Students should refer to Transport ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.
ICSE Class 10 Geography Transport Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Transport in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.
Transport ICSE Class 10 Geography
Transport ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes
Importance of Transportation
Roadways and Railways
➢ Transportation is the life line of people all over the world.
➢ Transport refers to the activity that facilitates physical movement of goods as well as Individuals from location to another.
➢ Transportation in India has recorded a substantial growth over the years in terms of network and in its system.
➢ Importance of Transportation
(i) Transportation facilitates utilisation of natural resources lying unutilized in the hills, forests and mines.
(ii) It links the backward areas to the urban cities and reduces regional industrial disparity.
(ii) Transport system helps in transporting the raw materials and other necessary machineries to the industries.
(iii) Transportation protects the people during war, natural calamities and other crisis.
(iv) It helps in the process of industrialisation and urbanisation.
(v) The transport system helps to enhance and strengthen the feeling of unity and brotherhood among the people.
➢ The present transport system of India comprises different means of transport i.e. rail, road, water, air transport, etc.
➢ Road Transport-
(i) India has excellent network of roads in the country connecting all the towns and cities to each other.
(ii) According to National Highways Authority of India, India has the second largest road network in the world.
(iii) Road transport is significant to India’s economy and contribute 4.7 percent towards India’s gross domestic product (GDP).
(iv) The road network is important for the country’s growth, social integration and for the security of the citizens.
(v) The Indian roads are categorized into the following:
1. National Highways
2. State Highways
3. Major District Roads
4. District Roads
5. Rural and other Roads
➢ National Highways-
1. The National Highways are constructed and maintained by the Central Government.
2. These Highways facilitate inter-state transport and movement of defence personnel, defence materials in strategic areas, connect to manufacturing centres, etc.
3. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) was constituted in 1988 and is responsible for the development, maintenance and management of National Highways.
4. The NHAI is presently undertaking the developmental activities under National Highways Development Project (NHDP).
5. The two major Projects undertaken by NHAI are :
A. Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) :
(a) The largest Express Highway project in India.
(b) It connects India’s four biggest metropolitan cities-Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
(c) The main economic benefits of this project is-
(i) Establishing faster transport networks between major cities and ports.
(ii) Providing fast and smooth movement of products and people within India.
(iii) Developing industries and creating job opportunities in smaller towns through access to markets.
(iv) It is also providing opportunities for farmers, through better transportation so that the agricultural produce could be transported to major cities and ports for exports.
(v) Driving economic growth directly, through construction as well as through indirect demand for cement, steel and other construction materials.
(vi) Provides and impetus to truck transport throughout India.
B. North-South and East-West Corridors (NS-EW) :
(a) NS-EW Corridors is the largest ongoing highway project in India and is the second phase of the National Highway Development Project(NHDP).
(b) It is a four/six lane expressways connecting Srinagar, Kanyakumari, Porbandar and Silchar.
(c) The North-South Corridor would connect Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir with Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu and the East-West Corridor would connect Silchar in Assam with Porbandar in Gujarat.
➢ Express Highways : These highways are six lanes roads designed for high-speed movement of vehicles without any obstacles. The major Express Highways are-
1. Yamuna Expressway
2. Ahmedabad-Vadodara Expressway
3. Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway
4. Mumbai-Pune Expressway
5. Noida-Greater Noida Expressway
6. Delhi-Noida Direct Flyway
7. Panipat Expressway
8. Bengaluru-Mysuru Infrastructure Corridor
➢ State Highways :
1. The State Highways are constructed and maintained by the State Governments.
2. The State Highways are usually roads that link important cities, towns and district headquarters within the state and connect them with National Highways or highways of neighbouring states.
3. These Highways also connect the industries, or tourist places to important areas in the state.
➢ District Roads :
1. These are important roads that connect talukas, rural areas and important towns in the districts to the District Headquarters.
2. These roads are within the district connecting areas of production with markets.
➢ Rural Roads :
1. Village roads are inter-connected to each other.
2. Most of the village roads are unmetalled roads; they become muddy and sticky during the rainy season.
3. It constitutes over 80% of total road network.
4. Rural roads sector suffered from lack of Systematic Planning, Quality and Sustained Maintenance.
5. These roads are in poor shape, affecting the rural population’s quality of life and Indian farmer’s ability to transfer produce to market post-harvest.
