavy engineering industries, defence establishments, etc. e.g. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), etc.
(b) Private Sector Industries : These industries are owned and managed privately by individuals or group of individuals. Industries like Reliance India Limited, Wipro, Infosys, TCS, etc.
(c) Joint Sector Industries : These industries are owned, managed and controlled jointly by private entrepreneur and the government e.g. Automobile Corporation of Goa Ltd. and Ipitata Sponge Iron Ltd. have been established with TISCO and TELCO of the Tata House as private promoters respectively.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries : In these industries people with limited means and resources pool their physical and material resources e.g. Anand Cooperative Society, etc.
5. On the Basis of Location and Market :
(a) The Village Industries : The basic needs of the local market and its requirement like raw materials, labour, etc. are availed from the village itself e.g. pottery making, match box making, weaving, food processing, khadi, etc.
(b) Cottage Industries- These industries are organised by individuals with private resources and with the help of their family members and their skills e.g. weaving, handloom, carpet industry, etc.
6. On the Basis of Finished Product :
(a) Basic Industries : Industries which depend on other industries for their manufacturing are called Basic
(b) Secondary or Consumer Industries : These industries process the basic raw materials into primary goods for direct use by the consumers e.g. textiles, sugar, etc.
(c) Tertiary Industries : These industries provide public utility based services like railways, transport, post and telegraph, banking, etc.
(d) Ancillary Industries : These industries provide spare parts or components required by large industries like heavy electrical industry locomotives, aircraft industry, etc.
➢ The distribution of industries is highly uneven in India due to the non-accessibility of the raw materials and energy resources in different regions.
➢ The main financial resources and other necessary enterprises are concentrated in big towns and cities.
➢ There are a number of factors responsible for the uneven distribution of industries in India. They are-
(i) All the agro-based industries like cotton, jute and sugar are located in the areas where the raw materials are available.
(ii) The forest based industries like paper, resins, plywood, etc. is located in the forest areas.
(iii) The coastal regions have huge availability of copra, coir and fish canning and so the industries are also located there.
(iv) Most of the oil refineries are located near the major ports.
(v) The heavy metallurgical industries are concentrated in the regions of metallic reserves in Karnataka, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.
➢ On the basis of major industries, India can be divided into the following industrial regions-
(a) The Hoogly Belt
(b) The Mumbai-Pune Belt
(c) The Ahmedabad-Vadodara Region
(d) The Chennai-Coimbatore-Bengaluru Region
(e) The Chotanagpur Plateau Region
(f) The Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala Region
Know the terms
➢ Industrialisation : It is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one.
➢ Consumer Durables : Are a category of consumer products that do not have to be purchased frequently because they are made to last for an extended period of time e.g. washing machine, automobile, refrigerator, etc. They are also called durable goods.
➢ Animal-Based Industries : The industries which utilizes the raw materials provided by animals like woollens, silk, dairy products, hides, skin and leather industry, poultry, etc.
➢ Entrepreneur : A person who sets up his own business, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.
➢ Ancillary Industries : These industries provide spare parts or components required by large industries like heavy electrical industry locomotives, aircraft industry, etc.
➢ Enterprise : An organisation, especially a business, or a complicated, difficult and important plan that will earn money.
Agro-Based Industries (Sugar, Cotton and Silk)
➢ Industries based on the raw materials of the agricultural produce are known as Agro-based industries.
➢ Sugar Industry is India’s second largest organised industry and is the second largest producer of sugarcane in the world.
➢ Sugarcane is an important cash crop and is crushed in the sugar mills to obtain sugar, and to make gur and khandsari.
➢ Molasses, Bagasse and Pressmud are the by-products of sugar.
➢ Molasses are thick, dark brown juice obtained from raw sugar during the refining process.
➢ It is used, in the alcohol industry for the distillation of liquor, in the production of citric acid, chemicals, synthetic rubber and as fuel for mills.
