Notes Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography

Study Material

Students should refer to Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.

ICSE Class 10 Geography Waste Management Revision Notes

Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Waste Management in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.

Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography

Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes

Impact of Waste Accumulation

Quick Review
➢ Waste is unwanted and unused material which is rejected for any further usage.
➢ Solid Wastes are accumulated in different places of an area like in the backyards of the houses, street corners, outside hospitals and schools, near water bodies, etc.
➢ When these accumulated solid wastes are dumped and left uncared, the wastes starts decomposing which leads to the growth of a number of pathogenic bacteria, virus and fungi.
➢ The mosquitoes, flies, rodents, insects, etc. also spread diseases due to the accumulation of wastes around the houses or nearby places.
➢ The pathogenic bacteria are also carried to our water bodies during rains as the rainwater carries the decomposed waste along with pathogens.
➢ The decomposed also causes pollution.
➢ The world’s landscape is spoiled due to the accumulation of solid wastes that is dumped and left for decomposition.
➢ Sulphur and nitrogen gases are produced due to burning of coal, fuel wood or petroleum which when reacts with oxygen converts into sulphur oxide and nitrogen dioxide.
➢ These oxides react with water vapour present in the atmosphere to form acids like sulphuric acid and nitric acid. These acids mix with rain and forms acid rain.
➢ When the acid of acid rains falls on the building, a chemical reaction occurs that corrodes the building causing damaging marks on the statues and buildings.
➢ Examples of buildings and monuments affected by acid rain are the Taj Mahal of Agra, Houses of Parliament in London, Parthenon of Athens, etc.
➢ Pollution is the unwanted and harmful substances or gases that contaminate the atmosphere and cause adverse change and effect to the natural environment.
➢ The major causes of pollution are from the burning of fossil fuels, like coal, oil, natural gas and petroleum used to generate electricity and power our vehicles.
➢ Accumulation of wastes, industrial wastes, solid wastes, etc. also causes pollution.
➢ The main sources of waste are from domestic, commercial, industrial, municipal, food processing and agricultural wastes.
➢ When the accumulated waste decomposes, it produces large quantity of methane gas which is highly explosive, if not managed properly.
➢ Eutrophication is the process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients that stimulate the growth of aquatic plant life usually resulting in the depletion of dissolved oxygen.
➢ Algae, plankton and other microorganisms use carbon dioxide, inorganic nitrogen and phosphate from the water as food.
➢ When aquatic systems have an overabundance of nutrients, the entire system suffers from eutrophication and become unlivable and even causes death to many aquatic organisms.
➢ Unattended waste, domestic waste, dumped wastes spread diseases through contamination.
➢ Choking of drains and gully pits by the solid wastes results in water logging which in turn gives birth to mosquitoes and ultimately spreads diseases like malaria and chikungunya.
➢ Hazardous wastes are toxic substances like lead which can affect in the development of a child’s brain.
➢ Harmful toxics like Asbestos cause’s chest and lung cancer, Mercury causes brain damage and death and Arsenic causes cancer.
➢ Radioactive waste produced by nuclear reactors and weapon factories causes serious environmental problems.
➢ Accumulated Wastes also affects the terrestrial life which includes human beings, plants and animals.

Effects on Human Beings:
(i) Accumulation of solid wastes looks filthy, smells bad and attracts insects and rodents that spread diseases.
(ii) Sanitary landfills are not fit for human settlements because harmful gases like methane and carbon dioxide starts coming out within one or two years.

Effects on Plants:
(i) Plants are affected either directly from deposition of harmful toxins from wastes or indirectly through soil.
(ii) The toxins causes different types of leaf injuries, premature leaf fall, reduces the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, deposited dust on leaves block the stomata and smoke produced due to burning of waste affects the length of the root and shoot, etc.