6. In 2000, the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana was launched by the Government of India with an aim to provide connectivity to rural areas.
➢ Other Roads- The Border Roads and International Highways.
➢ The Border Road Organisation (BRO) :
1. The Border Road Organisation was established on 7th May 1960 to secure India’s borders and develop infrastructure in remote areas of the North and North-East states of the country.
2. This organization has constructed the world’s highest road from Manali to Leh at an average height of 4,270 metres.
3. Besides constructing roads in strategic areas, the BRO also undertakes the task of snow clearance in high altitude areas, construction of airfields, buildings and permanent bridges.
➢ Advantages of Roadways :
(i) Roadways are ideal for short distances as through it every village and hamlet can be reached.
(ii) It is cost effective in comparison to other means of transport.
(iii) It transports people and goods quickly and easily.
(iv) It provides door-to-door services.
(v) Roads are easily constructed on hilly terrain where building railway line is not possible or the air services are inaccessible.
(vi) The movement of goods through roadways is safer and convenient.
(vii) Road transport is most suited for carrying goods and people to and from rural areas which are not served by rail, water or air transport.
➢ Disadvantages of Roadways :
1. Road transport is not as reliable as rail transport. During rainy or flood season, roads become unfit and unsafe for use.
2. Road accidents frequently takes place and thus, it is not safe.
3. This mode of transport is unsuitable and costly for transporting cheap and bulkygoods over long distances.
4. It gets delayed often due to heavy traffic, high concentration of all types of vehicles plying on road, check posts, toll tax and octroi duties collection points.
5. The road transport is comparatively less organised, irregular and undependable. The rates charged for transportation are also unstable and unequal.
➢ Rail Transport :
(i) It is an important mode of transportation for both freight and passengers.
(ii) It is the fourth largest and busiest railway network in the world and is the world’s largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.4 million employees.
(iii) Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai have their own metro networks.
(iv) The suburban train that handles commuter traffic are mostly Electric Multiple Units(EMUs).
(v) The railways transport all kinds of goods from mineral ores, fertilizers, agricultural produce to iron and steel.
(vi) The Railway System has been divided into 17 zones.
(vii) On the basis of the width of the railway track, the Indian Railways are divided into three categories-
1. Broad Gauge
2. Metre Gauge
3. Narrow Gauge
➢ Advantages of Railways-
1. Railways help in the easy movement of goods and people from one place to another.
2. It helps in reaching the far and inaccessible areas.
3. It helps in transporting bulky goods and in extending the market.
4. It has developed and commercialised agriculture since the farmers can sell their agricultural produce easily.
5. Railways are an important source of employment in India since lakhs of skilled and unskilled people are employed in operating the railways.
6. It helps during famines or other crisis by carrying the food-grains and other necessary materials to the affected areas.
7. They are instrumental in providing internal security and in making efficient arrangements in transporting defence equipments to the strategic areas.
8. It has enhanced tourism.
9. It has made travel safe and comfortable.
10. Railways act as an integrating force irrespective of any social barriers and binding the people into one whole nation through its network.
11. It has bridged the gap between the villages and the cities and helped in developing the villages with new and innovative ideas.
12. It is cheaper than air transport.
➢ Disadvantages of Railways :
1. Railway lines cannot be constructed everywhere specially in the hilly regions and remote dense forested regions.
2. The railway requires large investment of capital. The cost of construction, maintenance and overhead expenses are very high as compared to other modes of transport.
3. Rail transport cannot provide door to door service.
4. Railway transport is unsuitable and uneconomical for short distance and small traffic of goods.
5. It involves much time and labour in booking and taking delivery of goods through railways as compared to road transport.
6. Travelling by train to long distances are tedious and uncomfortable.
7. Many industrial regions are deprived of train tracks and thus depends on other transport for transporting the cargoes from the station.
8. Travelling by train is limited to land only; it cannot cross the oceans.
Know the terms
➢ Social Integration : It is the blending and unifying of social groups through peaceful social relations of coexistence, collaboration and cohesion.
➢ Gross Domestic Product : The total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.
➢ Express Highway : A highway especially planned for high-speed traffic, limited points of access or exit, and a divider between lanes for traffic moving in opposite directions.
➢ National Highways : They are constructed and maintained by the Central Government and facilitate inter-state transport and movement of defence personnel,etc.
