Students should refer to Agriculture III and IV ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.
ICSE Class 10 Geography Agriculture III and IV [Cash Crops (1) and (2) ] Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Agriculture III and IV [Cash Crops (1) and (2) ] in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.
Agriculture III and IV [Cash Crops (1) and (2) ] ICSE Class 10 Geography
Agriculture III and IV ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes
Cash Crops-Sugarcane and Oilseeds
➢ Cash crops are those crops which are basically grown for sale and not for the use of the farmers and his family. E.g. Tea, Sugarcane, etc.
➢ The cash crops provide raw material to agro-based industries and support the farmers financially to improve their living conditions and their farming practices.
➢ The main cash crops are- Sugarcane, oilseeds, tea, coffee, cotton, jute, tobacco and rubber.
➢ Sugarcane :
(i) It belongs to grass family and grows to a height of more than 3.5 m.
(ii) The sugar in the sugarcane plant is stored in the stem.
(iii) Sugarcane is the main source of sugar, gur and khandsari.
(iv) The sugar cane yield per hectare is higher in south due to the tropical climate of Peninsular India and long crushing season of about 8 months.
(v) Climatic conditions required for sugarcane are :
1. Temperature- Grows best in areas with temperature between 20°C and 24°C.
2. Frosts are dangerous and injurious for sugarcane crop.
3. During ripening and harvesting period dry cool winter season is necessary.
4. It requires 100 cm-150 cm of rainfall throughout the year.
5. Areas of low rainfall need irrigation.
6. The crop grows well in well drained rich alluvial, heavy loam or lava soil.
7. It is also grown on black soil, reddish loam and laterite soil in the Peninsular region.
8. Sugarcane is soil-exhausting crop and thus needs fertilizers, manures and good irrigation facilities.
(vi) Methods of Cultivation :
1. Sowing- Sugarcane is a labour intensive crop.
Sugarcane is planted by the following methods :
(a) Sett Method :
(i) In this method new canes are planted by taking cuttings from old sugarcane plants.
(ii) These cuttings are called Setts from which buds sprout to form new stalks after a few days.
(iii) From these cuttings 4 to 5 stalks grow.
(iv) A sugarcane plant takes 8 months to mature.
(b) Ratooning Method :
(i) It is a method in which during harvesting of sugarcane plant, the roots and the lower parts of the plant are left uncut to give the ratoon or the subtle crop.
(ii) The successive crops that grow from the left out subtle is called the Ratoon.
(iii) Sugarcane keeps producing for two to three years and with each successive year the production is lesser than the previous year.
(iv) Advantages of Ratooning :
1. It saves labour as the crop need not be planted again.
2. This method is inexpensive as no preparation of the field is required .
3. The ratoon matures early.
(v) Disadvantages of Ratooning :
1. Ratoons produce low quality crop as with successive year the canes are thinner with low sucrose content.
2. There is high risk of pests and diseases.
(c) By Seeds :
(i) Sugarcane was grown by sowing seeds but now this method is obsolete.
(ii) It is planted in furrows and covered with soil.
(iii) It is grown as a mixed crop in some states of India.
2. Harvesting :
(i) Sugarcane is harvested when the crop matures in 10-12 months.
(ii) It is done before the cane begins to flower.
(iii) The sugarcane harvesting season begins in October-November and ends in April.
(iv) Harvesting is done manually by hand knives, cutting blades or hand axes.
(v) It requires skilled labourers as the stalks must be cut very close to the ground level because the maximum sucrose content is in the bottom of the stem.
3. Processing :
1. After harvesting the canes are taken to the sugar mills as soon as possible so that they can be processed within 48 hours of cutting to preserve the sucrose content.
2. In the mills the canes are crushed between the rollers to extract a large part of the juice.
3. To remove the soluble and insoluble impurities, the juice is boiled with lime.
4. The non-sugar impurities are removed by continuous filtration.
5. Then the juice is concentrated by removing the water through vacuum evaporation.
6. Crystallization takes place and forms raw brown sugar.
7. The by-products of sugarcane are Bagasse, Molasses and Press-mud.
8. In India, two thirds of the sugar produced is used by the gur and khandsari industries.
➢ Problems of Sugarcane Cultivation :
(i) Sugarcane is a soil-exhausting crop and thus need good amount of fertilizers which increases the cost of production.
