Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to Second Phase of the Indian National Movement ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 Second Phase of the Indian National Movement Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter Second Phase of the Indian National Movement provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
Second Phase of the Indian National Movement Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions
(1) What according to the British government necessitated the partition of Bengal?
Ans. (i) The Presidency of Bengal was the most thickly populated province in British India. It comprised Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Chotanagpur and some other remote areas. It extended over an area of 489,500 sq. km with a huge population of over 80 million.
(ii) The main motive for the Partition of Begal according to the British rulers, was administrative necessity.
(iii) They said that the province of Bengal was too big to be efficiently administered by a single provincial government.
(2) When was the decision regarding the Partition of Bengal officially announced ? Which day was observed as the Day of Mourning by the people protesting against the Partition of Bengal ? Ans. The decision regarding the Partition of Bengal was officially announced on 20th July, 1905. The people observed October 16, 1905 as the Day of Mourning when the partition was implemented.
(3) Which action taken by the Viceroy sparked off the Swadeshi Movement in 1905? What was Lord Curzon’s argument in favour of the Partition of Bengal?
Ans. The Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon sparked off the Swadeshi Movement in 1905. Lord Curzon said that Partition of Bengal was “a mere readjustment of administrative boundaries”. In other words, it would improve the administration of the two provinces.
(4) Why was Bengal partitioned according to the nationalist leaders ? OR What were Curzon’s real motive behind the partition of Bengal.
Ans. (i) The British Government wanted to weaken the nationalist movement which was very strong in Bengal. Bengal at that time was considered as nerve centre of Nationalism. (ii) To sow the seeds of disunity between the Hindus and the Muslims. (iii) To demonstrate strength of British Raj.
(5) State the scheme of Partition of Bengal.
Ans. On July 20, 1905 Lord Curzon announced the division of the province of Bengal into the following two provinces: (i) ‘Bengal’ which included the western districts of Bengal proper, Bihar and Odisha with a population of 54 million. Calcutta was made its capital.
(ii) ‘Eastern Bengal and Assam’ which comprised the eastern districts of Bengal proper and Assam with a population of 31 million. Dacca was the capital of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.
(6) Who led the anti-partition movement ?
Ans. Surendranath Banerjee, Anand Mohan Bose, K.K. Mitra, Rabindranath Tagore, Motilal Ghosh and Bipin chandra Pal.
(7) Name two political leaders who were arrested by the British Government for taking an active part in the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movements.
Ans. Lala Lajpat Rai and Sardar Ajit Singh.
(8) What was the Four fold programme of Boycott?
Ans. Boycott included:
(i) Boycott of English cloth, salt, sugar, etc.,
(ii) Rejection of English speech,
(iii) Rejection of government posts and seats in Legislative Council; and
(iv) Social boycott of people who purchased foreign goods.
(9) Which newspaper created awarness against partition of Bengal?
Ans. Various leaders criticized the partition through their writings in newspapers such as Sanjibani, Hitabadi, Amrit Bazar Patrika.
(10) How did the partition of Bengal impact the working of Congress?
Ans. Earlier the Congress was dominated by Early Nationalists but after the partition, Self-government or Swaraj was declared as the aim of Congress by the Assertives. In the KolKata session of 1906, Dadabhai Naroji ratified “Swadeshi and Boycott” as means of attaining Swaraj. Though both the wings of Congress had difference of opinion over implementation of Boycott, the mutually agreed over Swadeshi and National education.
(11) Describe in brief the positive impact of Swadeshi and Boycott?
Ans. (i) Increased demand of swadeshi goods gave impetus to Indian Industries, thereby reducing the import of foreign goods.
(ii) Swadeshi and Boycott Movements instilled courage among the people.
(iii) To publicise Swadeshi Campaign, fairs, festivals and folk theatres were organised. Surendranath Banerjee had started the Wang Bang movement. This gave a boost to cultural activities.
(12) State any two repressive Acts of Lord Curzon which prepared the ground for a militant nationalism in India.
Ans. (i) Seditious Meetings Act of 1907.
(ii) Explosive Substances Act of 1908.
(13) Name two leaders of the Anti-partition Movement.
Ans. Surendranath Nath Banerjee, Bipin Chandra Pal.
(14) Which song did R.N. Tagore compose on the occasion of launching Anti- Partition Movement ?
