Notes Cricket ICSE Class 10 Physical Education

Study Material

Please refer to Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Cricket notes provided below. These revision notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern for ICSE Class 10 Physical Education issued for the current academic year. Students should always revise these revision notes prior to their exams to properly prepare and understand all topics. After reading these notes also refer to Sample Papers for Class 10 ICSE Physical Education

ICSE Class 10 Physical Education Cricket Revision Notes

Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Cricket in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Physical Education exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Physical Education provided on our website.

Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Cricket Notes

➢ History : Cricket is a sport played by both men and women, by using a ball and a wooden bat. It was a popular sport in 13th century in England during the reign of King Edward I. The first major official match was held between Kent and Middlesex in 1719 and first rules were written in 1744. The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) at Lords (formed in 1787), became the reference or the code of ethic employed in cricket. The MCC gave proper shape to cricket by framing rules and regulations in 1835. Imperial Cricket Council was formed in 1989 to regulate its development which became International Cricket Council later on in 1952.

➢The foundation of this club marked the adoption of the sport by rich and the nobility. During the first half of the 20th century, the game spread to other commonwealth countries (including Britain, West Indies in 1920 and New Zealand and India in 1932). Cricket is administered worldwide by the ‘International Cricket Council’ (ICC), which organises ICC Trophy events every 4 years. The first World Cup was held in 1975. Although, women play cricket but this sport is male dominated at the professional level. The first cricket club in India was named as Orient Club Mumbai in 1848. India’s first official match was played in 1933 at Gymkhana ground in Mumbai. In India, Board of Control for Cricket in India regulates the team selection. India won the World Cup in 1983 and 2011. India has produced many famous cricket stars like Sachin Tendulkar, Kapil Dev, Sourav Ganguly, Rahul Dravid, V. Sehwag, Anil Kumble, Navjot Singh Sidhu, Lala Amarnath, M. S. Dhoni and many more. A new form of fast paced cricket has come up which is known as ‘Twenty-20’. In this, both the teams have to play for only 20 overs each. India won the first ‘T-20’ world cup in 2007.

➢In real sense, the golden chapter of cricket begins from 1760 A.D. The first cricket club was formed in England in 1760. This club was named as Hambledon Club. This cricket club remained in historical limelight for approximately three decades. This club produced the famous player like John Nyren. The second golden chapter of cricket history begins from the establishment of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC). This club was formed in England in 1787. The first cricket match was played at Lords, the famous ground on June 27, 1788. The first official Test match was played between Australia and England in 1877. This match was won by Australia. Owing to disappointment, some English women burnt the bails and later on the ash of bails was handed over to the Australian team. Since then, England and Australia play cricket with each other for ‘ashes’. After that, Imperial Cricket Conference was formed in England in 1909 and along with this cricket got its international recognition in the same year. Besides England, Australia and South Africa also became the members of Imperial Cricket Conference. In 1926, India, West Indies and New Zealand also became its members. Pakistan also became its member in 1952. Due to the racial policy, South Africa was debarred from its membership in 1971. In 1956, the name of this conference was changed to ‘International Cricket Conference’. With the passage of time, other countries (besides Commonwealth countries) also got its membership. At present England, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, West Indies, New Zealand, Pakistan, America, Argentina, Canada, Denmark, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, Holland, Bermuda, Fiji, Singapore, Hong Kong, Israel and Malaysia, etc., are its members or associate members.

➢The first One-day International match in cricket history was played on 5th January, 1971. This One-day match was played between England and Australia Forty overs per innings were fixed for this match. The credit of organisation and development of One-day International cricket matches also goes to England. As a result of persistent efforts of England, the first World Cup Cricket was organised in England. The teams of eight countries took part in this Cricket World Cup. West Indies defeated Australia by 17 runs during the final match of this World Cup. After the arrival of British, cricket was introduced in India. The history of Indian cricket begins from 1721. A cricket club was formed in Calcutta in 1792. In the beginning, cricket was played by kings and princes but now it has become the most popular game in India. The first team from India toured England in 1866.

