ICSE students should refer to Independence and Partition of India ICSE Class 10 History notes provided below. These revision notes have been prepared based on the latest ICSE Class 10 History Books for the current academic year. Revising notes prior to the exams is really important to get excellent marks in History Class 10 exams. Also, refer to ICSE Class 10 History solutions to understand all chapters properly.
ICSE Class 10 History and Civics Independence and Partition of India
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Independence and Partition of India in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the History and Civics exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year.
Independence and Partition of India ICSE Class 10 History
Know the Terms
➢ Separatist – A person who supports the separation of a particular group of people from a larger body on the basis of ethnicity, religion or gender.
➢ Surrender – Stop resisting to opponents and submit to their authority.
➢ Veto – A constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law making body.
➢ Interim – Provisional.
➢ Solemn – Sincere and dignified.
➢ Pledge – A promise to do or not to do something.
Know the Dates
➢ 1942 : Quit India Movement
➢ 1945 : The Wovell Plan
➢ 1946 : The Cabinet Mission
➢ 1947 : India gains independence
➢ 30th January 1948 : Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.
➢ 1949 : Completion of merger of Princely states in Indian Union.
➢ November 1949 : Formal inclusion of Hyderabad in India.
➢ 1954 : French possession became a part of Indian Union.
➢ 1961 : Liberation of Goa.
Know the Personalities
➢ Lord Wavell – The Viceroy of India who called a conference to give more power to the Indians.
➢ Clement Attlee – The Prime Minister of England.
➢ Lord Mountbatten – The Viceroy of India who devised the Plan of Partition of India.
➢ Jawaharlal Nehru – The first Prime Minister of India.
Developments Associated with Independence of India
(i) Partition of India
➢ In the Lahore Session of the Muslim League, in 1940, the demand of Pakistan emerged. The name Pakistan came from the beginning letters of Punjab, the Afghan Province, Kashmir and Sind and from Baluchistan was taken the last syllable.
➢ Jinnah clearly said that Hindus and Muslims are completely different in almost all aspects.
➢ The nationalist Muslims like Abul Kalam Azad still did not accept Jinnah’s views.
(ii) Wavell’s Proposals
➢ Unrest against the British was rising in India. War was coming to an end in Europe. At this time, the Viceroy Lord Wavell tried to find a solution to India’s problems and called for a conference at Shimla.
➢ Lord Wavell proposed:
• Viceroy’s Executive Council would consist of equal number of Hindus and Muslims. Only Commander-in-Chief and the Viceroy would be British.
• The Viceroy would still enjoy the veto power.
• Once the important political parties agree to the basics, a new Constitution would be set up.
• India, like other dominions, would have a British High Commissioner.
➢ The Congress and the Muslim League could not agree about who would have the right to send Muslims to the Executive Council.
• Again the Wavell Plan was talking about Dominion status, while the Congress demanded Purna Swaraj (complete Independence).
• So Simla Conference proved to be a failure.
(iii) Cabinet Mission
➢ The end of the 2nd World War, the continued unrest in India, and the Labour Party’s Mr. Attlee as the Prime Minister, all led to the sending of the Cabinet Mission to India.
➢ Lord Pethick-Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and Mr. Alexander formed the Cabinet Mission which arrived in Delhi in March 1946.
➢ Cabinet Mission rejected the demand for Pakistan arguing that:
• The Government of India, the postal services, and Armed Forces, all were setup as a whole, so it is very difficult to divide them.
• The two parts of Pakistan as demanded would be far apart. Setting up Pakistan would not solve the communal problem.
➢ The Cabinet Ministers came with proposals which they thought would satisfy the Congress and the Muslim League. They recommended:
➢ A federation of Princely states and British provinces. This would basically handle defence, foreign affairs and communications.
➢ It suggested setting up a three tier system, i.e., Provinces, Groups of regions, Federation.
➢ There would be three groups of places:
i. Group ‘A’ would include Bombay, United Provinces, Bihar, Orissa (Odisha), Central Provinces and Madras.
ii. Group ‘B’ would include Punjab, Sind and NWFP.
iii. Group ‘C’ would include mainly of Bengal and Assam.