Ans. The song Amar Sonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal).
(15) Name two newspapers started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in order to spread the idea of nationalism.
Ans. The Mahratta and Kesari.
(16) What do you mean by the terms ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ ?
Ans. Swadeshi : Swadeshi means things grown or manufactured in one’s own country. Boycott : Boycott means giving up the use of foreign goods.
(17) What was the impact of ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ Movements on the national education ?
Ans. The Assertives advocated boycott of schools, colleges and universities supported by the government. New educational institutions like the Jamia Milia Islamia at Aligarh and Kashi Vidhya Peeth at Benaras were started by the nationalists.
(18) Name two authors who were inspired by the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements to write National literature.
Ans. (i) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. (Anand Math)
(ii) Rabindranath Tagore. (Amar Sonar Bangla)
(19) Which two repressive measures were taken by the government to suppress the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements ?
Ans. (i) Many Acts were passed to check the spread of movements like ‘The Seditious Meetings Act 1907’ and ‘The Criminal Law Amendment Act’.
(ii) Educational institutions were warned against allowing the students to participate in the movement, otherwise their grant-in-aid would be stopped.
(20) What was the role of the students and women in Anti-Partition Movement? }
Ans. (i) The women marched shoulder to shoulder with men in processions, demonstrations, meetings, held prabhat pheris, picketing and made bonfires of foreign goods.
(ii) Students also contributed a lot to this movement. They boycotted the government schools and colleges. They organised meetings, picketed the shops and burnt foreign goods.
(21) The Swadeshi and the Boycott Movements had an adverse impact on the Indian National Congress. What was the adverse impact ?
Ans. (i) The Assertive Nationalists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and boycott to the rest of India and make it a vehicle for a full-fledged political mass struggle leading to Swaraj. The Early Nationalists, however, did not approve it for the whole of India and, wanted it to be confined to Bengal only.
(ii) Moreover, the Early Nationalists did not wan to extend open support to boycott which was in conflict with their policy of “petition and persuasion”. Due to these differences over Swadeshi and Boycott the Congress had split 1907.
(22) How did the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement hurt the Britain trade interests?
Ans. (i) Under the Movements, British cloth, sugar and other goods were boycotted and there was a lack of demand of British goods.
(ii) The Movements helped in promoting Indian industries. This was also against the interests of British industry.
(23) Why did the British revoke the Partition of Bengal?
Ans. The Swadeshi and Boycott movements were supported by all sections of the society. The movements rapidly gained momentum and rose to their peak within a short span of time. The agitation forced the government to give in and revoke the Partition of Bengal in 1911.
(24) What did the Nationalists advise to maintain adminstrative efficiency?
Ans. The felt that administrative efficiency could have been better secured by separating Hindi-speaking Bihar and the Odiya-speaking Odisha from the Bengali-speaking part of the province. Moreover, the manner in which the announcement of partition was made without any regard for the public opinion, hurt the sentiments of sensitive Bengalis.
(25) Who were Assertive Nationalists?
Ans. In the early years of 20th century, there emerged a new and a younger group of leaders within the Congress who did not agree with the methods and ideology of the Early Nationalists. This group stood for complete Swaraj which could be achieved by courage and self-reliance. This group of leaders came to be known as Assertive Nationalists. Lal-Bal-Pal namely, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal were three prominent leaders advocating Assertive nationalism.
(26) Mention any two principles of the Assertive Nationalists. What was their ultimate objective?
Ans. (i) Abiding faith in the strength of masses. (ii) Supported the swadeshi goods against the use of imported goods. Achievement of complete independence or Swaraj was their ultimate objective.
(27) What were beliefs and ideas of Assertive Nationalists?
Ans. (i) Vigorous politics and direct action.
(ii) Held the British responsible for India’s economic ruination.
(iii Had faith in strength of the masses.
(iv) Highlighted deceit and treachery by means of which British had subjugated India
(v) Believed in self reliance and self determination
(vi) Swaraj – ultimate goal.
(28) Mention any one instance of economic exploitation which led to growth of Assertive Nationalism?
Ans. At the time of famine, Lord Curzon held a Durbar in Delhi to celebrate silver jubilee of Queen Victoria’s accession to the throne of England. British government hardly took any note of 90 lakh famine victims. British did not take measures to solve problem of famine.
