Please refer to Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Cricket notes provided below. These revision notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern for ICSE Class 10 Physical Education issued for the current academic year. Students should always revise these revision notes prior to their exams to properly prepare and understand all topics. After reading these notes also refer to Sample Papers for Class 10 ICSE Physical Education
ICSE Class 10 Physical Education Cricket Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Cricket in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Physical Education exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Physical Education provided on our website.
Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Cricket Notes
➢ History : Cricket is a sport played by both men and women, by using a ball and a wooden bat. It was a popular sport in 13th century in England during the reign of King Edward I. The first major official match was held between Kent and Middlesex in 1719 and first rules were written in 1744. The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) at Lords (formed in 1787), became the reference or the code of ethic employed in cricket. The MCC gave proper shape to cricket by framing rules and regulations in 1835. Imperial Cricket Council was formed in 1989 to regulate its development which became International Cricket Council later on in 1952.
➢The foundation of this club marked the adoption of the sport by rich and the nobility. During the first half of the 20th century, the game spread to other commonwealth countries (including Britain, West Indies in 1920 and New Zealand and India in 1932). Cricket is administered worldwide by the ‘International Cricket Council’ (ICC), which organises ICC Trophy events every 4 years. The first World Cup was held in 1975. Although, women play cricket but this sport is male dominated at the professional level. The first cricket club in India was named as Orient Club Mumbai in 1848. India’s first official match was played in 1933 at Gymkhana ground in Mumbai. In India, Board of Control for Cricket in India regulates the team selection. India won the World Cup in 1983 and 2011. India has produced many famous cricket stars like Sachin Tendulkar, Kapil Dev, Sourav Ganguly, Rahul Dravid, V. Sehwag, Anil Kumble, Navjot Singh Sidhu, Lala Amarnath, M. S. Dhoni and many more. A new form of fast paced cricket has come up which is known as ‘Twenty-20’. In this, both the teams have to play for only 20 overs each. India won the first ‘T-20’ world cup in 2007.
➢In real sense, the golden chapter of cricket begins from 1760 A.D. The first cricket club was formed in England in 1760. This club was named as Hambledon Club. This cricket club remained in historical limelight for approximately three decades. This club produced the famous player like John Nyren. The second golden chapter of cricket history begins from the establishment of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC). This club was formed in England in 1787. The first cricket match was played at Lords, the famous ground on June 27, 1788. The first official Test match was played between Australia and England in 1877. This match was won by Australia. Owing to disappointment, some English women burnt the bails and later on the ash of bails was handed over to the Australian team. Since then, England and Australia play cricket with each other for ‘ashes’. After that, Imperial Cricket Conference was formed in England in 1909 and along with this cricket got its international recognition in the same year. Besides England, Australia and South Africa also became the members of Imperial Cricket Conference. In 1926, India, West Indies and New Zealand also became its members. Pakistan also became its member in 1952. Due to the racial policy, South Africa was debarred from its membership in 1971. In 1956, the name of this conference was changed to ‘International Cricket Conference’. With the passage of time, other countries (besides Commonwealth countries) also got its membership. At present England, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, West Indies, New Zealand, Pakistan, America, Argentina, Canada, Denmark, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, Holland, Bermuda, Fiji, Singapore, Hong Kong, Israel and Malaysia, etc., are its members or associate members.
➢The first One-day International match in cricket history was played on 5th January, 1971. This One-day match was played between England and Australia Forty overs per innings were fixed for this match. The credit of organisation and development of One-day International cricket matches also goes to England. As a result of persistent efforts of England, the first World Cup Cricket was organised in England. The teams of eight countries took part in this Cricket World Cup. West Indies defeated Australia by 17 runs during the final match of this World Cup. After the arrival of British, cricket was introduced in India. The history of Indian cricket begins from 1721. A cricket club was formed in Calcutta in 1792. In the beginning, cricket was played by kings and princes but now it has become the most popular game in India. The first team from India toured England in 1866.
➢ Types of Batsman Dismissals (Out) :
(i) Bowled : If the ball partially or completely disturbs the wicket even if it touches the bat.
(ii) Catch-out : When a ball hits with the bat is caught by a fielder before it touches ground.
(iii) Leg Before Wicket (L.B.W.) : When the batsman’s leg or any part of his body prevents the ball from touching the wicket.
(iv) Hit-wicket : If the batsman disturbs the wicket by hitting it.
(v) Handling the Ball : If the Batsman touches the ball with his hands.
(vi) Run-out : If the batsman runs towards the wickets but does not get there in time to place his bat between the edge of the popping crease and an opponent disturbs the wicket by hitting with the ball.