➢ Bagasse is the dry pulpy residue left after the extraction of juice from sugarcane.
➢ It is used as a biofuel and in the manufacture of pulp and building materials and also used for the generation of steam and power required to operate the sugar factory.
➢ Press mud is a residue of the filtration of sugarcane juice.
➢ It is used for making wax, carbon paper and shoe polish.
➢ Maharashtra is the leading producer of sugar in India followed by Uttar Pradesh.
➢ Formerly, Uttar Pradesh was the leading producer of sugar but was relegated to second position due to old mills, management and labour problems and shorter crushing period.
➢ The other sugar producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Gujarat.
➢ In Peninsular India, Tamil Nadu is the leading producer due to higher per hectare yield, higher sucrose content and long crushing season and is emerging as the leading producer in the country.
➢ Besides Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are also big producers of sugar.
➢ In recent decades, there has been a tendency of sugar industry’s growth towards the south.
➢ There are a number of reasons about the tendency of sugar industry to migrate to South. They are–
(i) The maritime climate of South which is free from loo and frost.
(ii) The availability of black soil which is well drained and more fertile than alluvial soil.
(iii) The sugarcane of the South is of superior quality with higher yield as compared to north.
(iv) Excellent transport facilities in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu which has given them an advantageous position in relation to export markets.
(vi) The cooperative societies in South are managing the sugarcane farms which are large in size by providing better seeds, fertilizers, irrigation facility.
(vii) The sugar factories in South are located close to the sugarcane farms which prevents the loss of sucrose content due to minimum transportation time.
(viii) In South, the farmers have new machinery and crushing devices which ensures high yield.
➢ Problems of Sugar Industry :
(i) The sugarcane produced in India is of poor quality with low sucrose content.
(ii) Due to inefficient and uneconomic nature of production, short crushing season, low yield and far off locations, the cost of production is quite high.
(iii) Since sugarcane is harvested almost at the same time, there is lot of pressure on sugar mills and cannot crush all canes which results in the wastage of canes.
(iv) The supply of raw materials to sugar factories is irregular.
(v) The government has fixed the prices of sugarcane, thus if the farmers are not offered good prices they tend to switch over to other crops.
(vi) Old and obsolete machineries are used in sugar factories which should be replaced by modern and new technological machinery.
(vii) In rural areas, instead of sugar, gur and khandsari are in more demand.
➢ Cotton Textile
(i) India is one of the largest manufacturing countries and one of the largest exporters of cotton textiles in the world.
(ii) Cotton textile industry is divided into two sectors- Powerloom and Handloom.
(iii) The important powerloom cotton mills are located in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu and the handloom cotton mills are situated in Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Coimbatore, Howrah, etc.
(iv) Maharashtra and Gujarat are the two most important cotton textile manufacturing states in India.
(v) Mumbai and Ahmedabad contribute 50% of the total installed looms.
(vi) Mumbai is called the ‘Cottonopolis’ of India and is also known as the ‘Lancashire of India’.
(vii) Ahmedabad is known as the ‘Manchester of India’.
(viii) There are many factors responsible for Mumbai and Ahmedabad to emerge as the most important cotton manufacturing centres.
They are as follows-
(i) Regular supply or proximity to raw material.
(ii) Favourable climatic conditions specially the humid climate.
(iii) Good network of road and rail transportation within the country and sea routes for the international market.
(iv) Location of major ports facilitates the export and import facilities.
(v) Availability of cheap and skilled labours.
(vi) Accessibility to capital since Mumbai and Ahmedabad are centres of financial and commercial resources. Even large number banks and financial institutions exit which provide loans to the manufacturers.
(vii) Electricity supply by the Tata Hydroelectricity system in the Western Ghats to Mumbai and the Ukai and Kakrapara hydroelectric units to Gujarat.
(viii) Good demand of cotton garments in India both in the Northern and Southern States and in the foreign markets.
