ICSE students should refer to Rise of Dictatorships ICSE Class 10 History notes provided below. These revision notes have been prepared based on the latest ICSE Class 10 History Books for the current academic year. Revising notes prior to the exams is really important to get excellent marks in History Class 10 exams. Also, refer to ICSE Class 10 History solutions to understand all chapters properly.
ICSE Class 10 History and Civics Rise of Dictatorships of Independence 1857
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Rise of Dictatorships in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the History and Civics exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year.
Rise of Dictatorships ICSE Class 10 History
(i) Cause of Rise Of Fascism
➢ After the First World War, various European countries found themselves financially ruined, not having enough resources to bring about economic recovery. Unemployment was present everywhere.
➢ The democratic form of government was tried out in some parts of Europe during the early part of the twentieth century, but this was unable to dead effectively with the post war situation. The weak governments formed at that time could not deal with the situation.
➢ Feudal and Aristocrats were disturbed with the democratic government as they had lost most of their power, while the common people were upset as the financial crisis and unemployment were not getting solved by these democratic governments. This class conflict helped dictators who were often supported by the upper class.
➢ The peace treaties signed at the end of the First World War had left countries dissatisfied.
➢ Frustrated, the people started turning towards totalitarian ideas and authoritarian regimes.
➢ It was at this time that some people got the masses believing that if they were given dictatorial powers, they would solve the problems quickly. They wanted to form powerful governments which would do away with unrest.
➢ Thus, Fascism took hold in Russia, Italy and Germany.
Meaning of Fascism
➢ Fascism originates from the Latin word ‘fasces’, which means ‘a bundle of sticks tied together’. In ancient times carrying sticks by the Roman Emperor was a symbol of the dictatorial authority of the state and Emperor.
Principles of Fascism
(a) Fascism was a supporter of one party and one leader.
(b) Opposition was not tolerated in Fascism.
(c) The leader of the party was the Almighty and no one was allowed to challenge his authority. He was above law.
(d) Fascism believed that the interests of the state were superior to the rights of the people.
(e) Fascism believed in enhancing the power and reputation of the state, stressed greatly on nationalism.
(f) Fascism supported imperialistic, aggressive policy so as to make the country strong and gain powerful reputation in the international sphere.
Fascism in Italy
(a) The Fascist Party was formed in Italy in 1922 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. It attracted people from all section of the society. They wore a black uniform and were known as Black Shirts.
(b) Mussolini declared himself Duce-leader and stated a reign of terror.
(c) The communists and the trade unionists were arrested, imprisoned and some of them were even executed.
(d) Mussolini set up a ‘National Council of Corporations’ and became the head of the Ministry of Corporation Rules were made about wages, conditions of work, etc. Elementary education was made compulsory. Prices came down. Italy become a world power.
(e) At the same time, Italians were denied even basic human rights, They had no freedom of speech. The capitalists earned huge profits, but the peasants led a very miserable life.
(f) Mussolini started to dream of setting up a world empire. Military strength and armaments were increased. Italy conquered Abyssinia and was condemned by the League of Nations.
(g) War was used to divert attention from internal unrest and economic insecurity.
(h) Mussolini formed an alliance in 1939 with Germany to fight against the Allies.
Nazism in Germany
➢ The National Socialist Party (Nazi) under Hitler, appealed to the German national pride hurt by the Treaty of Versailles and attracted the Germans, specially the youth. Its members wore Brown Shirts.
(a) After the abdication of Kaiser William II and their defeat in the First World War, a Democratic Republic was set up in Germany which could not formulate solutions to the many problems which surrounded the country.
(b) People were also upset with the Weimar Republic because, it had signed the humiliating Treaty of Versailles and they wanted to re-establish their old reputation.
(c) After the First World War, many soldiers became unemployed. There was an economic slump in Europe which effected Germany also. The Republic failed to solve this severe economic problem.
(d) Inspired by the Russian Revolution, the German Communists tried to bring about a revolution in Germany.
(e) There were political parties in Germany each tried to out the other which weakened the German Republic.
(f) The German were upset with the resulting political instability. The democratic government looked weak and ineffective.
(g) It was expected to deal with all those problems that the Germans turned to the disciplined Nazis.
(h) The National Socialist Party or the Nazi Party soon became very popular attracting both the working class in the name of socialists and the capitalists.
(i) The youth and the freikorps (ex-army officers) were attracted to the Nazi Party which had its own Army which was divided into two parts.
