Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to First Phase of Indian National Movement ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 First Phase of Indian National Movement Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter First Phase of Indian National Movement provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
First Phase of Indian National Movement Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions
(1) Mention the three phases of Indian national movement?
Ans. Three phases of National Movement :
(i) The Early Nationalists phase (1885 – 1907)
• aimed at gaining more concessions for Indians.
• adopted constitutional methods like petitions and praying
(ii) The Assertives phase (1907 – 1916)
• aimed at socio economic and national progress.
• extremist measures, Swadeshi, Swaraj, National Education and Boycott.
(iii) The Gandhian phase (1915 – 1947)
• aimed at complete independence.
• Methods included – nonviolence, satyagraha.
(2) State the main objectives of Early Nationalists.
Ans. The main objective of the early nationalists was to achieve self govenment within the British Empire. Hence they asked for constitutional and other reforms within the frame work of the British rule. Their aim was to achieve ‘Home Rule’ through larger share in the government and educating people to arouse political consciousness.
(3) Who were the main Early Nationalist leaders?
Ans. Main Early Nationalists leaders :
(i) Wyomeshchandra Banerjee
(ii) Pherozeshah Mehta
(iii) Surendranath Banerjee
(iv) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(4) Who were the Early Nationalists ?
Ans. In its intial years the Congress was led by a group of leaders known as the Early Nationalists. The members of this group were drawn from the educated middle class consisting of professionals like lawyers, barristers, teachers and officials, who drew inspiration from western liberal and radical thought. Many of them were educated in England and felt that the British intended to be just to Indians but they were unaware of the true state of affairs in India.
(5) What was the attitude of the Early Nationalists towards the British ?
Ans. The attitude of the Early Nationalists was not anti-British. They had unlimited faith in the British sense of justice. They had loyalty towards British which they identified as loyalty towards their country.
(6) What were the beliefs of Early Nationalists about the British?
Ans. (i) The Early Nationalists had faith in the sense of justice, fair play, honesty and integrity of the British.
(ii) It was their hope that the British would grant ‘Home Rule’ to Indians. They relied on the solemn pledges made by the British government.
(iii) They believed that the British rule aided in cleaning social ills like sati, untouchability and child marriage.
(iv) They were of the opinion that British would help Indians govern themselves according to western standards.
(v) They said that the main obstacle in India’s progress was social and economic backwardness of Indians and not the British colonial rule.
(7) What ways did the Early Nationalists adopt for constitutional agitation?
Ans. Early Nationalists believed in the policy of constitutional agitation within the legal framework, and slow orderly political progress.
(i) Early Nationalists criticised the improper policies of British government in India, through resolutions and petitions.
(ii) Through their articles/essays, the people of India came to know about policy of British government in India.
(iii) The Indian National Congress used to send deputation in order to divert the attention of British towards special subjects.
(iv) By raising issues in Imperial Legislative Council.
(8) Which reforms were introduced by the British due to the efforts of Early Nationalists?
Ans. The efforts of the Early Nationalists led to the following reforms:
(i) The appointment of a Public Service Commission in 1886;
(ii) A resolution of the House of Commons (1893) for simultaneous examination for the I.C.S. in London and India;
(iii) Appoinment of the Welby Commission on Indian Expenditure (1895);
(iv) The Indian Councils Act of 1892.
(9) Write administrative demands of the Early Nationalists.
Ans. Following were the administrative demands of the Early Nationalists :
(i) Wider employment to Indians in higher jobs under the government.
(ii) Higher jobs to Indians in the army.
(iii) Raising of Indian volunteer force.
(iv) An increase in powers of local bodies and reducing official control on them.
(v) Spread of primary education among the masses.
(vi) Improvement in police system.
(10) Mention two demands of Early Nationalists concerning constitutional reforms.
Ans. (i) They demanded a larger share in the government of their own country.
(ii) They demanded the expansion and reform of the Legislative Councils and wanted that the membership and powers of these Councils should be increased. The members of the Councils should be directly elected by the people.
(11) What was the slogan raised by the Early Nationalists to demand more representation of the Indians in the Legislative Councils ?
Ans. They demanded Indian control over the public purse and adequate representation of Indians in the Executive Council of the Viceroy and those of the Governors, hence they raised the slogan “No taxation without representation”.
(12) By which sobriquets do we remember Dadabhai Naoroji.
Ans. (i) ‘The Grand Old Man of India’ (ii) “India’s Un-official Ambassador to England”
(13) Mention two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji to the National Movement.