➢ Types of Batsman Dismissals (Out) :
(i) Bowled : If the ball partially or completely disturbs the wicket even if it touches the bat.
(ii) Catch-out : When a ball hits with the bat is caught by a fielder before it touches ground.
(iii) Leg Before Wicket (L.B.W.) : When the batsman’s leg or any part of his body prevents the ball from touching the wicket.
(iv) Hit-wicket : If the batsman disturbs the wicket by hitting it.
(v) Handling the Ball : If the Batsman touches the ball with his hands.
(vi) Run-out : If the batsman runs towards the wickets but does not get there in time to place his bat between the edge of the popping crease and an opponent disturbs the wicket by hitting with the ball.
(vii) Stumped-out : If the batsman is near his wicket but outside the popping crease line, and the wicket keeper disturbs the wicket with the ball.
(viii) Double-Hit : If the batsman intentionally hits the ball, for the second time, then he can be declared out on an appeal.
(ix) Timed out : If the batsman does not report to face the bowler or unduly delay the match.

➢ Cricket Field :

Notes Cricket ICSE Class 10 Physical Education

➢ Facts to Know :
(i) Number of players in a team                                                       11+5 (Extra) = 16
(ii) Number of umpires in a match                                                    2 + 1 (Third umpire)
(iii) Weight of the ball                                                                      5(1/2) to 5(3/4) ounces (156 gm)
(iv) Circumference of ball                                                                 8” to 9”
(v) Length of the bat                                                                        38” (96.5 cm)
(vi) The widest part of bat                                                                4(1”/4)(10.8 cm)
(vii) The breadth of pitch on both sides fromcentral wicket                  4 feet 4 inches
(viii) Distance of stumps from one side to the other                            22 yd or 2012 cm
(ix) Breadth of wickets                                                                     9 inches
(x) Colour of ball                                                                             white for night and red and pink for day time
(xi) Number of scorers                                                                     2
(xii) Time for changing every innings                                                10 minutes
(xiii) Time for changing the player                                                    2 minutes
(xiv) Types of matches                                                                    one day, three day, five day, Twenty-20
(xv) Height of wicket from ground                                                    28 inches
(xvi) Radius of small circle                                                               27.4 m
(xvii) Radius of boundary                                                                 68.58 m (may vary from 75 to 85 yd)

➢ How to Play

A cricket match  is played between two  teams  of eleven  players  each on a field of variable  size and  shape. The ground is grassy and is prepared by groundsmen whose jobs include fertilising, mowing, rolling and levelling the surface. Field diameters of 140-160 yd (130-150 m)are usual.  The perimeter of the field is known as the boundary and  this is sometimes painted and  sometimes marked by a rope  that  encircles  the  outer  edge  of the  field. The field may be round, square or oval. The objective  of each team  is to score more runs  than  the other  team  and  to completely dismiss the other team. In one form of cricket, winning the game is achieved by scoring the most runs, even if the opposition has not been completely dismissed. In another form, it is necessary to score the most runs and  dismiss the opposition in order  to win the match,  which  would otherwise be drawn.

Before the play commences, the two team  captains toss a coin to decide  which  team  shall bat or bowl first. The captain who wins the toss makes his decision on the basis of tactical considerations which may include the current and expected field and weather conditions. The key action takes place in a specially prepared area of the field that is called the pitch. At either  end of the pitch, 22 yd (20 m) apart,  are placed  the wickets. These serve as a target  for the bowling side and are defended by the batting side which  seeks to accumulate runs.  A run is scored when the batsman has run  the length of the pitch  after hitting the ball with  his bat. There are many  other  ways of scoring runs.  If the batsmen are not attempting to score any more runs,  the ball is dead and  is returned to the bowler  to be bowled again.

The bowling side seeks to dismiss  the batsmen by various  means until the batting side is all out, whereupon the side that was bowling takes its turn  to bat and  the side that was batting must take the field.