(29) Give details of atleast two reactionary Acts introduced by Lord Curzon.
Ans. (i) The Calcutta Corporation Act (1899). Under this Act, elected members to the Municipal Corporation were reduced to half.
(ii) The Indian Universities Act (1904). Under this Act, Curzon curtailed the autonomy of the Universities.
(iii) Official Secrets Act – to deny information to the people under the pretext of official secrets.
(30) Name any two international events that shattered the myth of European superiority.
Ans. (i) The defeat of the Italians, a colonial power, by Ethiopians in 1896.
(ii) The defeat of the Russians by Japanese, an Asian power, in 1905.
(31) Give one reason for the split of the Congress in 1907.
Ans. The Assertive leaders of the National Congress wanted to propose the name of Lala Lajpat Rai for the presidentship of the Congress against the official candidate Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh. This gave rise to separation between the two wings which led to the split in the Congress in 1907.
(32) Which were the newpapers launched by the Assertives ?
Ans. (i) Bal Gangadhar Tilak – Kesari and Mahratta. (ii) Bipin Chandra Pal – New India.
(iii) Aurobindo Ghosh – Vande Mataram. (iv) Lala Lajpat Rai – Young India.
(33) Which international events impacted the rise of Assertive Nationalism?
Ans. (i) Boer’s War – in South Africa, Russo – Japanese war.
(ii) Nationalist movements in Russia, China, Iran inspired Indians.
(iii) Irish Home Rule movement.
(iv) Gandhiji’s Satyagraha in South Africa.
(34) What do you mean by Passive Resistance?
Ans. (i) Policy of non-violent resistance and vigorous political action.
(ii) Distinguish between begging rights and claiming them.
(iii) Refusal to cooperate with the government and to boycott government service, courts, schools and colleges.
(35) What steps were pursued by Assertives to promote national education?
Ans. (i) Replace government controlled universities and colleges.
(ii) Enlist the students in nation’s service.
(iii) National universities that were free from government control -National College (Kolkata), Pachaiyappa National College (Chennai), D.A.V. College (Punjab) came to be established. (iv) Education be given a national orientation in the vernacular languages.
(36) Who propounded a nationalist school of thought besides the trio?
Ans. Rajnarain Bose, Ashwini Kumar Dutt, Vishnushastri Chiplunkar.
(37) What did assertive nationalism emphasise on?
Ans. Main focus of the Assertive Nationalists was to get a larger share for Indians in the administration of their country and to end Britain’s economic exploitation of India. They emphasised on –
(i) Pressure tactics and some sort of direct action.
(ii) Policy of non-cooperation and resistance.
(iii) New slogans to the national movement like ‘non-cooperation, passive resistance, mass agitation, self-reliance’, etc.
(38) List any two methods used by the Assertive Nationalists to achieve their objectives.
Ans. (i) They advocated ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ methods.
(ii) They followed the methods of non-cooperation with the British
government by boycotting government service, courts, schools and colleges.
(39) Name the Assertive nationalist who was known as the ‘Lion of Punjab’. State his contribution in generating political awarness.
Ans. Lala Lajpat Rai was known as the ‘Lion of Punjab.
He started the paper called ‘Young India’ while in the United States of America to create awareness about the aspirations of the people of India in the United States of America. Lala Lajpat Rai edited the daily ‘Vande Mataram’
(40) Name the following :
(i) The author of ‘India’s First War of Independence’
(ii) The founder of Banaras Hindu University
(iii) Revived Shivaji Jayanti
(iv) Father of revolutionary thought in India
Ans. (i) V.D. Savarkar.
(ii) Madan Mohan Malaviya.
(iii) Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(iv) Bipin Chandra Pal
(41) Mention in brief the impact of Assertive Nationalists?
Ans. (i) Assertive Nationalism gave birth to revolutionary movement in India.
(ii) Self reliance and self assertion became the base of national movement.
(iii) Resolution for Swaraj, Swadeshi, Boycott and National education were adopted at all India level.
(iv) New educational institutions were set up such as National Council of Education in 1906.
(v) Popularity of Vernacular languages.
(vi) Partition of Bengal was annulled in 1911.
(42) Name the Nationalist who said ‘Swaraj is my birthright’. Mention one contribution of his to the National Movement.
