Students can refer to Striving For A Better Environment ICSE Class 10 notes and exam questions provided for ICSE students. This is an important chapter in ICSE commercial studies class 9. We have provided here questions and answers which are expected to come in the upcoming ICSE exams for class 10th. Prepared based on the latest examination pattern and guidelines issued by ICSE. You can also refer to ICSE Books in pdf available for the latest academic session.
ICSE Class 10 Commercial Studies Striving For A Better Environment Important Questions
Students should learn the important questions and answers given below for Chapter Definitions From Topo Maps in Commercial Studies for ICSE Class 10. These board questions are expected to come in the upcoming exams. Students of ICSE Class 10th should go through the Important questions and answers ICSE Class 10 Commercial Studies which will help them to get more marks in exams.
Board Exam Questions Striving For A Better Environment ICSE Class 10 Commercial Studies
Question: Write a short note on the Chipko Movement.
Ans. Chipko Andolan (Movement) : In the 1970 organised resistance to the destruction of forests spread throughout India. This came to be known as the Chipko Andolan (movement). The Chipko movement was led by a group of villagers in the Uttarakhand region. They opposed commercial logging The movement is known for its tactic of hugging trees to prevent them from being cut down by the contractor. Among the women who created the history in saving forests, the most prominent was Gauri Devi of Latu village. She led the first all-women action to save their community forest in March 1974. Her example was repeated by countless women who came to form the backbone of the Chipko movement. Another prominent leader of the Chipko movement was Sunderlal Bahuguna. He was a Gandhian activist whose appeal to Mrs. Indira Gandhi resulted in a ban on the felling of green trees. He undertook a 5000-kilometre trans-Himalaya Foot March (Padyatra) in 1981-83 to spread the Chipko message. Bahuguna coined the Chipko slogan : Ecology is permanent economy. Ghanshyam Raturi, a poet, wrote the following poem describing the method of embracing the trees to save them from felling ‘Embrance the trees and save them from being felled; The property of our hills, save them fro being looted.’
Question: What is environmental ethics ?
Ans. Ethics is concerned with the principles of right conduct. Ethics is the entire body of moral values and values are the language of ethics. Environmental values refer to the moral standards which people are expected to follow while interacting with nature and its resources.
Question: What is eco-efficiency ?
Ans. “Eco-efficiency is achieved through the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing environmental impacts of goods and resource intensity throughout the entire life-cycle to a level at least in line with the Earth’s estimated carrying capacity.”
Question: Explain the role of public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation.
Ans. People will conserve and restore natural resources only when they are sensitive to the environment and realise the importance of ecological balance. Environmental sensitivity in people can be created only through major public awareness programmes. Public must learn to act as a watchdog to protect its environment from deterioration and destruction. Wellinformed citizens and environmentalists have the duty to take the initiative in making the common man aware of the need for ecological restoration and conservation. Most of the local people in villages and indigenous tribes possess an intimate knowledge of nature and wildlife. Traditions, taboos and religious beliefs deeply rooted in native people have been an effective instrument of conserving nature and wildlife since time immemorial. Ancient traditions protect several plants such as Peepal and Banyan as well as birds, monkeys, snakes and animals. In fact, some people worship some trees, birds and animals. Milk is offered to snakes, bread is fed to cows and dogs, bananas are fed to monkeys, grains are fed to pigeons, flower is fed to ants as a matter of religious beliefs and rituals.
Question: What is nano-technology ?
Ans. Nano-technology is the development and use of devices that have a size of only a few nanometres. It offers better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer and smarter products. Nano-technology will offer higher efficiency in every facet of life.
Question: How can environmental values and ethics be protected ? Give reasons to support your answer.
Suggest measures to develop environmental values and ethich.
Ans. Environmental values can be inculcated in public through education and awareness. Along with moral values, significance of natural resources and the need for their conservation should be taught in schools and colleges. Environmental issues are, therefore, woven new into the entire curriculum rather than being an additional subject. However, environmental or other values cannot simply be taught through books, Example and disciplined practice are required. For example, when students observe their teacher caring for water, soil, energy, trees etc. they are likely to imibe the teacher’s behaviour. Environment value oriented education may consis of the following steps
(i) Develop suitable literature in the form of comics, slogans, charts and other child friendly materials.
(ii) Compile short stories having strong value components.
(iii) Develop literature on human values for teachers.
(iv) Develop audio and video programmers both for teachers and students.
(v) Design special literature for parents.
(vi) Develop syllabus of all subjects to inculcate right values.
(vii) Organise specific in-service courses and training programmes for teachers on value education.
(viii) Establish resource centres on value oriented education at state, regional and national levels.
(ix) Hold discussions on the negative impact of economic growth on environment.
(x) Create awareness among all so that everyone has a sacred duty to protect the environment.
Question: Discuss the concepts and role of eco-efficiency and eco-friendly technology.
Ans. Eco-efficiency is the efficiency achieved through the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and improve quality of life without spoiling the environment.