Ans. (i) He was one of the earliest Indian leaders to hold the view that the poverty of the Indian people was the result of exploitation of India by the British and the drain of India’s wealth to Britain. He explained the Economic Drain theory during colonial time.
(ii) He started movements against the Vernacular Press Act and the atrocious treatment of the zamindars with the poor peasants.
(14) Name the two associations established by Dadabhai Naoroji
Ans. (i) East India Association (1866)
(ii) London India Society (1865)
(15) Who was called the ‘Father of the Nationalist Movement in India’ ? Against which two Acts did he start an agitation ?
Ans Surendranath Banerjee called the ‘Father of the Nationalist Movement in India’. He started as agitation against Arms Act and Vernacular Press Act.
(16) Which works explain Dadabhai’s veiws on Indian economy?
Ans. Dadabhai’s views on Indian economy are given in his work entitled ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’. His famous ‘Drain Theory’ explained how India’s wealth was being ‘drained’ to England through various ways.
(17) Whom did Gandhiji acknowledge as his political Guru ? Name any one oraginsation founded by the him?
Ans. Gandhiji acknowledged Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his political Guru. He founded the ‘Servants of Indian Society’.
(18) What methods did Gopal Krishna Gokhale advocate for arousing national awakening?
Ans. (i) Gopal Krishna Gokhale believed in the policy of moderation and constitutional means to achieve his aims.
(ii) He believed in the methods of democratic agitation and in uplifting the poor as necessary condition for arousing national awakening.
(19) What was the aim of ‘Servants of India Society’ ?
Ans. (i) The main aim of the Society was to train national leaders who would dedicate themselves to the service of India.
(ii) The Society assisted educational movements especially those which were for the education of women.
(iii) It worked for the elevation of the depressed classes.
(20) Who were the authors of ‘A Nation in Making’ and ‘Poverty and Un- British rule in India’ ?
Ans. (i) ‘A Nation in Making’ – Surendranath Banerjee.
(ii) ‘Poverty and Un-British rule in India’ – Dadabhai Naoroji.
(21) What was the ‘Drain Theory’ that was advanced by Dadabhai Naoroji’ ?
Ans. It explained how India’s wealth was being taken away to England in the following forms :
(i) Pension to British officers.
(ii) Profits of the British trading agencies.
(iii) Salaries payable to the members of the Indian Council.
(iv) For the maintenance of British troops in India, payments to the War office.
(22) Name the following Early Nationalist leader-
(i) who was elected to the British House of Commons
(ii) the first Indian to pass Indian Civil Service Examination
Ans. (i) Dadabhai Naoroji.
(ii) Surendranath Banerjee.
(23) Who presided over the session of the Indian National Congress in 1906? State the importance of this Congress session?
Ans. Dadabhai Naoroji presided over the session of the Indian National Congress in 1906. The session of 1906 was important because four resolutions were passed by the Congress under the presidentship of Dadabhai Naoroji. They were:
(4) National education.
(24) Give two instances to explain the official hostility towards Early Nationalists.
Ans. (i) Government officials were prohibited from attending the Congress Sessions.
(ii) The government began to ignore the petitions and resolutions of the Congress.
(25) What methods did the Early Nationalists adopt to achieve their goal ?
Ans. (i) The Early Nationalists did not want freedom but wanted a selfgovernment within the empire. They believed in constitutionalism and liberalisation.
(ii) Their methods included prayers, petitions, passing the resolutions and sending missions to the government.
(26) On which issue did the differences between the Early Nationalists and Assertives first surface ? Why ?
Ans. (i) On the issue of constitutional reforms offered in the Indian Councils Act 1892.
(ii) These inadequate reforms were accepted by the Early Nationalists without any protests whereas the Assertives were not in the favour of accepting these reforms.
(27) State the constitutional demand of Early Nationalists regarding legislative institutions?
Ans. (i) Abolition of India Council.
(ii) Expansion of the Legislative Council and Legislative Assemblies-both at the Centre and it the Provinces.
(iii) Increase in the membership of Indians by including some members elected by local bodies like members of commerce, by giving greater powers to them.
(28) State the anti-British agitations of Surendranath Banerjee?
Ans. Banerjee started agitation against the Licence Act, Arms Act, Vernacular Press Act and against lowering the age from 21 to 19 years to appear in the I.C.S. Examination. He opposed the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 which introduced separate electorates for the Hindus and the Muslims. He also opposed the division of Bengal by Lord Curzon in 1905.
(29) Which economic reforms did Gokhale pursue as member of Legislative Council?
