Please refer to Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Softball notes provided below. These revision notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern for ICSE Class 10 Physical Education issued for the current academic year. Students should always revise these revision notes prior to their exams to properly prepare and understand all topics. After reading these notes also refer to Sample Papers for Class 10 ICSE Physical Education
ICSE Class 10 Physical Education Softball Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Softball in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Physical Education exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Physical Education provided on our website.
Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Softball Notes
➢ Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Softball History
Softball came into existence in Chicago, Illinois, in 1887; thanks to George Hancock. The very first game took off using a rolled up boxing glove as a ball and broomstick as a bat. This first contest ended with a score of 44-40. The ball being soft, was fielded bare-handed. Earlier the game was called by several names such as ‘Kitten ball’, ‘Lemon ball’, ‘Diamond ball’ etc. In 1932 the name of the game was finally adopted as ‘Softball’. The official rules were published by the Joint Rules Committee appointed in 1934. The First Softball World Championship for women was held in 1965 in Melbourne, Australia and for men in Mexico city. In India, Softball was introduced by YMCA. The Softball Association of India was formed in 1961 and the First National Championship for men and women was organized at Jodhpur in 1967.
➢ Players and their Positions
There are nine players out on the field at one time. Although the pitcher and catcher have the ball the most, each person has a specific job. In the infield, there is the pitcher, catcher, first baseman, second baseman, shortstop and third baseman. In the outfield, there is left fielder, centre fielder and right fielder. In slow pitch softball, there is an extra outfielder in the out field, who is specified as roamer. Normally, the defensive team will play with four outfielders, meaning there is a left fielder, left-centre fielder, right-centre fielder, and right fielder.
The pitcher is the individual who throws the ball from the centre of the diamond or the pitcher ’s mound. In baseball, the mound is elevated, but in softball the mound is not elevated. The pitcher usually throws the ball in the strike zone. In softball, the pitcher uses an underarm motion to pitch the ball towards the strike zone. As soon as the pitcher makes a throw, the fielders are ready to field balls that are hit in the middle of the diamond.
➢ Second Baseman
The second baseman plays in-between the first baseman and the gap at second. If the ball is hit to the left side of the field, second covers second base. If the ball is hit on their side of the field, they back up the fielder, cover first, or field the ball depending on where it is hit. The second baseman also is the cut off on balls hit to the right side of the outfield. The second baseman also throws directly to the catcher to prevent runner from scoring.
The shortstop fields all balls hit to the infield between the second and third bases. This individual also helps cover second base and is frequently involved in force plays, double plays and frequently throws the ball to the catcher to throw out runners at home plate. Most shortstops are very quick, agile and think fast.
The catcher is always behind the hitter in semi-crouched position at home plate. The catcher recovers pitches from the pitcher. The catcher also throws balls to other bases to throw out runners. At home plate, the catcher is responsible for making all the outs. In most games, catchers provide a visual or finger clue as to what the next pitch should be. Catchers are usually very strong, agile, think fast and possess fast reflexes.
➢ First Baseman
The first baseman is the position to the left of the first base. The major role of the first baseman is to make fielding plays on all balls hit towards first base. The first baseman also helps prevent steals from first to second base. The first base is usually involved in every hit that occurs on the playing field. Individuals at first base have quick hands and are always on the lookout to catch the player off base.
➢ Third Baseman
The third baseman covers all hits to the third base and receives balls from the outfield . The third base person also frequently throws the ball to the catcher trying to run out the runner at home plate. The individual at third base usually thinks fast because of the types of hits that commonly occur in that zone. Quick thinking can often stop runners scoring or can result in double plays.
The outfielders are players that cover the grass behind the infield and usually backup the plays made by the infielders and make plays when the ball is hit past or over the infield. All the throwers need to have good throwing arm but especially outfielders because their position is of much larger range. They also have specific names usually called right fielder, centre fielder and left fielder.
➢ Substitution of Players
A player shall be official in the game when his name has been entered and the official has been announced. A substitute may take place of a player whose name is in his team’s batting order. The following will govern the substitution of players.
(i)The captain of the team making the substitution must immediately notify the umpire who will suspend play and announce the change to the spectators and captain of the other team.
(ii)Substitute players will be considered in the game as follows :
(a) Batter, when he takes his place in the batter ’s box.
(b) Fielder, when he takes the place of the fielder substituted for.
(c) Runner, when the substitute replaces him on base he is holding.
(d) Pitcher, when he takes his place on the pitcher ’s plate.
(iii) Each pitcher whose name has been entered on the score sheet, who has been announced, must pitch untill the batter facing him has completed his turn at bat or the side has been retired. Any other player may be removed from the game at any time.
(iv) Whether announced or unannounced, any play made by or on the substitute player shall be legal. A player removed from the game shall not participate in the game again except as a Coach.
➢ Regulation Game
A regulation game shall consist of seven innings.
(i) A full seven innings need not be played if the team second at bat scores more runs in six innings or before the third out in the last of the seventh inning,
(ii) A game that is tied at the end of seven innings shall be continued by playing additional innings, or until one side has scored more runs than the other at the end of a complete inning, or until the team second at bat has scored more runs in their half of the inning before the third out is made.