Ans. Lokmanya Tilak.
He started Home Rule League, Movement in 1916.
(43) In what two ways can Tilak be called the “Fore-runner of Gandhi”?
Ans. (i) Concepts of Swaraj and mass movements preached by Tilak inspired Mahatma Gandhi.
(ii) Tilak conceived the ideas of swadeshi and boycott which were followed by Mahatma Gandhi when he started his political career after Tilak‘s death.
(44) Name two papers started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in order to spread the ideals of nationalism. Which movement did he lead in Maharashtra?
Ans. The Mahratta and the Kesari were the two papers started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in order to spread the ideals of nationalism. He led the Home Rule League in Maharashta.
(45) Name the assertive leader who organised Akharas and Lathi Clubs. Why were these organised?
Ans. ‘Akharas and Lathi Clubs’ were organised by Bal Gangadhar Tilak. These were organised to make the youth brave to defy the British Raj.
(46) Name the assertive leader who had his influence in
Ans. Punjab – Lala Lajpat Rai (Lal). Bombay – Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Bal). Bengal – Bipin Chandra Pal (Pal).
(47) Name any two books written by Bipin Chandra Pal. Ans. ‘The Spirit of Indian Nationalism’ and ‘The Economic Menace to India.’ (48) Name any two books written by Lala Lajpat Rai. Ans. ‘The Call to Young India’ and ‘The Political Future of India.’
(49) Name two books written by Tilak.
Ans. ‘The Gita Rahasya’ and ‘The Arctic Home of the Vedas.’
(50) What role was played by Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala lajpat Rai in the spread of nationalism?
Ans. (i) During the anti-partition movement, he toured several parts of the country and carried his message of ‘Boycott and Swadeshi’.
(ii) Lala Lajpat Rai died after being assaulted by the British in his demonstration against the Simon Commission. This gave a momentum to the launch of Civil Disobdience Movement.
(51) Name the Congress leader who died after being assaulted by the British in his demonstration against the Simon Commission. Mention one consequence of the protest against the Simon Commission’s recommendation.
Ans. Lala Lajpat Rai. This led to launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(52) What was the contribution of Lalaji as a social reformer?
Ans. (i) He started the Servants of the Peoples Society for the welfare of the downtrodden and outcastes.
(ii) He also laid the foundation of the Dayanand Anglo – Vedic College at Lahore. (iii) He started a number of orphanages and hospitals in Punjab.
(53) What was the contribution of Bipin Chandra Pal as a social reformer?
Ans. (i) He opposed the caste system and other rigid rules concerning interdining and inter-mixing. (ii) He advocated widow remarriage and women’s education.
(54) State the economic ideas of Bipin Chandra Pal.
Ans. (i) He stressed the need to develop indigenous industries in the country; he preached the use of Swadeshi and the Boycott of foreign goods to eradicate poverty and unemployment.
(ii) To establish equality in society, he wanted to tax the rich more heavily than the poor; (iii) He demanded forty-eigth hours of work in a week and an increase in the wages.
(1) With reference to the Partition of Bengal in 1905, answer the following questions :
(i) What was Curzon’s argument in favour of the partition of Bengal?
(ii) How did the Nationalists interpret Lord Curzon’s motives?
(iii) What did the nationalists suggest to protect the integrity of Bengal?
Ans. (i) The Presidency of Bengal was the most thickly populated province in British India. It comprised Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Chotanagpur and some other remote areas. It extended over an area of 489,500 sq. km with a huge population of over 80 million. Thus Bengal was then the largest province of the British India. It was said that it was difficult to administer such a big province, so it was necessary to break it up.
(ii) Nationalists’ interpretation :
(a) To weaken the Nationalist Movement : Bengal was the largest province and the National Movement was very strong there. The British Government intended to crush this movement. Bengal at that time was considered the nerve centre of Indian nationalism and Lord Curzon wanted to crush the spirit of nationalism.
(b) To divide the Hindus and the Muslims : Another motive behind the partition was to drive a wedge between the Hindus and the Muslims. By partitioning Bengal in East Bengal, the government wanted to please the Muslims. On his tour of Bengal, Lord Curzon told the Muslims in 1904 that his objective in partitioning was not only to relieve the Bengal administration, but also to create a Mohammedan Province, where Islam could be predominant and its followers in ascendancy. British managed to pull influential Muslims like Nawab Salimullah to their side.