(ii) In India the yield per hectare is extremely low as compared to other countries of the world.
(iii) Sugarcane has a short crushing season normally from 4 to 7 months in a year which results in financial problems for the industry as the mills and the workers remain idle.
(iv) The location of sugar mills are far from the fields, thus, a delay of more than 24 hours results in the reduction of sucrose content in the canes.
(v) Sugarcane is an annual crop but the land available for sugarcane is less as compared to other crops, thus, the farmers are unable to cultivate any other crop.
(vi) The production cost of sugarcane in India is the highest in the world due to uneconomic process of production, inefficient technology and heavy excise duty.
(vii) Small and uneconomic size of mills.
(viii) Old and obsolete machinery are used in most of the Indian sugar mills and needs rehabilitation.
(ix) Sugar industry is facing competition with gur and khandsari since Khandsari industry is free from excise duty and can offer higher prices of cane to the cane growers.
(x) Sugarcane cultivation needs good amount of water but lacks irrigation facilities.
(xi) The government has fixed prices for the sugarcane farmers which is not profitable for them.
➢ Role of Government in Solving Farmer’s Problems :
(i) To set up a number of Cooperative Societies.
(ii) To develop various means of irrigation to provide regular supply of water to the sugarcane fields.
(iii) To provide adequate and timely loans to farmers on easy terms so that they can buy farm machinery and other agricultural items.
(iv) To educate farmers with latest farming techniques and help farmers through specially developed programmes on radio and television.
➢ Oilseeds :
(i) India produces a wide variety of oilseeds.
(ii) India has the largest area and production of oilseeds in the world and are a great source of foreign exchange.
(iii) The principal oilseeds are- groundnut, linseed, castor, sesamum, soyabean, cotton seeds, sunflower, rapeseed, mustard, etc.
(iv) All these oilseeds are used for different purposes like they are used for cooking, as industrial raw materials in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, hydrogenated oil, soaps and lubricants.
(v) Linseed oil and Castor oil are the two non-edible oilseeds.
(vi) Groundnut is the leading oilseed followed by rapeseed and mustard.
(vii) After the extraction of oil from the oilseeds the residue left is known as the Oilcake.
(viii) Oilcake is used as animal fodder and is also used as good manure in the farms.
(ix) India is one of the largest producers of groundnuts in the world.
➢ Groundnut :
(i) Groundnut is a Kharif crop in most parts of India except Odisha and the Southern states where it is a Rabi crop.
(ii) It is mainly used for the manufacture of hydrogenated oil and is used in making margarine, soap, medicines, cooking oil, etc.
(iii) It is eaten raw, roasted and salted.
(iv) Its oilcake is used as cattle fodder.
(v) There are two types of Groundnut Plants :
1. The Runner Type
2. The Bunch Type
(vi) Climatic conditions-
1. Temperature- 20°C to 25°C
2. Rainfall- Between 50 cm-100 cm
3. Black soil, sandy loams and loamy soil are ideal for the crop.
4. The crop is highly susceptible to frost.
(vii) Methods of Cultivation-
1. After ploughing the seeds are sown by scattered or broadcasting or drilling method.
2. In most part of India the seeds are sown in the month of June or July but in South it is sown in the month of February and March.
3. The seeds are placed at 5-6 cm depth in the soil.
4. Adequate water in the top 60 cm of layer of soil is important for high yield and good quality of groundnut seeds.
5. Weeds cause damage to the crop so mechanically and chemically it is controlled.
6. The mature fruits have wrinkled shells with one to four seeds per pod.
1. The crop should be harvested at the right time for obtaining higher yields of pods and oil.
2. To facilitate easy harvesting, irrigation before harvesting is ideal which make the soil loose.
3. The groundnut plant along with roots is uprooted from the soil by hand or by machine.
4. After the peanuts dry sufficiently, they are threshed, removing the peanut pods from the rest of the bush.
5. The groundnuts are then packed and sent for processing either to mills or to the market for trading.
(viii) India is the second largest producer of groundnut in the world.