(j) People’s Observer or Guardian, a newspaper and the book ‘Mein Kampf’ helped spread Nazism. Mein Kampf written by Hitler contains the principles, aims, plans and programmes of the Nazis.
(iv) Features or Principles of Nazism
(a) Nationalism– Nazism believed that the state is above all. National interest demanded sacrifice from all classes of people to make Germany a great nation.
(b) All powers should be with the state and parliamentary institutions should control education, press and radio.
(c) Hitler believed that the interests and rights of the individuals were subordinate to the interests of the state.
(d) Nazism wanted to crush opposition, remove communism, to make efforts to develop agriculture and industry.
(e) They looked down at Jews as a cause of economic hardship of the people and wanted to throw them out of Germany. Betrayal by Jews during the First World War, they believed, had made Germany lose the war.
Hitler, in fact, believed that the Aryans were the most superior race in the world and that only the Germans were pure Aryans.
(f) Nazis denounced the Treaty of Versailles and wanted to regain power. Hitler believed that a nation becomes great by defeating other nations.
(v) Rise of Nazism
(a) In January 1933, Hitler was appointed the Chancellor (the Prime Minister) and he started to dream of becoming a dictator.
(b) Hitler dissolved the Reichstag (Parliament) set up according to the Weimar Constitution and ordered fresh elections. At this time, the Nazi volunteers (S.A.) used violence to crush the opposition.
(c) As the Nazis still did not get complete majority, Hitler passed, by the terrorizing members, the enabling law, which would allow the government to make laws without the approval of the Reichstag. When the German President died, Hitler became both the President and the Chancellor, assuming the title of Fuhrer or sole leader in 1934.
(vi) Germany under the Nazis.
(a) Hitler set up a strong Central Government with all the powers concentrated in his hands. The leaders of the opposition were either assassinated or imprisoned.
(b) Germany was a police state with a network of spies. Radio, newspapers, magazines were controlled through this autocracy, Hitler brought about national unity in Germany.
(c) Jews were deprived of German citizenship, removed from government services, prohibited from practicing most professions in the beginning. Later, plans were executed to exterminate the Jews. Their shops and houses were looted, Jews were sent to concentration camps. Many Jews were killed.
(d) The economic life of Germany was organized so as to remove unemployment and also become self-sufficient.
Workers were given facilities, but not the right to strike.
(e) Education was given according to the principles of Nazism.
(f) Churches were controlled. All protesters were sent to concentration camps.
(g) Militarism was spread and compulsory military services were started, Ships, aeroplanes and other war materials were produced, Treaty of Versailles was denounced and violated.
(h) Hitler reclaimed Saar from France, German troops re-entered the Rhineland.
(i) Hitler made treaties with Italy and Japan against communist, helped Franco (along with Mussolini) to become dictator in Spain.
(j) Germany joined Italy and Japan in an alliance known as Berlin-Rome – Tokyo Axis and annexed Austria by force. Hitler conquered one country after another–Denmark, Norway, Luxemberg and Belgium. Hitler came up with phrases ‘Encirclement’. Lebensraum (living space) in order to cover up his aggression.
(k) Germany launched an offensive act against Russia which was repulsed.
(l) Hitler succeeded in occupying a part of Czechoslovakia in 1938.
(m) In the beginning, the big powers of Europe were hesitant to get involved in another war. But, when in September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, Britain and France gave an ultimatum to Germany.
(vii) Comparison of Fascism and Nazism
(a) Hitler and Mussolini both were against democracy and crushed opposition. They both believed in one party-one man rule.
(b) Fascism and Nazism both believed in aggressive nationalism and imperialistic policies.
(c) Nazis were anti-Jews. Later, Mussolini also adopted an anti-Jew policy.
(d) Both were against Communism.
(e) Both were savagely brutal.
Know the terms
1. Mein Kampf : Name of the book written by Hitler.
2. Buchenwald Oswiecim Da Chan : Death camps in Germany where mass killing was conducted.
3. Reichstag : The Parliament building in Germany which was set on fire by the Nazis.
Know the Dates
➢ 1921 : Electrons in Italy, Hitler founded the Nazi Party.
➢ 28th October 1922 : Mussolini organized a march in Rome.
➢ 29th October 1922 : Mussolini was invited by the King of Italy to join the Government.
➢ 30th January 1933 : Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany. He formed the Nazi Government in Germany.
Know the Personalities
1. Benito Mussolini : The Fascist leader belonging to Italy.
2. Adolf Hitler : The Nazi leader of Germany