(c) To demonstrate the strength of the British Raj : When partition of Bengal was proposed, the people reacted sharply. Lord Curzon wanted to show that the government could afford to hold public opinion in contempt.
(iii) (a) They felt that administrative efficiency could have been better secured by separating Hindi-speaking Bihar and the Odiya-speaking Odisha from the Bengali-speaking part of the province.
(b) Moreover, the manner in which the announcement of partition was made without any regard for the public opinion, hurt the sentiments of sensitive Bengalis. Robomate+
(2) The Partition of Bengal in 1905 was intended to check the rising tide of Indian Nationalism and to break the Hindu-Muslim unity in Bengal. In this context, state the following :
(a) Reaction of the Nationalists to the Partition of Bengal.
(i) The Day of Mourning
(ii) Swadeshi and Boycott Movements
(iii) Stimulus to Culture and Literary Activity
(b) Reaction of the British against the agitators.
Ans. (a) (i) The Day of Mourning : Partition of Bengal became effective from 16th October, 1905. The Nationalists declared it to be ‘A Day of Mourning’. Surendranath Banerjee launched ‘Wang-Bang’ Movement. People tied ‘Rakhis’ to each other to demonstrate unity among the people. Anand Mohan Bose, a veteran political leader, laid the foundation of a Federation Hall in Calcutta, which was to be the symbol of the unity of Bengal.
(ii) Swadeshi and Boycott Movements : The Partition of Bengal led the people to adopt two coercive weapons : ‘Swadeshi and Boycott’. ‘Swadeshi literally means, of one’s own country’, aimed at the promotion of indigenous industries for strengthening the nation. During the struggle for freedom, it meant that people should use goods produced within the country. The promotion of Swadeshi was accompanied by the advocacy of the boycott of foreign goods. Initially the movement was limited to goods only but later on a four-fold programme of Boycott was advocated:
(a) Boycott of English cloth, salt, sugar, etc.
(b) Renunciation of English speech, government posts and seats in Legislative Councils.
(d) Social boycott of those people who purchased foreign goods.
(iii) Stimulus to Culture and Literary Activity : The ‘Swadeshi’ spirit was sustained by literary activity in the form of songs, poems, popular dramas, novels and short stories. The songs composed by Rabindranath Tagore, R.K. Sen and Syed Abu Mohammad and Mukunda Das became the moving spirit for nationalists. Tagore’s ‘Amar Sonar Bangla’ was written during that time.
(b) (i) To suppress the movement, the government followed the policy of repression. The people and the local leaders were beaten mercilessly by the police.
(ii) Tilak was tried for seditious writings in the Kesari. In July 1908, he was convicted and deported to Mandalay to serve six years of imprisonment, Lala Lajpat Rai and Sardar Ajit Singh had also been deported to Mandalay.
(iii) Many newspapers were banned and their editors jailed. V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was persecuted and jailed.
(iv) Many students were expelled from schools and colleges. Grant-inaid to educational institutions was stopped. Many government employees were expelled on the charges of supporting the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements.
(v) The government was terror-stricken and came out with repressive measures, such as the ‘Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act’ (1907), the ‘Explosive Substances Act’ (1908), ‘The Criminal Law Amendment Act’ (1908) and ‘The Newspaper Act’ (1908).
(3) How did the Partition of Bengal affect the National Movement :
(a) Mass Movement
(b) Swadeshi and Boycott
(c) Impact on the working of the Congress
(d) Impact on Revolutionary Organisation
Ans. The Partition of Bengal is considered one of the events which helped in accelerating the National Movement.
(a) Mass Movement :
(i) This was the first mass movement in which all classes of people participated against the Britishers. The movement helped in widening the base and dimensions of the National Movement.
(ii) This movement found supporters in all classes of the society from princely states, landlords and merchants to humble workers and even the sanyasis. Students and women also took an active part in organising processions.
(b) Swadeshi and Boycott : The Partition of Bengal strengthened the National Movement by giving it the weapons of the Swadeshi and the Boycott. Swadeshi and Boycott had a positive impact on the Indian handicrafts. So, even the workers took active part in the movement.