(ix) It is widely grown in Peninsular India, Telangana and Tamil Nadu, being the largest producers in the country.
(x) In India, Gujarat is the leading producer of groundnuts followed by Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
➢ Mustard :
(i) Mustard is edible oil and one of the most important oilseeds produced in India.
(ii) Mustard grows well in temperate regions thus it is widely grown in Northern India in states like Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.
(iii) It is a Rabi crop and is also grown mixed with wheat, gram and barley.
(iii) In North it is mainly used for cooking and the oilcake is used as animal fodder.
(iv) The leaves of the mustard are eaten as vegetable in North and is also used as a manure.
(v) Mustard grows well in cool climatic conditions and is widely grown along the Ganga-Sutlej plains.
(vi) Climatic conditions :
1. Temperature- 10°C to 20°C
2. Rainfall- 25 cm to 40 cm.
3. Soil- Alluvial loam is the best soil and even it grows in sandy to heavy clay soils.
(vii) Methods of Cultivation :
1. The crop is grown in the winter season.
2. It is grown with wheat, gram and barley in rows.
3. It is sown by broadcasting or drilling method.
4. Harvesting is to be carried out as soon as the pods begins to turn yellow and the seed becomes hard.
5. Sickle is used to cut the mustard plants.
6. The plants are tied and kept for 5 to 6 days to dry.
7. Threshing is carried out with a stick and Winnowing is done to separate the grain from the husk.
(viii) It is extensively found in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Gujarat and Jammu and Kashmir.
➢ Soyabean :
(i) Soyabean is grown as a Kharif crop in India.
(ii) It is high in protein and is in great demand.
(iii) It is considered to be a substitute for animal protein.
(iv) It is consumed as soya milk or tofu (cheese).
(v) Climatic Conditions :
1. Temperature- 13°C to 24°C
2. Rainfall- 40 cm to 60 cm
3. Soil- Moist alluvial soil and friable loamy acidic soils but grows best on sandy loam having good organic matter.
(vi) Methods of Cultivation :
1. Soyabean is sown in 40 to 50 cm apart through drilling method.
2. Irrigation is not required and is grown rainfed.
3. At the time sowing one deep ploughing and two harrowings should be given to maintain optimum moisture.
4. Harvesting is carried out in mid- October as usual by threshing machine.
(vii) Soyabean is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
Know the terms
➢ Cash Crop s: Cash crops are those crops which are basically grown for sale and not for the use of the farmers and his family. e.g., Tea, Sugarcane, etc.
➢ Soil-exhausting Crop : Soil that loses the nutrients due to the farming of the same crop over and over again.
➢ Setts : When new canes are planted by taking cuttings from old sugarcane plants then these cuttings are called Setts from which buds sprout to form new stalks after a few days.
➢ Ratoon : A new shoot that grows from near the root or crown of crop plants after the old plant has been cut e.g. sugarcane.
➢ Crystallization : A process that separates a pure solid in the form of its crystals from a solution.
➢ Bagasse : The dry fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of juice from the crushed stalks of sugarcane. They are used in manufacturing pulp and as biofuel. It is a by-product of sugarcane.
➢ Molasses : It is a viscous by-product of refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. It is used for making yeast, chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
➢ Press-mud : It is the organic solid waste and the sugar mill effluent- the liquid waste of sugar mill which is converted into nutrient rich and good quality organic manure. It is used as fertilizer.
➢ Hydrogenated oil : It is oil with trans-fatty acids that has been chemically changed from a room-temperature liquid state into a solid.
➢ Oilcake : The residue that is left after the extraction of oil from the oilseeds.
➢ Weeds : Wild or unwanted plants that grow around the main plant and absorbs the nutrients of the main plant.
➢ Harrowing : An agricultural implement with spikelike teeth or upright disks drawn chiefly over plowed land to level it, root up weeds, etc.
Cash Crops- Cotton, Jute, Tea and Coffee
➢ Cotton :
(i) Cotton is one of the most important fiber and major cash crops grown in India.