In the professional matches, there are 15 people on the field while a match  is in play. Two of these are the umpires who  regulate all on-field  activity. One  of whom is the striker  as he is facing the wicket  at the bowler ’s end,  the other  in a position called ‘Square Leg’, a position 10-12 metres  to the  side of the  ‘on strike’ batsman. When  the bowler  delivers  the ball, the umpire at the wicket is between the bowler  and  the non-striker. The umpires confer if there  is doubt about  playing conditions and  can  postpone the  match  by taking  the  players  off the  field  if necessary, for example rain or dim light.

Outside the  field  and  in televised matches, there  is often  a third umpire who  can  make  decisions  on  certain incidents with  the  aid of video  evidence. The third umpire is mandatory under the  playing conditions for Test matches and  limited  overs  internationals played between two  ICC full members. These  matches also have  a match  referee  whose job is to ensure that play is within the rules of cricket and  the spirit of the game.

➢ Scorers

Outside the  field,  the  match  details  including runs  and  dismissals  are  recorded by  two  official scorers,  one representing each team. The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire. For example,  the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that  the batsman is out. He raises both  arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs.  The scorers are required by the rules of cricket to record  all the runs  scored,  wickets taken  and  overs bowled.

➢ Innings

The innings is the term used  for the collective performance of the batting side. All eleven  members of the batting side take a turn  to bat an ‘innings’ and  can end  before they  all do so. Depending on the type  of the match  being played, each team  has one or two  innings. The term  ‘innings’  is sometimes also used  to describe  an individual batsman’s contribution (he played a fine innings’  etc.).

The main  aim of the bowler,  supported by his fielders,  is to dismiss  the batsman. A batsman when dismissed is said to be ‘out’ and  that  means he must  leave the field of play and  be replaced by the next batsman on his team. When  ten batsmen have  been dismissed (i.e., are out), then  the whole  team is dismissed and  the innings is over, The last batsman, the one who has not been dismissed, is not allowed to continue alone as there  must  always  be two batsmen ‘in’. This batsman is termed ‘not out’.

If an innings should end before ten batsmen have been dismissed, there are two ‘not out’ batsmen. An innings can end  early for three  reasons: because  the batting side’s captain has chosen to ‘declare’ the innings closed (which is a tactical decision),  or because  the batting side has achieved its target  and  won the game, or because  the game has ended prematurely due  to bad weather or running out of time. In limited  overs cricket, there  might  be two batsmen still ‘in’ when the last of the allotted overs has been bowled.

➢ Overs

The bowler  bowls  the  ball in the  sets of six deliveries (or ‘balls’) and  each set of six balls is called an over.  This name came about  because  the umpire calls ‘Over!’ when six balls have been bowled. At this point, another bowler is deployed at the  other  end  and  the  fielding  side changes ends.  A bowler  cannot bowl  two  successive  overs, although a bowler  can bowl unchanged at the same end for several  overs. The batsmen do not change ends  and so the one who  was non-striker is now  the striker  and  vice versa. The umpires also change positions so that  the one who was at square leg now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker ’s end and  vice versa.

➢ Combination  of a Team

A team consists of eleven  players. Depending on his or her primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler.  A well-balanced team  usually  has  five or six specialist  batsmen and  four  or five specialist bowlers.  Teams  nearly  always  include a  specialist  wicket-keeper because  of the  importance of this  fielding position. Each team is headed by a captain who is responsible for the team.

➢ Fielding Mapping on Ground :

Notes Cricket ICSE Class 10 Physical Education

➢ Basic Things :

(i)   Bowling : The bowler  reaches  his delivery stride by means of a ‘run-up’, although some bowlers  with a very slow delivery take no more than  a couple of steps before bowling. A fast bowler  needs momentum and takes quite a long run-up, running very fast as he does so.

The fastest bowlers  can deliver  the ball at a speed of over 90 miles per hour  (140 km/h)  and  they  sometimes rely on sheer  speed to try and  defeat  the  batsmen, who  is forced  to react very  quickly.  Other fast bowlers rely on a mixture of speed and  guile. Some fast bowlers  make use of the seam of the ball so that it ‘curves’ or

‘swings’ in flight. This type of delivery can deceive  a batsman into mistiming his shot so that the ball touches the edge of the bat and  can then  be ‘caught  behind’ by the wicket-keeper or a slip fielder.