Effects on Animals and Birds:
(i) Stray animals and scavengers like dogs, pigs, cows and rats are affected directly from the wastes as they feed themselves from those wastes.
(ii) These animals sometimes eat toxic food from the wastes or non-degradable substances and die due to choking.
➢ Waste accumulation also affects aquatic organisms both in fresh water and marine.
➢ Pesticides and industrial and domestic wastes are the two categories of waste that causes harm to aquatic life.
➢ Biomagnification means the increasing concentration of substance such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
➢ The phenomenon of concentrated toxic deposition at the higher trophic level is known as bio-accumulation.
➢ Methyl mercury can break the barrier between blood cells and nerve cells and reaches the brain causing progressive irreversible damage. This was found in the Minamata Bay where people consumed fish which had toxic methyl mercury and fell ill.
➢ Mercury contamination also results from wastes of other industries like paper and pulp industry, chlorine industry, pesticide industry, etc.

Know the terms
 Pathogenic : It is a medical term that describes viruses, bacteria and other types of germs that can cause some kind of disease.
 Acid Rain : When Sulphur oxide and Nitrogen dioxides react with water vapour present in the atmosphere to form acids like sulphuric acid and nitric acid then these acids mix with rain and form acid rain.
➢ Eutrophication : It is the process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients that stimulate the growth of aquatic plant life usually resulting in the depletion of dissolved oxygen.
➢ Sanitary Landfills : These are the sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. They are a method of waste disposal where the waste is buried underground or in large piles.
➢ Toxins : It is an organic poison produced.
➢ Biomagnification : It means the increasing concentration of substance such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
 Bio-accumulation : The phenomenon of concentrated toxic deposition at the higher trophic level.
➢ Methyl Mercury: It is an organic form of mercury that is highly toxic and is the main culprit in mercury poisoning.

Flow chart

Notes Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography

Need for Waste Management
Quick Review

➢ Waste is a big problem today as it causes air and water pollution.
➢ The rotting garbage produces harmful gases and mixes with the air causing breathing problems to the people.
➢ Waste management is a necessity because improperly stored refuse can cause health, safety and economic problems.
➢ Transmission of diseases due to accumulation of wastes is a major threat to people and environment.
➢ Due to waste accumulation on land and water bodies, diseases are spread through flies, mosquitoes, rodents and pet animals.
➢ Various diseases are spread by the following flies, rodents and pet animals-
(i) Housefly- Typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, etc.
(ii) Sandfly- Kala-azar, sandfly fever, etc.
(iii) Tsetse fly- Sleeping sickness.
(iv) Mosquitoes- Malaria, filarial, chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, etc.
(v) Rodents- Plague, salmonellosis, etc.
(vi) Dog- Rabies, etc.
(vii) Cat- Dermatophytosis, anthrax, etc.

➢ The water is polluted due to the industrialization and urbanisation because-
(i) Sewage contains organic matter that cannot be decomposed.
(ii) Industrial and commercial waste has toxic agents.
(iii) Fertilizers and pesticides produce pollutants.
➢ People are also affected by pollution because they drink contaminated water and also uses it for personal uses and recreation.
➢ Viral, Bacterial, Protozoan, Helminthic are some of the common water-borne diseases.
➢ The Greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface.
➢ When the sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases.
➢ The warming up of the atmosphere is due to the greenhouse effect and hence Global Warming is also known as Greenhouse Effect.
➢ There are five gases which are mainly responsible for Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. These gases are known as Greenhouse Gases. They are: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrogen Oxide (Nitrous Oxide), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and Water Vapour.

Global Warming has many effects. They are-
(i) It is assumed that Global temperature is likely to rise by 2°C to 5°C during the next century.
(ii) Because of the rise of temperature, there is a possibility of melting of ice caps at the poles of the Earth.
(iii) There will be changes widely in the climate in the wind and rain pattern due to increase in temperature all over the surface of the world.
(iv) Higher temperature will cause rise in transpiration which in turn will affect the groundwater table.
(v) Due to climatic changes, pathogenic diseases would increase and there will be rise in the insects and pests.
➢ Ozone layer has significance in the Atmosphere. The atmosphere is divided into four layers like, Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ionosphere and Exosphere.
➢ The Ozone layer absorbs the ultraviolet rays and infrared rays coming from the sun and protects the life on the Earth from its harmful effects.