(ii) It plays an important role in the textile industry and agricultural economy of the country.
(iii) It is a tropical crop and is raised as a Kharif crop.
(iv) Cotton in India provides direct livelihood to 6 million farmers and about 40-50 million people are employed in cotton trade.
(v) Cotton grown in Black soil is also called Regur soil, Black Cotton soil and Black clay soil.
(vi) Climatic Conditions :
1. Temperature- Between 21°C and 30°C.
2. Rainfall- Moderate rainfall from 60 cm to 120 cm is ideal.
3. A long growing period of atleast 200 frost free is necessary for the plant to mature.
4. Cotton grows on a variety of soils ranging from well drained deep alluvial soils in the North to deep and medium black clay soils in the Deccan and Malwa Plateau and Gujarat.
(vii) Methods of Cultivation :
A. Sowing :
1. The seeds are sown by the broadcasting or drilling methods.
2. The duration of crop season is 6 to 8 months.
3. The sowing is ideal before the onset of monsoon i.e. April-May till September-October.
4. Drip irrigation is the most effective way of watering in cotton farming.
B. Harvesting :
1. Cotton can either be picked by hand or by machines.
2. The cotton balls after ripening burst into white, fluffy and shiny balls of fibre.
3. In Punjab and Haryana cotton is harvested in December-January that is before the winter frost can damage the crop.
4. In the peninsular part of India, it is harvested between January and May because there is no danger of winter frost in these areas.
C. Processing :
The cotton crop after harvesting goes through the following process-
1. The freshly picked cotton is pressed into large modules.
2. The cotton gin mechanically separates the fibres from the seed and turns it into ginned cotton also called lint.
3. This process of separation of cotton fibre from the cotton seed is called Ginning.
4. The cotton lint or fibre is pressed into large bales and transported to the textile mills.
5. At the mill, the bales are cleaned by washing and then combed and made into an untwisted rope called a silver.
6. A spinning frame turns these silvers directly into cotton yarns.
7. Lastly, the yarn is dyed and looms are used to weave it into ready-to-use fabrics.
➢ Varieties of Cotton :
There are five varieties of cotton grown in India-
1. Superior Long Staple
2. Long Staple
3. Superior Medium Staple
4. Medium Staple
5. Short Staple
➢ Cotton is extensively produced in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Punjab.
➢ In India, the chief cotton growing areas are :
(i) North-Western Deccan Region
(ii) Central and Southern Deccan of Karnataka
(iii) The Upper Ganges Valley
➢ Jute :
(i) Jute is obtained from the inner bark of two important species- White Jute and Tossa Jute.
(ii) The White Jute is hardy, highly adaptable and grows well on both lowlands and uplands.
(iii) The Tossa Jute is grown only on uplands.
(iv) Jute is used for manufacturing a variety of products like rugs and clothes, gunny bags, hessian, ropes, carpets, strings, tarpaulins, upholstery, etc.
(v) Jute is in great demand because it is cheap and the fibres are soft, strong, long, smooth, shiny and uniform.
(vi) Jute is referred to as ‘Golden Fibre’ for its colour, silky shine and high cash value as it earns good revenue.
(vii) It is also called the ‘Brown Paper Bag’.
(viii) Mesta is inferior substitute for jute, can withstand drought conditions and can be grown anywhere under wider climatic and soil conditions.
(ix) Rough bags are made out of Mesta.
(x) Jute is 100% biodegradable, recyclable and environmental friendly.
(ix) Climatic Conditions :
1. Temperature- Between 24°C and 35°C.
2. Rainfall- About 150-200 cm is ideal.
3. Warm and wet climate with relative humidity of 90% are favourable.
4. Jute requires 2-3 inches of rainfall weekly during the sowing period.
5. New alluvium fertile soil in the Ganga delta region is most suitable for jute cultivation.
(x) Methods of Cultivation :
A. Sowing :
1. The land should be ploughed properly before sowing the jute seed.
2. Since the jute seed is small, land should be prepared to fine tilth.
3. Sowing of seeds is done by drilling or broadcasting methods.
4. The seeds are sown in the month of February on lowlands and in March-June on uplands.
B. Harvesting :
1. The jute crop takes 8-10 months to mature.
2. The harvesting period starts from July and continues till October.
3. The harvesting is done by hand by pulling up the stem or cut to the ground and tied into bundles.
C. Processing :
1. After harvesting, the sheafs of jute bundles are immersed in flood water or stagnant water for about 2-3 weeks for retting.