(ii)  Fielding  : All eleven  players  on the  fielding  side take  the  field together. One  of them  is the  wicket-keeper aka ‘keeper ’ who  operates behind the  wicket  being  defended by the  batsman on strike.  Wicket-keeping  is normally a specialist’s occupation and his primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman does not hit, so that the batsman cannot run byes. He wears  special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and  pads to cover his lower legs. Owing to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat. He is the only player  who can get a batsman out stumped.

(iii) Pitch : The pitch is 22 yd long between the wickets and is 10 feet (3.0 m) wide. It is a flat surface and has very short  grass that  tends to be worn  away  as the game  progresses. The condition of the pitch  has a significant bearing on the match  and  team  tactics are always  determined with  the state of the pitch,  both  current and anticipated, as a deciding factor.

(iv) Wickets  : Each wicket  consists  of three  wooden stumps placed  in a straight line and  surmounted by two wooden crosspieces called bails, the total height of the wicket including bails is 28.5 inches and the combined width of the three  stumps is 9 inches.

(v)  Creases : Four  lines,  known as creases,  are  painted onto  the  pitch  around the  wicket  areas  to define  the batsman’s safe territory and  to determine the limit of the bowler ’s approach. These are called the ‘popping’ (or batting) crease, the bowling crease and two ‘return’ creases. The stumps are placed  in line on the bowling creases  and  so these  must  be 22 yd apart.  A bowling crease  is 8 feet 8 inches  long  with  the  middle stump placed  or fixed exactly at the centre. The popping crease has the same length, is parallel to the bowling crease and is 4 feet in front of the wicket. The return creases are perpendicular to the other two; they are adjoined to the ends  of the popping crease and  are drawn through the ends  of the bowling crease to a length of at least 8 feet. When  bowling the ball, the bowler ’s back foot in his delivery stride  must  land  within the two return creases  while  his front  foot must  land  on or behind the  popping crease.  If the  bowler  breaks  this rule, the umpire calls ‘No ball’.

The importance of the popping crease to the batsman is that it marks the limit of his safe territory for he can be stumped or run out if the wicket is disturbed while he is out of his crease. Pitches vary in consistency and thus  in the  amount of bounce, spin  and  seam  movement available  to the  bowler.  Hard  pitches  are usually good  to bat on because  of high  but even  bounce. Dry pitches  tend  to deteriorate for batting as cracks often appear and  when this happens spinners can play  a major  role. Damp  pitches,  or pitches  covered in grass allow good  fast bowlers  to extract  extra bounce. Such pitches  tend  to offer help  to fast bowlers  throughout the match,  but become better  for batting as the game goes on.

(vi) Bat : The bat is made of wood  and  has the shape of a blade  topped by a cylindrical  handle. The blade  must not be more than  4¼ inches wide and  the total length of the bat not more than  38 inches.

Notes Cricket ICSE Class 10 Physical Education

(vii)Ball : The ball is a hard leather-seamed spheroid with a circumference of 9 inches. The hardness of the ball, which can be delivered at a speed of more than 90 miles per hour (140 km/h), is a matter for concern and batsmen wear protective clothing including pads, batting gloves for the hands, a helmet for the head and an abdominal guard. Some batsmen wear additional padding inside their shirts and trousers such as thigh pads, arm pads, rib protectors and shoulder pads.

(viii) Umpires : The game on the field is regulated by two umpires, one of whom stands behind the wickets.

➢ Latest General Rules :

(i) The players : (a) A match is played between eleven players on each of the two sides. One of the players on each side shall be the captain. If the captain is not available, the vice-captain shall act as a captain, (b) Before the toss for innings, players shall be nominated by the captain.

(ii) Boundaries : Though no distance of the boundaries from the wicket is fixed but it should be 75 to 85 yards. Due to this, the playing grounds vary in size everywhere.