Causes of the Depletion of Ozone Layer-
(i) The chemical reaction that is produced due to the contact of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ozone destroys the ozone layer.
(ii) The presence of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) is another cause of the ozone layer depletion.
(iv) The ultraviolet rays of the sun that reaches the earth’s surface causes many diseases like skin cancer and cataract.
(v) The ultraviolet rays cause genetic disorders which affect the heredity.
(vi) These rays also disturb the ecological balance in marine ecosystem, e.g. algae, fish, etc.
(vii) The ultraviolet rays also damage the physical and chemical properties of any complex chemical substance.

➢ Acid Rain- Rain that contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil.
➢ It is a popular term referring to the deposition of a mixture from wet (snow, fog, dew, sleet, etc.) and dry (acidifying particles and gases, etc.) acidic components.
➢ Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.

Effects of the Acid Rain-
Acid rain has shown adverse effects on-
(i) Forests
(ii) Freshwaters
(iii) Soils, killing insects as acid rain increases acidity in the soil
(iv) Buildings, monuments and statutes, etc.
(v) On human health like nervous system
(vi) Aquatic species and growth of the plants
➢ Due to acid rain and dry deposition of pollutants on the land surface, soil pollution occur.
➢ Polluted soils cause reduction in mineralisation and decomposition processes.
➢ The toxic chemicals present in the soil destroy the earthworms, nematodes, etc.
➢ In order to protect the biosphere and prevent it from destruction, accumulation of waste needs to be checked.

Know the terms
➢ Waste Management: The concept of waste management involves the collection, removal, processing, and disposal of materials considered waste.
➢ Dermatophytosis: It is a fungal infection of the skin, especially the feet.
➢ Global Warming: A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, especially a sustained increase great enough to cause changes in the global climate.
➢ Greenhouse: A greenhouse is a house made of glass. It has glass walls and a glass roof. People grow tomatoes and flowers and other plants in them.
➢ Ozone layer: It is a layer in the stratosphere that prevents dangerous radiation from the sun from reaching the surface of the Earth.
➢ Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s): It is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine and fluorine, produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane and propane.
➢ Acid Rain- Rain that contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil


Notes Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography

Safe Disposal of Waste
Quick Review

➢ Waste Management is collection, transportation and disposal of garbage, sewage and other waste products.
➢ Segregation of Waste before its disposal is important.
➢ To segregate the garbage various types of dustbins are used to separate glass, paper, cloth, metal, wet and dry food wastes, etc.
➢ Two types of dustbins are used to throw the wastes in the domestic areas- Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable dustbins.
➢ Biodegradable products are converted into useful products like compost or gobar gas.
➢ After Segregation, Dumping of waste disposal is the next procedure.
➢ Waste materials are dumped in open low lands far from the city though not environment friendly but it is the cheapest method.
➢ The dumping grounds are open pits and thus become the breeding ground for mosquitoes, flies, insects, etc.
➢ When these waste materials are burned, they pollute the air and give out foul odour.
➢ Sanitary Landfill is another method by which the waste is packed and dumped daily.
➢ These are the sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically.
➢ The Sanitary Landfill system of disposing wastes is a biological method and is carried out with minimal environmental damage.

Five phases are followed for the disposing of wastes-
(i) In the first phase, aerobic bacteria deplete the available oxygen which results in the increase of temperature.
(ii) In the second phase, anaerobic conditions become established and hydrogen and carbon dioxide are evolved.
(iii) In third phase, lots of bacteria and methanogenic activity, i.e. production of methane is established.
(iv) In the fourth phase, the methanogenic activity becomes stabilized.
(v) In the fifth phase, the organic matter depletes and the system returns to aerobic state.

The Sanitary Landfills have many advantages over Open Dumping-
(i) The waste products of landfills can be used as direct fuel for combustion.
(ii) The location of waste deposition in the landfills is monitored.
(iii) After the landfills are completed they can be used as parks or farming land.
(iv) Landfills are free from pollution and burning.
➢ The landfill sites are supposed to have vegetative cover by planting the non-edible perennial plants that are resistant to drought.
➢ The selected plants should be able to thrive on low nutrient soil.