(c) Impact on the working of the Congress :
(i) The Partition of Bengal had a great impact on the working of the Indian National Congress. Earlier the Congress was dominated by the Early Nationalists and the Congress demands included only reforms but after the partition of Bengal, ‘Self-government’ or ‘Swaraj’ was declared as the aim of the Congress. Even the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements were supported.
(ii) This marked a very big change in the methods and working of the Congress. Dadabhai Naoroji, during the Congress Session of Calcutta, declared that the goal of Congress was ‘attainment of Swaraj’.
(d) Impact on Revolutionary Organisation :
(i) The government was terror-stricken and came out with repressive measures. The repressive measures forced the revolutionary organisations to follow the policy of ‘Bullet for Bullet.’ These organisations started attacking British officials.
(ii) Though the government announced the annulment in 1911, this incident had a deep impact on the Indian society.
(iii) Some revolutionary leaders wanted to answer the repressive activities of the government. Khudi Ram Bose, Ram Prasad Bismil, Praffula Chakhi etc. sacrificed their lives to root out the British rule.
(4) Explain the methods of Assertive nationalists as follows :
a. Swadeshi and Boycott
b. National Education
c. Passive Resistance
d. Other Methods – Revivalism, Personal sacrifices, Mass involvement
Ans. Assertives believed in pressure tactics and direct action. Hence, they adopted the policy of non-cooperation and resistance to unjust acts of the British government. They gave new slogans to the national movement like ‘non cooperation, passive resistance, mass agitation self-relaince’, etc. The methods adopted by them can be grouped as :
a. Swadeshi and Boycott: Swadeshi means producing necessary items in one’s own country and using them for one’s use without being depedent on imported goods. The Swadeshi idea was popularised by occasional bonfires or foreign cloth, salt and sugar. Economic boycott of Britsh goods and ues of Swadeshi was designed to encourage Indian industries and provide the people with more opportunites for employment.
b. National Education: A National schme of education was planned which was to replace that of Government controlled universities and colleges. The Assertive Nationalists tried to enlist the students in their service. A large number of national schools were established in East Bengal. Bengal National College was set up at Kolkata and Pachaiyappa National College at Chennai. In Punjab, the D.A.V Movement made considerable effort in spreading education through various schools and colleges. Efforts were also made to give education a national oreientation in vernacular language.
c. Passive Resistance: The Assertive leaders believed in adopting the policy of non-violent resistance and vigorous political action to achieve their aims. They, theerfore,asked the people to refuse to cooperate with the government and to boycott government service, courts, schools and colleges. They advocated courage, self-confidence and a spirit of sacrifice to achieve their goal of Swaraj. They other methods used by the Assertive were :
(i) Revivalism : Asserative Nationalists revived self-respect by referring to India’s past glory. Tilak revived the Shivaji festival in 1895. The Assertive Nationalists presented Chandragupta Vikramaditya, Rana Pratap and Shivaji as national heroes, whose memory could inspire the masses to fight for their country.
(ii) Personal sacrifices: The followers of the movement used selfreliance and were ready for self-sacrifice, suffering and hardships to achieve their goal.
(iii) Mass involvement: They had an abiding faith in the strength of the masses and proposed to win freedom through mass action. They aroused the masses by influencing them with their sacrifices and suffering.
(5) Explain the reasons for the split in Congress in 1907 and its effects under the following headings :
(a) Differences over Boycott
(b) Dispute over presidentship
(c) Effect of Surat Split on the national movement
Ans. (a) (i) The Swadeshi movement cast its shadow on the growing differences between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists. The Assertive Nationalists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and boycott to the rest of India and make it a vehicle for a full-fledged political mass struggle leading to Swaraj. The Early Nationalists, however, did not approve it for the whole of India and wanted it to be confined to Bengal only.
(ii) Moreover, the Early Nationalists did not wan to extend open support to boycott which was in conflict with their policy of “petition and persuasion”.
(b) (i) There was also a disagreement over the candidature of the next President.
(ii) Finally, Dadabhai Naoroji, who was respected by both the groups, became the President in 1906.
(iii) The differences between the two sections continued. They surfaced again in the next session in 1907 at Surat.
(v) The Assertive Nationalists proposed the name of Lala Lajpat Rai as President of the Surat Session. The Early Nationalists proposed the name of Rashbehari Ghosh.