(iii) Follow on : The side batting first and leading by 200 runs in a five day match, 150 runs in a three day match, 100 runs in a two day match and 75 runs in a one day match can ask their opponents to follow their innings.

(iv) Batsman Getting out :
(a) When he is bowled,
(b) When he is caught from a stroke off his bat and the ball is held by the fielder before it touches the ground. The fielder ’s both feet must be in playing area,
(c) When he handles the ball,
(d) When he hits the ball twice,
(e) Leg before wicket (LBW),
(f) He is run out if he is out of his crease while the bail is in play and his wicket is put down by a fielder,
(g) When he hits the wicket with his bat, body part or dress.
(h) He is stumped.
(i) When he is obstructing the fielder intentionally.
(j) He is out, timed out if he takes more than two minutes intentionally to enter the field at the fall of the wicket.

(v) New Balls : Now in One Day International matches, each fielding team shall have two new balls for its innings, to be used in alternate overs i.e., one ball from each end.

(vi) Power plays and Fielding Restrictions : Now there will be no catching fielders from 1st to 10th over in an ODI and no batting power plays will be allowed between 11th and 40th overs. In case of fielding, 5 fielders will be allowed outside the 30-yd circle between the 41st and 50th overs instead of four fielders. In both, ODIs and T-20s, all ‘No Balls’, not just foot faults, will lead to a free hit.

(vii)Obstructing the Field : Now batsman can be given out obstructing the field if he changes his course while running to prevent a run out chance. This change is applicable for test, ODI and T-20 matches.

(viii) Runners : A runner for a batsman in case of injury is not permitted now. It is also applicable for tests, ODIs and T-20s.

(ix) To Run out a Non-striker Batsman : Now the bowlers will be able to attempt to run out non-striker before delivery. Previously, the bowler could only run out a non-striker backing up if he did so before he had entered his delivery stride. This rule is applicable in Test, ODI and T-20 matches.

(x) Duration of Intervals : Although the duration of the lunch and tea intervals remain unchanged i.e., 40 and 20 minutes respectively, the host team, with the consent of the other side, can apply to the ICC for an approval for intervals of 30 minutes each. It is applicable for test matches.

➢ Terminology : The brief description of some of the terms is given below:

(i) Dolly catch : A very simple catch which is easily taken by a fielder.

(ii) Maiden over : A maiden over is that over in which the batsman is unable to make a run.

(iii) Hat trick : When a bowler takes three wickets on three consecutive balls, he is said to have scored a hat trick.

(iv) Extras : Runs not scored by the batsman but the runs through byes, leg byes, no-balls and wide balls. These runs are included in the scores of a team but not credited to the batsman.

(v) Rubber : In the series of international test matches, a team, who wins more matches than the other team, is called to have won the rubber.

(vi) Over : Series of valid deliveries (6 in England and 8 in Australia) made consecutively by one bowler from one end of the field before the bowling is taken up by another bowler at the other end.

(vii)Over pitch : To bowl the ball so that it bounces so far up the wicket that it can be played with ease by the batsman.

(viii) Seam : Slightly raised band of stitches round a cricket ball which enable bowlers to make it spin.

(ix) Sitter : An extremely easy catch.

(x) Skittle : To dismiss rapidly a side or a number of batsmen.

(xi) Spin : To twist the ball when bowling so that, on pitching it changes directions.

(xii) Sundry : Sundry means extra. This term is used in Australia.

(xiii) Sweep : It is stroke in which the ball is played behind the wicket on the leg side with a sweeping movement of the bat.

(xiv) No ball : A ball is called ‘no ball’ when either umpire considers that the bowler ’s delivery is not fair.

(xv) Gully : It is an offside fielding position between the slips and point.

(xvi) Bouncer : Ball pitched short by a fast bowler so that it rises sharply, often over the batsman’s head.

(xv) Sight screen : It is a large screen positioned on the boundary so that it forms a backdrop behind the bowler, so that the striker can see the ball clearly.

Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Cricket