Ans. (i) In 1902 Gokhale became the member of the Imperial Legislative Council. He pleaded in the Council for reduction in Salt Duty and the abolition excise duty on cotton goods.
(ii) His relentless efforts led to reduction in toll tax.
(iii) Being an economist, he demanded radical changes in the fiscal policy and better jobs for the educated middle class.
(iv) He impressed upon the government to reduce the land renvenue.
(30) State the ideological differences between Early Nationalists and Assertive Nationalists ?
Ans. (i) The Early Nationalists had full faith in the British sense of justice whereas Assertive Nationalists disliked British and had no faith in their goodness.
(ii) The Early Nationalists were convinced of the supremacy of European culture whereas Assertive Nationalists highlighted the supremacy of Indian culture.
(iii) The Early Nationalists believed in petitions, prayers and passive resistance whereas, Assertive Nationalists believed in revolutionary methods.
(iv) The Early Nationalists believed that people of India were not fit for self rule whereas, Assertive Nationalists believed that Indians could rule themselves.
(31) Write about Surendranath Bannerjee’s political ideas expressed through his publications ?
Ans. Banerjee edited a newspaper, Begalee, which served as a powerful medium for mobilising public opinion. His book, Nation in the Making, gives an account of his political concern and his views about self-government.
(32) How did the Early Nationalists lay the basis of Indian National movement ?
Ans. (i) The Early Nationalist leaders established a movement that incorporated people of all religions, castes, creeds, regions and colour. They were successful in promoting the spirit of common brotherhood surpassing religious and regional diversities.
(ii) They were successful to a great extent in arousing political awakening and national consciousness among the Indians. They popularised the ideas of democracy and civil liberties among the people of India.
(iii) They were the first in to develop an economic criticism of colonialism. They successfully exposed the true nature of British Imperialism in India.
(33) Mention two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji to the Congress?
Ans. (i) Dadabhai’s role in the Congress was praiseworthy. He took an active part in the foundation of the Indian National Congress and was elceted its President thrice, in 1886, 1893 and 1906 respectively.
(ii) Resolutions on Self-government, Boycott, Swadeshi and National Education were passed by the Congress under his Presidentship.
(1) The period from 1885 to 1907 is called the period of the Early Nationalists. In this context explain the following:
(i) Why was this period called the period of the Early Nationalists?
(ii) Demands of the Early Nationalists.
a. Constitutional Reforms
b. Administrative Reforms
c. Economic Reforms
d. Civil Rights
Ans. (i) (a) The period from 1885 to 1907 was called the Early Nationalist phase because the movement was confined to a handful of educated middle class who was inspired by western education and liberal thinkers.
(b) All of the demands of the Congress were of moderate character.
(c) The methods of struggle during that period were of Early Nationalist character. The leaders carried their agitation through petitions and resolutions.
(ii) Demands : The principal demands of the Early Nationalist may be classified as under:
a. Constitutional Reforms :
(i) The Congress asked for the expansion of the Legislative Councils created by the Act of 1861 and making them representative by including some members elected by the local bodies, chambers of commerce, universities etc.
(ii) They demanded that all legislative measures and all financial questions, including budgets, should be submitted to these Councils.
(iii) Abolition of the Indian Council.
(iv) Complete separation of executive and judicial functions.
(v) They laid stress on ‘Colonial form of self-government’, which was prevalent in the dominions of Canada and Australia.
b. Administrative Reforms :
(i) They demanded for wider employment of the Indians in the higher services.
(ii) Their major demand was indianisation of services through simultaneous ICS examinations in England and India.
(iii) Repeal of the Arms Act.
(iv) An increase in the powers of the local (municipal) bodies and reducing official control over them.
(v) They demanded for more jobs for the Indians in the army, and the raising of an Indian Volunteer Force.
c. Economic Reforms :
The early Congress leaders blamed the Imperial Government for growing economic backwardness of the country. They demanded economic reforms. Some of them were as under :
(i) More funds for technical education to promote Indian industries.
(ii) Abolition of salt tax.
(iii) Reduction in land revenue and expenditure on military.
(iv) An enquiry into India’s growing poverty and famines.
(v) Improvement in the conditions of work of plantation workers.
(vi) To end the unfair tariffs and excise duties.
(vii) Extension of the Permanent Settlement Assessment.
d. Civil Rights :
(i) The Early Nationalists firmly opposed the restrictions imposed by the British Government on the freedom of speech, press and association.
(ii) They demanded the scrapping of the Preventive Detention Act and restoration of individual liberties.