(vii) Stumped-out : If the batsman is near his wicket but outside the popping crease line, and the wicket keeper disturbs the wicket with the ball.
(viii) Double-Hit : If the batsman intentionally hits the ball, for the second time, then he can be declared out on an appeal.
(ix) Timed out : If the batsman does not report to face the bowler or unduly delay the match.
➢ Cricket Field :
➢ Facts to Know :
(i) Number of players in a team 11+5 (Extra) = 16
(ii) Number of umpires in a match 2 + 1 (Third umpire)
(iii) Weight of the ball 5(1/2) to 5(3/4) ounces (156 gm)
(iv) Circumference of ball 8” to 9”
(v) Length of the bat 38” (96.5 cm)
(vi) The widest part of bat 4(1”/4)(10.8 cm)
(vii) The breadth of pitch on both sides fromcentral wicket 4 feet 4 inches
(viii) Distance of stumps from one side to the other 22 yd or 2012 cm
(ix) Breadth of wickets 9 inches
(x) Colour of ball white for night and red and pink for day time
(xi) Number of scorers 2
(xii) Time for changing every innings 10 minutes
(xiii) Time for changing the player 2 minutes
(xiv) Types of matches one day, three day, five day, Twenty-20
(xv) Height of wicket from ground 28 inches
(xvi) Radius of small circle 27.4 m
(xvii) Radius of boundary 68.58 m (may vary from 75 to 85 yd)
➢ How to Play
A cricket match is played between two teams of eleven players each on a field of variable size and shape. The ground is grassy and is prepared by groundsmen whose jobs include fertilising, mowing, rolling and levelling the surface. Field diameters of 140-160 yd (130-150 m)are usual. The perimeter of the field is known as the boundary and this is sometimes painted and sometimes marked by a rope that encircles the outer edge of the field. The field may be round, square or oval. The objective of each team is to score more runs than the other team and to completely dismiss the other team. In one form of cricket, winning the game is achieved by scoring the most runs, even if the opposition has not been completely dismissed. In another form, it is necessary to score the most runs and dismiss the opposition in order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn.
Before the play commences, the two team captains toss a coin to decide which team shall bat or bowl first. The captain who wins the toss makes his decision on the basis of tactical considerations which may include the current and expected field and weather conditions. The key action takes place in a specially prepared area of the field that is called the pitch. At either end of the pitch, 22 yd (20 m) apart, are placed the wickets. These serve as a target for the bowling side and are defended by the batting side which seeks to accumulate runs. A run is scored when the batsman has run the length of the pitch after hitting the ball with his bat. There are many other ways of scoring runs. If the batsmen are not attempting to score any more runs, the ball is dead and is returned to the bowler to be bowled again.
The bowling side seeks to dismiss the batsmen by various means until the batting side is all out, whereupon the side that was bowling takes its turn to bat and the side that was batting must take the field.
In the professional matches, there are 15 people on the field while a match is in play. Two of these are the umpires who regulate all on-field activity. One of whom is the striker as he is facing the wicket at the bowler ’s end, the other in a position called ‘Square Leg’, a position 10-12 metres to the side of the ‘on strike’ batsman. When the bowler delivers the ball, the umpire at the wicket is between the bowler and the non-striker. The umpires confer if there is doubt about playing conditions and can postpone the match by taking the players off the field if necessary, for example rain or dim light.
Outside the field and in televised matches, there is often a third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video evidence. The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test matches and limited overs internationals played between two ICC full members. These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is within the rules of cricket and the spirit of the game.
Outside the field, the match details including runs and dismissals are recorded by two official scorers, one representing each team. The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire. For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that the batsman is out. He raises both arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs. The scorers are required by the rules of cricket to record all the runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled.
The innings is the term used for the collective performance of the batting side. All eleven members of the batting side take a turn to bat an ‘innings’ and can end before they all do so. Depending on the type of the match being played, each team has one or two innings. The term ‘innings’ is sometimes also used to describe an individual batsman’s contribution (he played a fine innings’ etc.).
The main aim of the bowler, supported by his fielders, is to dismiss the batsman. A batsman when dismissed is said to be ‘out’ and that means he must leave the field of play and be replaced by the next batsman on his team. When ten batsmen have been dismissed (i.e., are out), then the whole team is dismissed and the innings is over, The last batsman, the one who has not been dismissed, is not allowed to continue alone as there must always be two batsmen ‘in’. This batsman is termed ‘not out’.