(vi) When the session at Surat began in December 1907 there was utter confusion. This led to the split in the Congress and the Assertive Nationalist leaders were expelled. For nine years they remained out of the Congress.
(c) (i) The split in the Congress was unfortunate because it gave an opportunity to the British to exploit the situation to their advantage.
(ii) They adopted a policy of ‘concession and repression’— concession for the Early Nationalists as well as the Muslims and repression to the Assertive Nationalists.
(iii) The Surat Split also weakened the national movement. The Early Nationalists, however, were largely able to capture the Congress organisation and in the Allahabad convention, held in April 1908, the split was formalised.
(6) How did the following causes lead to the rise of Assertive nationalism in the early 20th century :
(i) Failure of the Early Nationalists.
(ii) The worsening of the economic conditions.
(iii) Repressive policy of Lord Curzon.
Ans. (i) The Early Nationalists passed resolutions and prepared petitions which they sent to the government for consideration. But their methods failed miserably. The British turned a deaf ear to their resolutions and petitions. The failure of the Early Nationalists forced the new leaders to take bold action against the Britishers.
(ii) (a) The economic policies of the British Government were anti-Indian. Money was not available in banks even against Government Securities and the interest rates were artificially high.
(b) Due to the poor condition of industries, employment opportunities were limited. Due to the introduction of English education, the number of educated Indians increased. Most of them were unemployed and were not eligible for the higher posts. This created a feeling of frustration which lit the fire of extreme nationalism.
(c) The heavy cost of running the British rule in India was borne by the Indian people. The wars waged against other countries by the British Government in India led to greater exploitation of India. Tax rate was very high and money collected from these taxes was never used for fulfilling basic needs.
(iii) Lord Curzon adopted a repressive policy towards Indians. He passed the following Acts against the Indians :
(a) Calcutta Corporation Act of 1899: Under this Act the elected members of the corporation were reduced to half.
(b) The Universities Act of 1904 : Under this Act, the governing bodies of the universities were to be reconstructed.
(c) Act of 1898 : The Act of 1898 made it an offence to provoke people against the English.
(d) The Official Secrets Act : This Act was passed in 1904. Under this Act, even the leakage of ordinary information regarding civil administration was considered illegal.
(e) Partition of Bengal : Lord Curzon’s most unpopular decision was the Partition of Bengal which he announced in 1903 and carried out in 1905.
(7) With reference to the various factors which led to the growth of Assertive nationalism, examine the role of each of the following :
(a) Famines and Plague.
(b) International events.
(c) Partition of Bengal.
Ans. (a) (i) There were frequent famines between 1860-1908. The major reason for this was the absolute dependence of the agriculture on the monsoon and lack of irrigational facilities. Millions of people perished in these famines.
(ii) On the other hand the Government was wasting money on the Silver Jubilee celebrations of Queen Victoria’s accession while people were dying of hunger. (iii) Similarly, when plague raged in Poona, the government’s indifference and apathy added to the anger and disgust of the common man. Tilak was sentenced to 18 months of rigorous imprisonment because he attacked the policy of the government in the Kesari and the Mahratta.
(b) (i) The early years of 20th century were marked by revolutions against oppressive regimes all over the world. There were revolutions in Iran, China and Turkey. The people of India, especially the educated, were inspired by these revolutions.
(ii) The defeat of Italy at the hands of Ethiopians, an insignificant African nation in 1896 and that of Russia, a great European power, at the hands of Japan, a small Asian nation, had infused a new spirit of self confidence among the people of Asia, including the Indians.
(c) (i) The Partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon had the greatest effect in changing the aims and methods of the nationalist movement.
(ii) Bengal was the largest province. It was said that it was difficult to administer such a big province and that it was necessary to break it up.
(iii) But the real motive was to weaken the nationalist movement which was very strong in West Bengal.
(iv) Another aim was to sow seeds of disunity between the Hindus and the Muslims.
(v) The Partition gave such a shock that the whole political life of the province was revolutionised. There were agitations all over the country. The slogans like ‘Vande Mataram’, ‘Unity is Strength’ were raging in Bengal.
(vi) The Swadeshi and Boycott movements which were started with a view to end the Partition of Bengal soon became a powerful weapon of the struggle for freedom. The Partition of Bengal gave evidence that petitions and appeals had no impact on the Britishers. It gave strength to the militant group.