Municipal Waste Management- The Municipal authorities take the following steps to manage wastes. They are-
(i) Collection of Municipal Solid Wastes
(ii) Storage of Municipal Solid Wastes
(iii) Transportation of Municipal Solid Wastes
(iv) Segregation of Municipal Solid Wastes
➢ Composting is a form of waste disposal where organic waste decomposes naturally under oxygen-rich conditions.
➢ A mixture of decayed or decaying organic matter used to fertile soil.
➢ Compost is usually made by plants such as leaves, grass, vegetable peels, etc. and allow it to decompose as a result of the action of aerobic bacteria, fungi and other organisms.

Advantages of Composting-
(i) Composting is a highly nutrient rich fertilizer source that will reduce the amount of synthetic fertilizers used in the farming fields.
(ii) Compost decreases the erosion potentiality on the fields and enhances the structural ability of soil.
(iii) It prevents plant diseases and also from spread of pathogen diseases.
(iv) The presence of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, etc. aerate the soil which speeds up composting and convert nitrogen to a usable form.
(v) Compost increases the water content and retention of sandy soil.
(vi) It prevents pollution by preventing pollutants in storm water run-off from draining into water resources.
(vii) Compost replenishes and revitalizes exhausted farm soils by replacing trace minerals and organic material.
(viii) Composting is an effective way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Know the terms
➢ Segregation of Waste: It means to segregate the garbage various types of dustbins are used to separate glass, paper, cloth, metal, wet and dry food wastes, etc.
➢ Dumping of Waste Disposal : Waste materials are dumped in open pits and become the breeding ground for mosquitoes, flies, insects, etc.
 Sanitary Landfill : It is a system of disposing wastes is a biological method and is carried out with minimal environmental damage.
 Composting : It is a form of waste disposal where organic waste decomposes naturally under oxygen-rich conditions


Notes Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography

Reduce-Reuse-Recycle Waste
Quick Review

➢ The three R’s- reduce, reuse and recycle help to cut down on the amount of waste and manages the waste in a constructive way.
➢ The R’s are- Reducing the waste, Reusing the waste and Recycling the waste.
➢ The three R’s are intended to classify waste management into three important factors relative to suitability in terms of waste reduction.
➢ The wastes can be Reduced by the Change of Process, Waste Concentration and Segregation of Waste.
➢ Wastes can be reduced by the process of changing the waste and non-useable materials into potentially useful materials.
➢ Reducing the amount of waste produced is the best way to help the environment.
➢ Buying products with minimum packaging, borrowing things which are not used often, starting a compost bin, saving energy and water by turning them off when not required are some ways of reducing wastes.
➢ By using scientific techniques such as precipitation and evaporation the amount of liquid waste can be reduced.
➢ Wastes are segregated by separating the hazardous waste from non-hazardous waste and then treating a small amount of hazardous waste.
➢ To reduce the environment damage caused by cars, increase use of carpooling with friends, walking, taking the bus or riding your bike instead of unnecessary driving.
➢ The wastes can be reused without discarding them or throwing away the articles.
➢ Many materials like glass, metal, plastics, cloths, paper, etc. that is used in our day to day life can be reused. E.g. cloth bags can be used instead of plastic bags by making bags out of old clothes, donating old clothes, toys and furnitures, etc.
➢ Old tyres and leathers are reused for making chappals, shoes, water bags, etc.
➢ Many artisans and artists reuse old materials to create beautiful home decors, decorating gardens with materials like tins, cans, bottles, broken crockery pieces, etc. e.g. Rock Garden created by Nek Chand in Chandigarh.
➢ Some solid wastes from the industry can be utilized directly, e.g. flyash from power plant is used as a substitute for cement, for making roads and filing up low lying areas.
➢ The process of changing the waste and non-usable materials into potentially useful materials is called Recycling.
➢ It is the key component of modern waste reduction procedure.
➢ Recycling reduces the consumption of raw materials and energy usage and also reduces air and water pollution.
➢ Bagasse, a by-product of sugarcane, is used for manufacturing paper pulp, for making packaging material of dairy products which helps in saving the cutting of trees which are normally used for making paper pulp.
➢ Plastic is non-biodegradable because the bonds of carbon in plastic are impossible to break down through a physical or chemical process.
➢ Waste plastic materials need to be incinerated, recycled or buried in landfills.
➢ The Environment Protection Act (1986) empowers the Central Government to coordinate actions of State Governments, plan and execute a nationwide programme for the prevention, control and abatement of environmental pollution.
➢ The Ministry of Environment and Forests of the Government of India is taking initiatives, measures and making policies to protect environment through various schemes.