(iii) A game called by the umpire shall be regulation if five or more complete innings have been played, or if the team second at bat has scored more runs than the other team has scored in five or more innings. The umpire is empowered to call a game at any time because of darkness, rain, fire, panic or other cause, which puts the patrons or players in peril.
(iv) A regulation game shall be declared tie if the score is equal when the game is called at the end of five or more completed innings, or if the team second at bat has equalled the score of the first team at bat in the incomplete innings.
(v) These provisions do not apply to any acts on the part of players or spectators, which might call for forfeiture of the game. The plate umpire may forfeit the game if any team member or spectator attacks any umpire physically.
➢ The Playing Field
It is the area within which the ball may be legally played and fielded. It shall have a clear and unobstructed area within the minimum radius of 67.06 m and 76.20 m for women and men respectively from home plate between foul lines. It shall have an unobstructed area, not less than 7.62 m and not more than 9.14 m in width outside the foul lines and between home plate and the backstop. It should have a warning track. It may be 3.65 m to 4.57 m from the outfield or side fence.
➢ Equipment Bat
(i) It shall be made of one piece of hard wood or formed from a block of wood consisting of two or more, pieces of wood, bounded together with an adhesive and have a clear finish.
(ii) It can be laminated but must contain only wood or adhesive and have a clear finish.
(iii) It shall be round and smooth.
(iv) It shall not be more than 86.4 cm long nor exceed 1077.0 gm in weight.
(v) It shall not be more than 5.7 cm in diameter at its largest part.
(vi) If it is made of metal, it may be angular.
(vii) It shall not have any sharp edges.
(viii) If it is made of metal, it shall not have wooden handle.
(i) It shall be regular, smooth, seamed, concealed, stitched or flat surfaced ball.
(ii) The circumference of the ball shall be between 30.2 cm and 30.8 cm and its weight shall be between 178 gm and 198.4 gm.
(iii) The flat seam style shall not have less than 88 stitches in each cover.
All defensive players wear fielding gloves, made of leather or similar material. Gloves have webbing between the thumb and forefinger, known as the “pocket”. The first baseman and the catcher may wear mitts; mitts are distinguished from gloves in that they have extra padding and no fingers. In 2007, ASA and other organizations revised their rules regarding gloves and mitts, allowing any player to use a glove or mitt. No part of the glove is allowed to be the same colour as that of the ball, including that of its seams. Gloves used in Softball are generally larger than the ones used in baseball.
➢ Duties of the Plate Umpire
(i) Shall take a position in back of the catcher. He shall have full charge of and be responsible for the proper conduct of the game.
(ii) Shall call all balls and strikes.
(iii) Shall, by agreement and in cooperation with the base umpire, call plays, hit balls, fair or foul, legally or illegally caught balls. On plays that would necessitate the base umpire leaving the infield, the plate umpire shall assume the duties normally required of the base umpire.
(iv) Shall determine and declare whether
(a) A batter bunts, or chops, a ball.
(b) A batted ball touches the person,tor clothing of the batter.
(v) Shall render base decisions when required to do so.
(vi) Shall determine when a game is forfeited.
(vii) Shall assume all duties, when assigned as a single umpire to a game.
(i) To indicate that play shall begin, or be resumed; the umpire shall call “PLAY BALL” and at the same time, motion the pitcher to deliver the ball
(ii) A STRIKE shall be indicated by raising the right hand upward, indicating the number of strikes by the fingers and, at the same, time calling ‘STRIKE’ in a clear and decisive voice.
(iii) To indicate a BALL, no arm signal is used.
(iv) To indicate the total COUNT of balls and strikes, the balls are called first.
(v) To indicate a FOUL, the umpire shall call ‘FOUL BALL’ and extend an arm horizontally away from the diamond, according to the direction of the ball.
(vi) To indicate a FAIR BALL, the umpire shall extend an arm toward the centre of the diamond, using a pumping motion
(vii) To indicate a batter or runner OUT, the umpire shall raise the right hand upward above the right shoulder, with fist closed.
(viii) To indicate that a player is SAFE, the umpire shall extend both arms horizontally to the side of the body, with palms towards the ground.
➢ Winner of the Game
The winner of the game shall be the team that scores more runs in a regulation game.
(i) The score of a game called regulation shall be the score at the end of the last complete inning, unless the team second at bat has scored more runs than the first team at bat in the incomplete inning. In this case, the score shall be that of the incomplete inning.
(ii) The score of a regulation tie game shall be the tie score when the game was terminated. A regulation tie game shall be replayed from the beginning.
(iii) The score of a forfeited game shall be 7-0 in favour of the team not at fault.
➢ Ball in Play (Physical Education Class 10 ICSE Softball)
The ball is considered in play in the following circumstances:
(i) When a fly ball or foul tip has been legally caught.
(ii) When a thrown or pitched ball goes into foul territory and is neither blocked nor obstructed.
(iii) When a thrown or pitched ball strikes an umpire.
(iv) When a thrown ball strikes an umpire or base runner on fair ground after passing or touching a fielder.
(v) When the thrown ball goes behind a fielder and remains in unfair territory.
(vi) When a fair ball strikes an umpire on a foul ground.
(vii) When a fair ball is legally batted.
(viii) When a base runner is forced to return in reverse order while the ball is in play.
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