2. Retting is a microbiological process which loosens the outer bark and facilitates removal of the fibre from the stalk.
3. After retting the bark is peeled from the plant and fiber is removed.
4. Then the fibers are stripped, washed, rinsed and cleaned and dried in the sun and pressed into bales.
(xi) West Bengal is the leading producer of jute in the country followed by Assam, Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.
➢ Tea :
(i) It is an important beverage for the people of India as it works as a stimulant.
(ii) Tea gardens are set up in the hill slopes where shade trees are planted in advance.
(iii) It grows well on hill slopes due to the favourable climatic conditions, high altitude and also because it prevents from water stagnation.
(iv) Though tea requires heavy rainfall but water logging at the roots of the plant is injurious.
(v) A good amount of iron, humus, nitrogenous fertilizers like ammonium and sulphate are ideal for tea growth which gives a higher yield.
(vi) High humidity, heavy dew and morning fog are good for the growth of new leaves.
(vii) Climatic Conditions-
1. Temperature- 24°C to 30°C
2. Rainfall- 150 cm- 500 cm
3. Soil- Well drained, deep friable loamy soil
(viii) Methods of Cultivation-
1. From Seeds- High quality seeds are sown in nurseries and then transplanted in the tea gardens at the distance of one metre from all sides.
2. From Cuttings-
(a) Tea plants are grown in nurseries from cuttings of high yielding variety of crops. This is known as clonal planting.
(b) When the tea saplings grow 20 cm of height, they are transplanted in the garden.
(ix) Harvesting :
1. Plucking and Pruning of Tea Leaves :
(a) Plucking of leaves are done by women labourers.
(b) Tea is picked every 10 days in the lower altitudes but in higher altitudes they are picked every 15 days.
(c) Tea picking is carried out from early April to mid-November.
(d) Two tender leaves and a bud or shoot are usually plucked from each stem and is considered to be fine plucking.
(e) Pruning is an essential part of tea cultivation as it helps in maintaining the proper shape of tea bush to a height of about one metre.
(f) The objective of pruning is to have new shoots bearing plenty of soft leaves and also to facilitate the plucking of leaves.
2. Processing :Tea is classified into six types- Black Tea, Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Brick Tea.
(a) Black Tea :
i. Withering : The tea leaves are spread out on laths and left for 14-18 hours to dry. They are also dried in the sun and left for a day or two.
ii. Rolling : Through CTC (Crushing, Tearing and Curling) method, the leaves are processed.
The leaves are rolled mechanically for 30 minutes between steel rollers to break up the fibres. Then the leaves are dried again or baked lightly over charcoal fires until they become reddish brown in colour.
iii. Fermentation : The tea leaves are spread out on large boards in 10-15 cm thick layers in a special room with a room temperature of 40 °C for 2-3 hours. The leaves turn copper red to brown colour and starts to unfold its unique aroma.
iv. Drying : After fermentation, the leaves are transported through tiered dryers on metal conveyor belts and is dried for approximately 20 minutes which ultimately gives leaves its dark brown to black colour.
v. Blending : The tea-tasters and expert blenders blends the various grades of tea.
(b) Green Tea : These are of good flavour and are stronger stimulants due to their higher tannin or tannic acid content.
i. Withering : The good qualities of tea leaves are spread out on laths and are placed out in the sun to wither.
ii. Heating : The tea leaves heated for 10 minutes with 280°C in cast-iron pans. Then the leaves are pressed against the hot surface.
iii. Rolling- The tea leaves are rolled in a rolling machine for 10-15 minutes between two rotating metal plates.
iv. Drying- The leaves are dried with a temperature of 60°C for 20-30 minutes.