➢ Problems of Cotton Textile Industry :
(i) Long staple cotton is not adequately grown in India and thus there is shortage of it.
(ii) Many factories are old, obsolete and sick industrial units and thus faces low productivity.
(iii) The cost of maintenance and replacement of old machineries with the new ones require heavy financial investments.
(iv) Due to the development of cotton textile industries in countries like China and Japan and in African countries, the Indian cotton textile industry is facing a tough competition and losing foreign markets.
(v) The cotton textile is also facing a tough competition from synthetic fabrics like polyester, nylon, rayon, etc. which is in increasing demand.
(vi) The cotton textile industry is also facing a problem from inadequate production due to lack of regular power supply.
(vii) Great difficulties are being experienced by mill-owners in obtaining the capital needed for modernization.
(viii) Acute shortage of power and obsolete machinery results in low productivity and poor quality of goods and thus effectively retarding the growth of cotton textile industry.
➢ Handloom and Khadi Industry :
(i) Handloom industry is one of the oldest industries of India providing employment to millions of people.
(ii) The handloom industry is mainly located in small town and rural areas.
(iii) Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Assam and Andhra Pradesh generate 50% of the total production while Manipur, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Kerala, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, etc. are some other important centres of handloom industry.
➢ Problems of Handloom and Khadi Industries :
(i) Inadequate, insufficient and low quality availability of raw materials.
(ii) The workers employed are mostly unskilled and belong to poor families.
(iii) These industries use old and obsolete technology which lack in competing with the fast changing new and modern fashions and designs.
(iv) The industries face a dearth of capital which force them to buy capital-saving techniques.
(v) These industries also face a stiff competition from mill-made cloth which is of superior quality and more in demand.
➢ Silk Textile Industry :
(i) The Indian silk industry is an integral part of Indian Textile Industry and is one of the largest producers of silk in the world.
(ii) The silk industry in India employs 60 lakh workers.
(iii) There are four varieties of silk produced in India. They are- Mulberry, Muga, Tasar and Eri.
(iv) Assam has the monopoly of producing Golden-Yellow Muga silk in the world.
(v) The rearing of silk worms for the production of silk is called Sericulture.
(vi) The silkworms are reared on Mulberry trees.
(vii) 90% of natural silk produced in India is from the Mulberry silk.
(viii) 92% of country’s Mulberry silk is produced in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Jammu and Kashmir.
(ix) The silk industry is located only in the states of Karnataka, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Manipur and Meghalaya.
➢ Problems of Silk Industry :
(i) Competition from artificial silk which is cheap and of better quality.
(ii) Import of cheap and alternative textiles from China and other Asian countries.
(iii) Use of outdated manufacturing technology, primitive and unscientific ‘reeling’ and ‘weaving’ techniques, etc.
(iv) The price fluctuation of raw silk affects the weavers and the industry.
(v) The high production cost and absence of proper market.
(vi) Poor knowledge of farm disease amongst the farmers.
(vii) Poor and unorganised management with no systematic of testing and grading of Silk like in Japan.
(viii) Lack of new technologies and modern power looms is affecting the growth of production.
Know the terms
➢ Molasses : It is thick, dark brown juice obtained from raw sugar during the refining process.
➢ Bagasse : It is the dry pulpy residue left after the extraction of juice from sugarcane.
➢ Press mud : It is a residue of the filtration of sugarcane juice.
➢ Gur and Khandsari : Gur (Jaggery) is a natural product of sugarcane but is in more unrefined form than sugar and Khandsari is a type of unrefined raw white sugar made from thickened sugar cane syrup.
➢ Powerloom : It is a type of loom that is powered mechanically instead of using human power to weave.
➢ Handloom : A manually operated fabric weaver unlike motorized or electrically powered looms.
➢ Cottonopolis : It denotes a metropolis centred on cotton trading servicing the cotton mills in its hinterland.
➢ Sericulture : The rearing of silk worms for the production of silk
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