➢ A constituent Assembly would be elected representing the full federation which would initially meet to draft the Constitution of the federation. Then it would divide in to 3 and work out Constitutions for the provinces and determine whether a Constitution was required for the ‘Groups’.
➢ Setting up of an Interim Government was also suggested.
➢ India, according to the cabinet Mission Plan, was given the option of remaining in the Commonwealth or leaving it.
➢ The Muslim League liked the regional grouping of provinces, even though initially they were upset because of the rejection of their demand for Pakistan.
➢ The Congress was not happy when told about compulsory grouping of province. But it was happy when reassured about the freedom of the Constituent Assembly to draft the Constitution.
➢ The fact that this plan would not divide India also pleased them.
➢ The Congress refused to let only the Muslim League send Muslim representatives to the Executive Council.
➢ The Sikhs were not happy as Punjab was in group B. The two groups of Scheduled Castes reacted differently. The group led by Jagjivan Ram supported the Congress. While the other group led by Dr. Ambedkar was not happy, as only one seat was meant for the Scheduled Castes.
➢ The result of the election to the Constituent Assembly showed a overwhelming majority of the Congress.
(vi) Interim Government
➢ Jawaharlal Nehru formed the Government on 2nd September 1946 as Vice President of the Interim Government.
➢ The Muslim League declared 16th August 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’. This resulted into widespread communal rioting in different parts of India.
➢ 2nd September 1946, when the Interim Government was sworn in, was declared as ‘Day of Mourning’ when Muslims demonstrated with black flags.
➢ In the end of October 1946, the Muslim League representatives joined the Interim Government and openly challenged the Congress in every way.
➢ In February 1947, Prime Minister Attlee announced that the British would leave India latest by 30th June 1948.
➢ He also announced that if the Muslim League did not join the Constituent Assembly, the British would decide whom to hand over the power- “whether as a whole to some form of Central Government or in some areas to the existing Provincial Government.”
➢ Communal riots became more intense as the future was at the moment uncertain, the Muslim League called very strongly for the Partition of India.
Lord Mountbatten’s Plan and Indian Independence Act, 1947
(i) Lord Mountbatten
➢ Lord Mountbatten took over as Viceroy and soon realised that partition was the only solution. On this basis, he announced his plan.
➢ The Mountbatten Plan recommended :
• Partition of Sind, Bengal and Punjab to be based on the decision of their Legislative Assemblies.
• There would be a referendum in NWFP and in part of Sylhet where there was Muslim majority.
• The princely states were given freedom to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent.
• A Boundary Commission would be set up to mark out boundaries where and when required.
• Freedom was to be given to India and Pakistan to join the British Commonwealth or not.
• The Plan also indicated that the transfer of power would be in 1947 and not in mid 1948, as it was earlier declared.
➢ The Muslim League was very happy as its demand for Pakistan had been listened to.
➢ The Congress accepted the Plan :
• As the British were finally leaving — if they did not accept the Plan, there was a chance of the British continuing to rule for many more years.
• The Congress was worried about the communal riots. Also, the British were now instigating the Princes to remain independent. All this could lead to a civil war.
• Working in the Interim Government with the Muslim League had made the Congress realize that it was not possible to administer along with the Muslim League as they were ought to obstruct the working instead of finding viable solution to the problems.
• The Congress also felt that Partition and forming our own Constitution would leave India with a strong centre to properly administer our country. At the same time, we could get rid of all divisive factors like separate electorates.
➢ The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 15th July, 1947.
(ii) Indian Independence Act
➢ This Indian Independence Act created two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
• Pakistan to be made up of West Punjab, Sind, NWFP, Sylhet, East Bengal and Baluchistan.
• The princely states were independent and could decide their own future.
• The Army and other administrative services, the assets and liabilities of India, would be divided.
• The position of the Secretary of State would be abolished. It would be ensured that the position of the existing officers would be safeguarded.
• The Constituent Assemblies of the two dominions were, at that moment to function as the Central Legislatures.
• A Governor General, who would be working as a constitutional head, with the advice of the council of ministers, would head both the dominions.
• The Governor General was given the power to implement this Act of Independence.
➢ Lord Mountbatten continued as the Governor General of the dominion of India on the 15th August 1947. Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the Governor General of the dominion of Pakistan.