If an innings should end before ten batsmen have been dismissed, there are two ‘not out’ batsmen. An innings can end early for three reasons: because the batting side’s captain has chosen to ‘declare’ the innings closed (which is a tactical decision), or because the batting side has achieved its target and won the game, or because the game has ended prematurely due to bad weather or running out of time. In limited overs cricket, there might be two batsmen still ‘in’ when the last of the allotted overs has been bowled.
The bowler bowls the ball in the sets of six deliveries (or ‘balls’) and each set of six balls is called an over. This name came about because the umpire calls ‘Over!’ when six balls have been bowled. At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end and the fielding side changes ends. A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can bowl unchanged at the same end for several overs. The batsmen do not change ends and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice versa. The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at square leg now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker ’s end and vice versa.
➢ Combination of a Team
A team consists of eleven players. Depending on his or her primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A well-balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Teams nearly always include a specialist wicket-keeper because of the importance of this fielding position. Each team is headed by a captain who is responsible for the team.
➢ Fielding Mapping on Ground :
➢ Basic Things :
(i) Bowling : The bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a ‘run-up’, although some bowlers with a very slow delivery take no more than a couple of steps before bowling. A fast bowler needs momentum and takes quite a long run-up, running very fast as he does so.
The fastest bowlers can deliver the ball at a speed of over 90 miles per hour (140 km/h) and they sometimes rely on sheer speed to try and defeat the batsmen, who is forced to react very quickly. Other fast bowlers rely on a mixture of speed and guile. Some fast bowlers make use of the seam of the ball so that it ‘curves’ or
‘swings’ in flight. This type of delivery can deceive a batsman into mistiming his shot so that the ball touches the edge of the bat and can then be ‘caught behind’ by the wicket-keeper or a slip fielder.
(ii) Fielding : All eleven players on the fielding side take the field together. One of them is the wicket-keeper aka ‘keeper ’ who operates behind the wicket being defended by the batsman on strike. Wicket-keeping is normally a specialist’s occupation and his primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman does not hit, so that the batsman cannot run byes. He wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Owing to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat. He is the only player who can get a batsman out stumped.
(iii) Pitch : The pitch is 22 yd long between the wickets and is 10 feet (3.0 m) wide. It is a flat surface and has very short grass that tends to be worn away as the game progresses. The condition of the pitch has a significant bearing on the match and team tactics are always determined with the state of the pitch, both current and anticipated, as a deciding factor.
(iv) Wickets : Each wicket consists of three wooden stumps placed in a straight line and surmounted by two wooden crosspieces called bails, the total height of the wicket including bails is 28.5 inches and the combined width of the three stumps is 9 inches.
(v) Creases : Four lines, known as creases, are painted onto the pitch around the wicket areas to define the batsman’s safe territory and to determine the limit of the bowler ’s approach. These are called the ‘popping’ (or batting) crease, the bowling crease and two ‘return’ creases. The stumps are placed in line on the bowling creases and so these must be 22 yd apart. A bowling crease is 8 feet 8 inches long with the middle stump placed or fixed exactly at the centre. The popping crease has the same length, is parallel to the bowling crease and is 4 feet in front of the wicket. The return creases are perpendicular to the other two; they are adjoined to the ends of the popping crease and are drawn through the ends of the bowling crease to a length of at least 8 feet. When bowling the ball, the bowler ’s back foot in his delivery stride must land within the two return creases while his front foot must land on or behind the popping crease. If the bowler breaks this rule, the umpire calls ‘No ball’.
The importance of the popping crease to the batsman is that it marks the limit of his safe territory for he can be stumped or run out if the wicket is disturbed while he is out of his crease. Pitches vary in consistency and thus in the amount of bounce, spin and seam movement available to the bowler. Hard pitches are usually good to bat on because of high but even bounce. Dry pitches tend to deteriorate for batting as cracks often appear and when this happens spinners can play a major role. Damp pitches, or pitches covered in grass allow good fast bowlers to extract extra bounce. Such pitches tend to offer help to fast bowlers throughout the match, but become better for batting as the game goes on.
(vi) Bat : The bat is made of wood and has the shape of a blade topped by a cylindrical handle. The blade must not be more than 4¼ inches wide and the total length of the bat not more than 38 inches.
(vii)Ball : The ball is a hard leather-seamed spheroid with a circumference of 9 inches. The hardness of the ball, which can be delivered at a speed of more than 90 miles per hour (140 km/h), is a matter for concern and batsmen wear protective clothing including pads, batting gloves for the hands, a helmet for the head and an abdominal guard. Some batsmen wear additional padding inside their shirts and trousers such as thigh pads, arm pads, rib protectors and shoulder pads.