➢ State Highways : They are usually roads that link important cities, towns and district headquarters within the state and connect them with National Highways or highways of neighbouring states.
➢ Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) : The largest Express Highway project in India that connects India’s four biggest metropolitan cities-Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
➢ Border Road Organisation : It was established to secure India’s borders and develop infrastructure in remote areas of the North and North-East states of the country.
➢ Electric Multiple Units (EMUs) : An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power.
➢ Broad Gauge : A distance between the rails of a rail road track that is greater than the standard width of 56 ½ inches (143.5 centimeters).
➢ Metre Gauge : They are narrow-gauge railways with track gauge of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 ⅜ in).
➢ Narrow Gauge : It is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 ½ in) of standard gauge railways.
Air Transport and Water Transport
(i) It is the most modern means of transport which is fast and time saving.
(ii) India has both domestic and international airlines which carry passengers, freight and mail.
(iii) The Airports Authority of India (AAI) came into existence on April 1, 1995 after merging the then two authorities- National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority.
(iv) The air transport in India was managed by two corporations- Air India and Indian Airlines.
(v) In 2007, Air India and Indian Airlines merged into one and is called Air India.
(vi) Air India is the 16th largest airline in Asia.
(vii) There are a number of private airlines too like Spicejet, Jet Airways (India) Ltd., Inter Globe Aviation Ltd. (Indigo), Go Airlines (India) Pvt. Ltd., etc.
(viii) There are three Cargo Airlines which are operating and providing cargo services in the country. They are- Blue Aviation Pvt. Ltd., Deccan Cargo and Express Logistics Pvt. Ltd.
(ix) Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd., established in 1985, aimed to provide helicopter services to the oil sector in offshore exploration, hilly regions, remote areas and for the promotion of tourism.
➢ Advantages of Air Transport
(i) Air transport is the fastest and most comfortable mode of transport.
(ii) It can easily reach to remote and inaccessible areas like mountains, forests, deserts etc.
(iii) It is very useful during the times of war and natural calamities like floods, earthquakes, famines, epidemics, hostility and collapse of law and order.
➢ Disadvantages of Air Transport
(i) Air transport is expensive.
(ii) It connects only major cities.
(iii) It is dependent on weather conditions and can get delayed or cancelled causing inconvenience to passengers.
(iv) It causes pollution as it runs on petroleum which is a non-renewable source of energy.
(v) It gives limited and restricted services between two destinations.
(vi) It carries small tonnage but has high freight charges.
(vii) Its maintenance and overhead cost is too high.
➢ Water Transport-
(i) Water transport is the most easy and cheap mode of transport.
(ii) Like road and rail transport, no infrastructure is required to be built since water is available naturally.
(iii) It has the largest carrying capacity and is most suitable for carrying bulky goods over long distances.
(iv) It has played a very significant role in bringing different parts of the world closer and is indispensable to foreign trade.
(v) Water transport can be divided into two categories-
1. Inland Waterways
2. Oceanic Waterways
1. Inland Waterways-
(a) India has an extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks.
(b) The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) came into existence on 27 October, 1986 for the development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation.
(c) Inland waterways should be free of barriers i.e. from waterfalls and rapids.
(d) The rivers of Peninsular India are not suitable for navigation due to the following reasons-
1. The rivers are rain-fed and seasonal.
2. They are shorter.
3. These rivers have a number of waterfalls.
(e) The Inland Waterways Authority has declared five inland waterways as National Waterways-
1. National Waterway No.1 (NW-1)- It comprises Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly river system which connects Haldia-Kolkata-Farakka-Munger-Patna-Varanasi-Allahabad.
2. National Waterway No.2 (NW-2)- The River Brahmaputra connects Dhubri-Pandu-Tezpur-Neamati-Dibrugarh-Sadiya and connects the North East region with Kolkata and Haldia Ports.
3. National Waterway No.3 (NW-3)- It connects between Kollam and Kottapuram. It is the most navigable and tourism potential area.
4. National Waterway No.4 (NW-4)- It connects the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry.
5. National Waterway No. 5 (NW-5)- It comprises Talcher-Dharma stretch of river Brahmani, Geonkhali-Charbatia stretch of East Coast Canal.
6. National Waterway No.6. (NW-6)- It is a proposed waterway between Lakhipur and Bhanga of the Barak river. This would help cargo transport through Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh.