(2) Refer the person in the given picture and answer the following question:
(a) Who was known as India’s Unofficial Ambassador to England ?
(b) What were his views on the cause of poverty in India ?
(c) Mention his achievements in strengthening India’s nationalism.
Ans. (a) Dadabhai Naoroji (Grand Old Man of India) was known as ‘Unofficial Ambassador of India to England’.
(b) Dadabhai Naoroji was a great economic thinker. His views on Indian economy can be gathered from his classic work ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’. Through his famous ‘Economy Drain Theory’ he explained how India’s wealth was being taken away to England in various forms like:
(i) Salaries payable to the members of the Indian Council.
(ii) Dispatch of savings to England by British personnel posted in India.
(iii) Pensions to British officers.
(iv) Payments to the war office for the maintenance of British troops in India.
(v) Profits of the British trading agencies.
(vi) He was one of the earliest Indian leaders to hold the view that the poverty of the Indian people was the result of exploitation of India by the British and the drain of India’s wealth to Britain.
(c) (i) He was one of the foremost leaders of the Congress for over 20 years. He presided thrice over the Sessions of the Congress in 1886, 1893 and 1906.
(ii) He started- movements against the Vernacular Press Act and the atrocious treatment of the zamindars with the poor peasants.
(iii) The credit for demanding Swaraj from the Congress platform (1906) goes to Dadabhai Naoroji.
(iv) He helped in making the national movement more vigorous because four resolutions on self-government, boycott, Swadeshi and national education were passed by the Congress under his presidentship.
(3) Observe the person in the given picture and answer the following :
(a) Name the Early Nationalist leader who was known as ‘The Indian Burke’ ?
(b) Mention his efforts to arouse national awakening or in strengthening national movement.
(c) What methods did he suggest to achieve the political goals?
(d) What was his contribution in Indian National Congress?
Ans. The person in the picture is Surendranath Banarjee.
(a) Surendranath Banerjee is often called ‘The Indian Burke’.
(b) (i) He took an active part in the freedom movement of India. He was a great patriot, a speaker, a journalist, an educationist, an organiser and a political agitator.
(ii) He founded Indian Association in 1876 which helped in educating the people, to arouse political consciousness and unity among the people.
(iii) He was of the opinion that masses i.e. general public, should be included in the national movement. He was in favour of the Hindu- Muslim unity and was of the opinion that the ‘disunity between these would hamper the growth of national movement’.
(iv) He organised popular demonstrations and started agitations against the Licence Act, Arms Act, Vernacular Press Act and against lowering the age from 21 to 19 years for ICS examination.
(v) He opposed the Minto Morley Reforms of 1909 which introduced separate electorates for the Hindus and the Muslims. He also opposed the division of Bengal.
(vi) He was popularly knowns as Father of Indian Nationalism.
(c) (i) He belonged to the Early Nationalist group of the Congress. He pleaded for modernisation and constitutional means for the attainment of India’s goal. He used to say “opposition where necessary, cooperation where possible”.
(ii) He was not in favour of violent activities.
(iii) He was in favour of ‘Boycott and Swadeshi’ movements.
(d) (i) In order to create an all-India political organisation Surendranath convened the Indian Conference in 1883 at Kolkata.
(ii) Surendranath Banerjee’s Indian National Conference merged with the Indian National Congress in 1886 as both organisations had similar objectives.
(iii) He presided over two sessions of the Congress in 1895 and 1902.
(4) Identify the person in the given picture and answer the following :
(a) Who was known as ‘the Political Guru of Gandhi’?
(b) Name any one Society which was formed by him. What were the objectives of the society ?
(c) His efforts to arouse national awakening.
(d) His attempts towards economic reforms.
(e) His views about the goal of the Congress and means to achieve these goals.
Ans. (a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale was known as the Political Guru of Gandhi.
(b) He established ‘The Servants of India Society’ in 1905. Objectives of the Society :
(i) The Society trained people to devote their lives to the cause of the country.
(ii) The Society assisted educational movements, especially those for the education of women.
(iii) The Society worked for the upliftment of depressed classes.
(c) (i) He opposed the policies of the British Government, whenever necessary. He criticised the government for adopting the policy of racial discrimination and ignoring elementary education.
(ii) It was largely due to his political moderation and the co-operation that made the government recognize that the Congress is a forum responsible for the Indian public opinion.
(iii) According to him, the most urgent need of his countrymen was education.
(d) (i) He was deeply appalled to see the increasing misery of the peasantry. He pleaded for the reduction of land revenue.