The Government’s environmental policy emphasizes on the following:
(i) To check the degradation of land and water through Wasteland Management and Restoration of river water quality programmes.
(ii) To conserve and survey flora, fauna, forests and wildlife.
(iii) To prevent and control pollution, afforestation and regeneration of degraded areas and protection of environment.
(iv) To monitor the development, surveys, impact assessment, control of pollution, research to solve solutions, collection and dissemination of environmental information and environmental awareness is being utilized for the implementation of various policies.
(v) To make laws, regulations, acts for environment protection and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues.
➢ The government plays a major role in environmental protection.
➢ It is the government’s duty to protect and conserve critical environmental resources, ensure judicious use and ensure equitable access to environmental resources, minimise adverse environmental impacts on society, etc.
➢ The National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) in Nagpur, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Cleaner Technology Centre in New Delhi has applied cleaner technology concept for liquid waste management and gaseous and solid materials.
➢ Government alone is not responsible for protecting environment. Each and every individual citizen need to participate in preventing and protecting environmental crisis.
➢ Society plays an important role in Sustainable Environmental Management Processes.

Through the following ways, society can play an important role for maintaining environmental standards-
(i) All individuals have to contribute substantially and take it as a responsibility to protect the environment from pollution.
(ii) The people together can organise themselves and take initiative in making the responsible agencies take actions if the air and water resources are unfit and do not meet the required standards.
(iii) Groups of individuals together can educate people by creating awareness about environmental protection.
(iv) The group housing societies can initiate steps for waste management by making provisions for segregating wastes and by making composting pits.
(v) Group of individuals can reduce the environment damage caused by cars by increasing the use of carpooling with friends, walking or taking the bus.
(vi) Housing societies can make provisions for rain water harvesting to conserve rain water.
➢ Like society, individuals also play an important role in protecting environment.
➢ It is the responsibility of each individual to protect the earth and provide conducive environment for itself and several other species that evolves on the earth.

Each individual should take the following steps for environmental protection-
(i) Each individual should carry cloth bag or paper bag instead of polythene bags.
(ii) Should use eco-friendly products.
(iii) Should avoid the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as they destroy the ozone layer.
(iv) Instead of CFCs, chemicals derived from peaches and plums can be used to clean the computer chips and circuit boards.
(v) Use CFC free refrigerators.
(vi) Should save electricity by switching off as and when not required.
(vii) Use of renewable energy resources should be adopted, e.g. solar energy cooker.
(viii) Must use rechargeable batteries which will help to reduce metal pollution.
(ix) Use of mass transport system.
(x) Should reduce, reuse and recycle the wastes whenever possible.
(xi) Use biodegradable dish washing liquid, laundry detergent and shampoo.
(xii) Use of organic manure should be encouraged instead of synthetic fertilizers.
(xiii) Each individual should take a vow to plant trees as much as possible which can help to purify the atmosphere.
(xiv) Should initiate paperless system by encouraging the use of computer storage system and should go for recycle used paper.

Know the terms
➢ Waste Concentration: By using scientific techniques such as precipitation and evaporation the amount of liquid waste can be reduced.
➢ Recycling: It is the process of changing the waste and non-usable materials into potentially useful materials.
➢ Bagasse : It is a by-product of sugarcane, is used for manufacturing paper pulp, for making packaging material of dairy products.
➢ Wasteland Management : Degraded land which can be brought under vegetative cover with reasonable effort and which is currently underutilized.


Notes Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography
Waste Management ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes

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