The role of Eco-efficient technology is as follows :
(i) Increase in resource productivity.
(ii) Reduction in the material and energy used.
(iii) Less dispersion of toxic materials (reduced pollution).
Eco-friendly technology is the technology that does not have a negative effect on ecology or natural environment.
The role of Eco-friendly technology is as follows :
(i) It involves reduction in the amount of raw material used.
(ii) It involves reduction in energy used, reducing pollution, recycling material, using renewable materials, ensuring that goods are durable
(iii) It involves judicious use of resources keeping the future in mind.
Question: Describe the principles of sustainable development.
Ans. The main principles of sustainable development are as follows :
(i) Respect and care for all forms of life.
(ii) Improve the quality of human life.
(iii) Minimise the depletion of human resources.
(iv) Conserve the earth’s vitality and diversity.
(v) Enable communities to care for their own environment.
(vi) Change personal attitude and practices towards the environment.
Question: Explain the significance of environmental values and ethics.
Ans. Environmental values refer to the moral standards which people are expected to follow while interacting with nature and its resources. For instance, we should not pollute air, water and soil in our daily activities. A factory owner is expected not to release untreated factory waste or effluents into local water bodies. Self-interest may create an ethical dilemma. For example, in order to treat factory waste some expenditure is necessary. If the factory owner does not want to incur such expenditure he faces the dilemma – saving cost versus facing public criticism. We have an obligation to conserve natural resources because future generations have an equal right to the limited resources of the planet. Moreover, justice requires that we handover to our children and grand children a world that is not worse than the one we received from our ancestors.
All human beings have a moral duty to protect and preserve the environment. This is known as environmental ethics or ecological ethics. It is based on the following beliefs:
(1) Humans have no right to reduce the richness and diversity of nature to expect for their essential needs.
(2) Human life can flourish in the long run only when non-human life is conserved.
(3) Besides human beings, all other things, living and non-living, are equally valuable.
(4) The human race cannot hope to prosper without providing adequate space for the growth of natural resources.
(5) In case the human beings continue to exploit natural resources indiscriminately, a day will come when people will have no clean air to breathe, no clean water to drink and no wholesome food to eat.
Question: Give two examples of efficient and eco-friendly technology.
Ans. (i) Efficient technology – computer and cell phone.
(ii) Eco-friendly technology – solar cookers and biogas plants.
Question: What is meant by ‘Sustainable Development?’ Explain any two examples of sustainable use of resources.
Explain any two examples of sustainable use of resources.
Ans. Sustainable development means the development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. For development to be sustainable, it must take into account social and ecological factors in addition to economical aspects of the living and non-living base both in the long run as well as the short term. Three main elements of sustainable development are well-being of the human society, well being of the environment, and sustainability over time. The two example of sustainable use of resources are as follows :
Sustainable Use of Water : The following steps can be taken for this purpose.
(i) Build many small reservoirs in place of a few big projects.
(ii) Encourage and improve traditional methods of rainwater harvesting and storage.
(iii) Use drip irrigation and other water conservation measures in agriculture.
Sustainable use of Energy : The steps needed for this purpose are as follows :
(i) Use alternative sources of fuel such as hydrogen, methanol, biogas, solar energy, etc.
(ii) Develop fuel efficient and smokeless chullahs.
(iii) Solar cooking does not burn any fuel and is the most eco-friendly option.
Question: What is meant by environmental conservation?
Ans. Conservation is the planned management of our surroundings to prevent its exploitation on destruction. It is the wise management of natural resources for present and future use. Conservation includes preservation, maintenance and sustainable utilisation of natural resources.
Question: Explain features of Environment (Protection) Act 1986.
Ans. (i) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government, shall have the power to take all such measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing controlling and abating environmental pollution
(ii) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), such measures may include measures with respect to all or any of the following matters, namely:
(i) co-ordination of actions by the State Governments, officers and other authorities—
(a) under this Act, or the rules made thereunder, or
(b) under any other law for the time being in force which is relatable to the objects of this Act; (ii) planning and execution of a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control and aba ement of environmental pollution;
(iii) The Central Government may, if it considers it necessary or expedient so to do for the purpose of this Act, by order, published in the Official Gazette, constitute an authority or authorities by such name or names as may be specified in the order for the purpose of exercising and performing such of the powers and functions.
(iv) Appointment of Officers and their Powers and Functions (i) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 3, the Central Government may appoint officers with such designation as it thinks fit for the purposes of this Act and may entrust to them such of the powers and functions under this Act as it may deem fit.
(v) Power to give Directions Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law but subject to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, in the exercise of its powers and performance of its functions under this Act, issue directions in writing to any person, officer or any authority and such person, officer or authority shall be bound to comply-with such directions.
(vi) Rules to Regulate Environmental Pollution
(i) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules in respect of all or any of the matters referred to in section 3.