(ii) He laid great stress on encouraging industry and on appointing Indians to high posts so that the money saved could be used for the welfare of the people.
(iii) Gokhale was in favour of state protection to infant Indian industries. (iv) He went to England to propagate his views before the Welby commssion. The commssion was setup to look into Indian Expenditures.
(v) A a member of Imperial Legislative Council he pleaded for reduction of salt duty and abolition of excise duty in cotton goods.
(vi) Being an economist he demaded redical changes in the fiscal policies. (vii) His relentless efforts led to reduction of Toll Tax.
(e) (i) Gokhale like other moderate leaders had immense faith in British rule. Gokhale urged that “the goal of the Congress should be the attainment of that form of government, similar to that which existed in the self governing colonies of the British empire”.
(ii) He wanted to achieve the goal by constitutional means. The constitutional means included petitions, appeals to justice and passive resistance.
(iii) Gokhale presided over the Varansai session of Congress in 1905.
(5) Discuss the contribution of the following as pioneers of Early Nationalism?
(a) Dadabhai Naoroji
(b) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(c) Surendranath Banerjee
Ans. (a) Dadabhai Naoroji :
(i) He was known as ‘The Grand Old Man of India’ or ‘India’s Unofficial Ambassador to England’.
(ii) He established East India Association with the sole aim of putting across the Indian point of view before the British Public.
(iii) Through his work ‘Theory of Economic Drain’ he exposed economic exploitation of India by British.
(iv) The credit for demanding SWARAJ from the Congress platform for the first time goes to Dadabhai Naoroji.
(v) He became the first ever Indian/Asian member of the British Parliament.
(b) Gopal Krishna Gokhale :
(i) He was known as ‘The Political Guru of Gandhi’. He was avoided the title of C.I.E. Companion of Indian Empire.
(ii) He became the member of Imperial Legislative Council in 1902. He pleaded in the ILC for reduction in salt duty, toll tax, abolition of excise duty on cotton goods.
(iii) In 1905, he established the ‘Servants of the India Society’. The main aim was to train the Indians to devote their lives to the cause of the country. (iv) He played an important role in the formulation of the constitutional reforms known as Minto-Morley Reforms.
(v) He edited ‘Poona Sarvajanik Sabha’ a quarterly journal.
(c) Surendranath Banerjee :
(i) He was known as ‘The Indian Burke’, ‘The Indian Gladstone’ and ‘Father of Nationalist movement in India’.
(ii) He was the first Indian to pass the Indian Civil Service examination.
(iii) To fight against British policies he founded the Indian Association.
(iv) He started the Indian National Conference in 1883 for all kinds of political problems. This organisation was later merged with Indian National Congress.
(v) He was the editor of ‘The Bengalee’ and wrote ‘The Nation in making’.
(vi) He opposed the partition of Bengal and supported swadeshi movement and the boycott of foreign goods.
(6) With respect to the methods of Early Nationalists explain the following:
(a) Constitutional agitation
(b) Methods to educate people in India
(c) Methods to influence the British
Ans. (a) Constitutional agitation : The method, popularly known as Constitutional Agitation Method was followed by the Early Nationalists. They relied on consitutional and peacfful methods and avoided violence and confronation. They believed in the policy of constitutional agitation within the legal framework, and slow orderly political progress. The methods adopted by the Ear1y Nationalists had two objectives.
(b) Methods to educate people in India : First Set of Methods : Their first objective was to educate people in India in modern politics, to arouse national political consciousness and to create a united public opinion. For this purpose, they relied on the following methods:
(i) They held meetings where speeches were made and resolutions for popular demands were passed.
(ii) They made use of the press to criticise government policies.
(iii) They sent memorandums and petitions to government officials and the British Parliament. These petitions were carefully drafted with facts and arguments. Though these petitions were addressed to the government, their real aim was to educate the Indian people.
(c) Methods to influence the British : Second Set of Methods : The second objective of the Early Nationalists was to influence the British government and the British public. To achieve this objective, they followed the following methods:
(i) They made use of three P’s i.e. Petitions, Prayers and Protests. They sent petitions, requests and letters of protest to the British government to look into the problems of the Indians.
(ii) A British Committee of the Indian National Congress was set up in London in 1889, which published a weekly journal, India, to present India’s case before the British public.
(iii) Deputations of Indian leaders were sent to Britain. These political leaders carried on active propaganda in Britain. For example, Dadabhai Naoroji spent a major part of his life in Britain to create awareness among British people d politicians about the plight of Indians.