2. Oceanic Waterways-
(a) Oceanic waterways play an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy.
(b) India has a vast coastline of approximate 7,517 kilometres, including islands.
(c) 12 Major Ports, 185 Minor Ports and Intermediate Ports provide support to these routes.
(d) These routes are also used for transportation between the islands and the rest of the country.
(e) 80% of cargo traffic is handled by the Major Ports.
(f) The Indian Ports are classified into- Major Ports, Minor Ports and Intermediate Ports.
(g) The Major Ports of India are-
(i) Kolkata (West Bengal)
(ii) Haldia (West Bengal)
(iii) Paradip (Odisha)
(iv) Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)
(v) Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
(vi) Tuticorn (Tamil Nadu)
(vii) Kandla (Gujarat)
(viii) Mumbai (Maharashtra)
(ix) Jawaharlal Nehru (Nava Sheva) Port near Mumbai
(x) Mormugao (Goa)
(xi) New Mangalore (Karnataka)
(xii) Kochi (Kerala)
(g) Ennore Port near Chennai Port, is the first Public Company Port in India and is a Corporate Entity and not a Port Trust.
➢ Advantages of Waterways :
(i) Water transport is cheap and its maintenance cost is low.
(ii) Heavy and bulky goods can be transported easily.
(iii) It is very useful during natural calamities like flood and rain when the relief operations are carried out through waterways.
(iv) Development of shipping is essential for the defence of the country also.
(v) It is a fuel-efficient and eco-friendly mode of transport.
(vi) It is a safe mode of transport.
(vii) Water transport plays important role in foreign trade.
➢ Disadvantages of Waterways :
(i) It is a slow means of transport.
(ii) It depends on weather conditions.
(iii) The long hours of travelling causes sea sickness.
(iv) Area of water transport is restricted. Unlike railways and roads, man cannot construct waterways.
(v) It is less safe as there is a danger of sinking of boats and ships.
Know the terms
➢ National Airport Authority : It is constituted for the better administration and cohesive management of airports.
➢ Inland Waterways : They are in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks which facilitate the movement of goods and people within the territories.
➢ Oceanic Waterways : These are routes used for transportation between the islands and the rest of the country.
|• Cheaper||• Pollution|
|• Door to door service||• Unsuitable for long distance|
|• Links other means of transport||transportation|
|• Flexible||• Excess traffic, increasing travel time|
|• Safer movement of goods||• Prone to accidents|
|• Can be constructed in areas of rough terrain||• Ill maintained roads cause wear and tear of vehicles|
|• Easy movement of bulky goods||• Not flexible|
|• It has brought the villages close to cities||• Not available in remote parts|
|• Helps during natural calamities||• High maintenance cost|
|• Journey is comfortable||• Not suitable for short distance transportation|
|• Provides employment||• Heavy loss of life in accidents|
|• Cheaper||• Pollution as it is run on coal (Both air and noise)|
|• Faster||• Costly|
|• Comfortable||• Affected by adverse weather conditions|
|• Can cross natural barriers with ease||• Runs on petroleum which is non renewable|
|• Provide quick help in natural calamities||• Not suitable for short distance travel|
|• Helps in national security and defense||• Not all places are connected by airway|
|• Cheaper||• Time consuming|
|• Eco-friendly||• Depends on weather conditions|
|• Safe||• Can cause sea sickness|
|• Helps in transport of bulky goods||• Limited to areas where rivers are navigable|
|• Promotes international trade|
Question. Transport is the backbone of India’s economy. Justify.
What is the importance of transport?
Answer. Movement of goods and raw material for industrial growth and urbanization of the economy
2. Export and import
3. Infrastructure development
4. Growth of the tertiary sector
5. Removes scarcity of goods during crises
Question. Why are there no inland waterways in South India?
Answer. Rivers are seasonal and rain-fed.
2. Rivers in South India are shorter compared to rivers in North India.
3. There are many waterfalls and rapids due to the rough Deccan terrain.
Question. Why is Ganga navigable up to Allahabad?
Answer. 1. It is a perennial river.
2. It is joined by many rivers like Yamuna, Ghagra, Gomti, Gandak, etc, hence its depth is more than 10 metres up to Allahabad.
3. Its slope is gradual.
4. It is free from stones and silt.
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