(c) Oolong Tea : It is a kind of tea which is produced through a process including withering the plant under strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. Withering, rolling, shaping and firing are similar to black tea but baking or roasting is exclusive to oolong tea.
(d) Brick Tea : This variety of tea is also called compresses tea. They are blocks of whole or finely ground black tea or green tea leaf dust that have been packed in molds and pressed into rectangular lock form.
➢ India is the world’s second largest producer of tea in the world and the fourth largest exporter of tea in the world. Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Manipur, etc. are the states where tea is widely grown.
➢ Coffee :
(i) It is the second most important beverage crop in India.
(ii) The first seedlings of coffee were sown in the Bababudan Hills in Karnataka.
(iii) Coffee cultivation requires plenty of cheap and skilled labour for various operations like sowing, transplanting, pruning, plucking, drying, grading and packing.
(iv) The two main varieties of coffee grown in India are Arabica Coffee and Robusta Coffee.
(v) The coffee plant cannot stand direct sunrays and is thus grown under shady trees such as silver oak, orange, banana, jackfruit, cardamom, pepper, etc.
(vi) Climatic Conditions :
1. Temperature :
(a) Between 15°C and 28°C.
(b) It can neither stand frost, snow nor high temperatures above 30°C and strong sunshine.
2. Rainfall : Between 150 cm and 200 cm of annual rainfall. Stagnant water is harmful and is thus grown on hill slopes at elevations from 600 to 1600 metres.
3. Soil : Well drained, rich friable loams containing a good deal of humus and minerals like iron and calcium are ideal for coffee cultivation.
4. Methods of Coffee Cultivation :
1. Sowing :
(a) Coffee seeds are sown in December-January in the bed 1.5 -2.5 cm apart.
(b) They are propagated from seeds or cuttings in a nursery and then transplanted in the large coffee fields.
(c) Pruning is regularly done to ensure easy picking and heavy bearing of coffee berries.
(a) Arabica Coffee is harvested from November to January and for Robusta Coffee it is from December to April.
(b) Coffee berries are picked by hand.
(c) The two methods of coffee harvesting is- Selective harvesting and Strip harvesting.
(d) Selective harvesting is the picking of only ripe coffee berries by hand and Strip harvesting is where coffee berries are stripped mechanically.
(a) There are two methods of coffee processing- Wet Parchment Method and the Dry Parchment Method.
(b) In the Wet Parchment Method, the fruit covering of the beans is removed before they are dried and then pulping, fermenting, washing and drying takes place.
(c) The Dry Parchment Method has the following process-
1. The coffee berries are sorted, cleaned and the ripe, overripe and damaged cherries are separated.
2. The dirt, soil, twigs and leaves are removed from the cherries.
3. The coffee cherries are then dried in the sun and are further fermented by drying in the sun for a week.
4. After drying, the machines peel off the two layers of inner husks.
5. The coffee beans are then sorted according to their size and quality and then packed in sacks for use.
6. The beans are roasted at temperatures of about 99°C and then ground into coffee powder. Roasting gives the brown colour, aroma and taste.
➢ The traditional coffee producers in India are Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
➢ The other states where coffee is grown is Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh.
Know the terms
➢ Drip Irrigation : It consists of perforated pipes that are placed between rows of crops or buried along their root lines and give water directly on to the crops.
➢ Module : Cotton is mechanically pressed into large rectangular sized blocks called modules.
➢ Lint : It is a short, fine fibre which separates from the surface of cloth or yarn during processing.
➢ Ginning : It is a process of separation of cotton fibre from the cotton seed.
➢ Mesta : It is an inferior substitute for jute, can withstand drought conditions and can be grown anywhere under wider climatic and soil conditions.
➢ Retting : It is a microbiological process which loosens the outer bark and facilitates removal of the fibre from the stalk.
➢ Clonal Planting : Tea plants that are grown in nurseries from cuttings of high yielding variety of crops are called Clonal Planting.
➢ Pruning : Trimming of shrubs to encourage growth and to remove superfluous or unwanted branches.
➢ Withering : It means to reduce the moisture content in the tea leaves, make the leaves soft and to allow the flavour compounds to develop.
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