(viii) Umpires : The game on the field is regulated by two umpires, one of whom stands behind the wickets.
➢ Latest General Rules :
(i) The players : (a) A match is played between eleven players on each of the two sides. One of the players on each side shall be the captain. If the captain is not available, the vice-captain shall act as a captain, (b) Before the toss for innings, players shall be nominated by the captain.
(ii) Boundaries : Though no distance of the boundaries from the wicket is fixed but it should be 75 to 85 yards. Due to this, the playing grounds vary in size everywhere.
(iii) Follow on : The side batting first and leading by 200 runs in a five day match, 150 runs in a three day match, 100 runs in a two day match and 75 runs in a one day match can ask their opponents to follow their innings.
(iv) Batsman Getting out :
(a) When he is bowled,
(b) When he is caught from a stroke off his bat and the ball is held by the fielder before it touches the ground. The fielder ’s both feet must be in playing area,
(c) When he handles the ball,
(d) When he hits the ball twice,
(e) Leg before wicket (LBW),
(f) He is run out if he is out of his crease while the bail is in play and his wicket is put down by a fielder,
(g) When he hits the wicket with his bat, body part or dress.
(h) He is stumped.
(i) When he is obstructing the fielder intentionally.
(j) He is out, timed out if he takes more than two minutes intentionally to enter the field at the fall of the wicket.
(v) New Balls : Now in One Day International matches, each fielding team shall have two new balls for its innings, to be used in alternate overs i.e., one ball from each end.
(vi) Power plays and Fielding Restrictions : Now there will be no catching fielders from 1st to 10th over in an ODI and no batting power plays will be allowed between 11th and 40th overs. In case of fielding, 5 fielders will be allowed outside the 30-yd circle between the 41st and 50th overs instead of four fielders. In both, ODIs and T-20s, all ‘No Balls’, not just foot faults, will lead to a free hit.
(vii)Obstructing the Field : Now batsman can be given out obstructing the field if he changes his course while running to prevent a run out chance. This change is applicable for test, ODI and T-20 matches.
(viii) Runners : A runner for a batsman in case of injury is not permitted now. It is also applicable for tests, ODIs and T-20s.
(ix) To Run out a Non-striker Batsman : Now the bowlers will be able to attempt to run out non-striker before delivery. Previously, the bowler could only run out a non-striker backing up if he did so before he had entered his delivery stride. This rule is applicable in Test, ODI and T-20 matches.
(x) Duration of Intervals : Although the duration of the lunch and tea intervals remain unchanged i.e., 40 and 20 minutes respectively, the host team, with the consent of the other side, can apply to the ICC for an approval for intervals of 30 minutes each. It is applicable for test matches.
➢ Terminology : The brief description of some of the terms is given below:
(i) Dolly catch : A very simple catch which is easily taken by a fielder.
(ii) Maiden over : A maiden over is that over in which the batsman is unable to make a run.
(iii) Hat trick : When a bowler takes three wickets on three consecutive balls, he is said to have scored a hat trick.
(iv) Extras : Runs not scored by the batsman but the runs through byes, leg byes, no-balls and wide balls. These runs are included in the scores of a team but not credited to the batsman.
(v) Rubber : In the series of international test matches, a team, who wins more matches than the other team, is called to have won the rubber.
(vi) Over : Series of valid deliveries (6 in England and 8 in Australia) made consecutively by one bowler from one end of the field before the bowling is taken up by another bowler at the other end.
(vii)Over pitch : To bowl the ball so that it bounces so far up the wicket that it can be played with ease by the batsman.
(viii) Seam : Slightly raised band of stitches round a cricket ball which enable bowlers to make it spin.
(ix) Sitter : An extremely easy catch.
(x) Skittle : To dismiss rapidly a side or a number of batsmen.
(xi) Spin : To twist the ball when bowling so that, on pitching it changes directions.
(xii) Sundry : Sundry means extra. This term is used in Australia.
(xiii) Sweep : It is stroke in which the ball is played behind the wicket on the leg side with a sweeping movement of the bat.
(xiv) No ball : A ball is called ‘no ball’ when either umpire considers that the bowler ’s delivery is not fair.
(xv) Gully : It is an offside fielding position between the slips and point.
(xvi) Bouncer : Ball pitched short by a fast bowler so that it rises sharply, often over the batsman’s head.
(xv) Sight screen : It is a large screen positioned on the boundary so that it forms a backdrop behind the bowler, so that the striker can see the ball clearly.