(ii) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:–
(a) the standards of quality of air, water or soil for various areas and purposes;
(b) the maximum allowable limits of concentration of various environmental pollutants (including noise) for different areas;
(c) the procedures and safeguards for the handling of hazardous substances;
(vii) Persons Carrying on Industry Operation, tc., Not to Allow Emission or Discharge of Environmental Pollutants in Excess of the Standards No person carrying on any industry, operation or process shall discharge or emit or permit to be discharged or emitted any environmental pollutants in excess of such standards as may be prescribed.
(viii) Persons Handling Hazardous Substances to Comply with Procedural Safeguards. No person shall handle or cause to be handled any hazardous substance except in accordance with such procedure and after complying “The such safeguards as may be prescribed.
(ix) Furnishing of Information to Authorities and Agencies in Certain
Cases : Where the discharge of any environmental pollutant in excess of the prescribed standards occurs or is apprehended to occur due to any accident or other unforeseen act or event, the person responsible for such discharge and the person in charge of the place at which such discharge occurs or is apprehended to occur shall be bound to prevent or mitigate the environmental pollution caused as a result of such discharge and shall also forthwith–
(a) intimate the fact of such occurrence or apprehension of such occurrence; and
(b) be bound, if called upon, to render all assistance, to such authorities or agencies as may be prescribed.
(x) Powers of Entry and Inspection : Subject to the provisions of this section. any person empowered by the Central Government in this behalf shall have a right to enter at all reasonable times with such assistance as he considers necessary, any place—
(a) for the purpose of performing any of the functions of the Central Government entrusted to him;
(b) for the purpose of determining whether and if so in what manner, any such functions are to be performed or whether any provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder or any notice, order, direction or authorisation served, made, given or granted under this Act is being or has been complied with;
(xi) Power to Take Sample and Procedure to be followed in Connection
Therewith : The Central Government or any officer empowered by it in this behalf, shall have power to take, for the purpose of analysis, samples of air, water, soil or other substance from any factory, premises or other place in such manner as may be prescribed.
(xii) Environmental Laboratories : The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,-(a) establish one or more environmental laboratories; (b) recognise one or more laboratories or institutes as environmental laboratories to carry out the functions entrusted to an environmental laboratory under this Act
(xiii)Government Analysts : The Central Government may by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint or recognise such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Government Analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of air, water, soil or other substance sent for analysis to any environmental laboratory established or recognised.
(xiv) Reports of Government Analysts : Any document purporting to be a report signed by a Government analyst may be used as evidence of the fact stated therein in any proceeding under this Act.
(xv) Penalty for Contravention of the Provisions the Act and the Rules, Orders and Directions : Whoever fails to comply with or contravenes any of the provisions of this Act, or the rules made or orders or directions issued thereunder, shall, in respect of each such failure or contravention, be ,punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years with fine which ma extend to one lakh rupees, or with both,
(xvi) Offences by Companies : Where any offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was directly in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly: Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment provided in this Act, if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.
(xvii)Offences by Government Departments : Where an offence under this Act has been committed by any Department of Government, the Head of the Department shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly
Question: Explain the functions of Central Pollution Control Board.
Ans. Function of Central Pollution Centrol Board
(i) Air quality/pollution : CPCB runs nation-wide programs of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The network consists of 621 operating stations covering 262 cities/ towns in 29 states and 5 Union Territories of the country. The monitoring of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and wind direction, relative humidity (RH) and temperature were also integrated with the monitoring of air quality.
(ii) Water quality/pollution : Fresh water is a finite resource essential for use in agriculture, industry, propagation of wildlife and fisheries and for human existence. India is a riverine country. It has 14 major rivers, 44 medium rivers and 55 minor rivers besides numerous lakes, ponds and wells which are used as primary source of drinking water even without treatment. Most of rivers being fed by monsoon rain, which is limited to only three months of the year, run dry throughout the rest of the year often carrying wastewater discharges from industries or cities or towns endangering the quality of our scarce water resources.
(iii) Urban area programs (Ecocity Program) : CPCB programs for urban areas, also known as EcoCity Program comes under X Plan to improve environment through implementation of identified environment improvement projects in the selected towns and cities.
(iv) Municipal Solid Waste rules : Every municipal authority comes under the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 (MSW rules, 2000) and responsible for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid.
(v) Noise Pollution/Rules : According to S.O. 123 (E) by MoEF, various sources like industrial activity, construction activity, generator sets, loud speakers, public address systems, music systems, vehicular horns and other mechanical devices have deleterious effects on human health. CPCB has the responsibility to regulate and control noise producing and generating sources with the objective of maintaining the air quality standards.
(vi) Environmental Data Statistics : CPCB manages environmental data statistic in which air quality data and water quality data comes through. In the case of air quality data, it measures the level of SO2, NO2, RSPM and SPM. CPCB measure and maintains water quality data as well.
Question: What is biotechnology ?
Ans. Biotechnology means using living organisms or their products for commercial purposes. It is multidisciplinary with foundation in many fields including cell and molecular biology, physiology, immunology, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry and chemical engineering.
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