(8) What was the contribution of the Assertive Trio in India’s struggle against the British Raj :
BAL GANGADHAR TILAK
BIPIN CHANDRA PAL
LALA LAJPAT RAI
Ans. BAL GANGADHAR TILAK :
(i) Lokmanya was also known as ‘Father of Assertive Nationalism’.
(ii) He formed the Deccan Education Society.
(iii) His weeklies ‘Kesari’ and ‘Mahratta’ made bitter attacks on the government.
(iv) His famous slogan was “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.”
(v) He set up a Home Rule League in 1916.
(vi) He organised Ganpati and Shivaji festivals.
(vii) He organised Swadeshi and boycott agitation after the partition of Bengal.
(viii) After the split, he assumed leadership of Aggressive Nationalists.
(ix) In 1896, he led a No Rent Campaign and asked the cultivators not to pay land revenue because of famines.
(x) Gandhiji’s ideal of complete independence was similar to that of Tilak.
BIPIN CHANDRA PAL : (i) B. C. Pal was popularly known as ‘Father of revolutionary thought in India’.
(ii) He was a great journalist and edited ‘New India’. He also worked for Bengal Public Opinion and the Tribune.
(iii) He was in favour of taking stronger methods of agitation.
(iv) He wanted education to be organised on nationalistic lines.
(v) He wanted that Swadeshi and Boycott should become means of national freedom.
(vi) He suggested many methods to remove poverty and unemployment in his book, ‘The New Economic Menace to India’.
(vii) He launched an English daily, ‘Vande Mataram’.
(ix) The most important event in Pal’s life was his refusal to give evidence against Aurobindo Ghosh in a sedition case against him for which he suffered rigorous imprisonment for 6 months.
LALA LAJPAT RAI : (i) Lalaji was popularly known as ‘Sher – e – Punjab’ and ‘Punjab Kesari’ due to his courage and fearlessness.
(ii) He was closely associated with Arya Samaj Movement.
(iii) He started ‘Young India’ which spread the message of right of the Indian to attain Swaraj.
(iv) He presided over the historic Calcutta session of Congress in 1920 where a resolution on Non – Cooperation was taken.
(v) He sacrificed his life when he was protesting against Simon Commission.
(vi) He was a member of Ghadar Party and founded ‘The Servants of the People Society.’
(vii) He became the first president of All India Trade Union Congress.
(viii) He wrote various Books – The Call to Young India, England’s debt to India, The Political Future of India. He also wrote books on National Education.
(9) (I) Name the person represented in the picture given below. Write about his contribution to the National Movement as mentioned below.
(II) (a) What were his political views ?
(b) Enlist his contribution towards the rise of Nationalism.
(c) Why is he known as the forerunner of Mahatma Gandhi ?
Ans. (I) The person in the picture is Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
(II) (a) (i) Bal Gangadhar Tilak was a fearless fighter. He had no faith in the methods of prayers and petitions.
(ii) It was his firm conviction that independence would come to- India only when the Indians were strong enough to snatch it from the British hands.
(iii) His weeklies, The Mahratta and The Kesari made bitter attacks on the Government. He used his newspapers as powerful weapons to spread discontent against British rule.
(iv) It was under his influence that the Congress in its annual Session in 1906 had to pass resolutions regarding ‘Swaraj’. He said “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it”.
(v) Bal Gangadhar Tilak wanted to extend ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ movements as the normal methods of agitation.
(b) (i) Tilak was one of the most prominent leaders of the extremists who taught people to rely on their own strength. He instilled among the people love and pride for the country. He was an agitator and a fighter in the true sense of the term.
(ii) To spread national movement in rural areas, he revived the Shivaji festival in 1895 and organised ‘Lathi Clubs’ and ‘Akharas’.
(iii) He along with Bipin Chandra and Lajpat Rai transformed the anti-partition movement into a movement for Swaraj.
(iv) He started the Home Rule Movement in 1916. With his own ideas and weapons he infused a new life in the national movement and brought about a change in its character.
(v) He was responsible for giving a new direction to the freedom struggle and made it popular by widening its base.
(c) (i) Gandhiji’s ideals were moulded by Tilak’s thoughts in a big way. Gandhiji laid great stress on Prohibition, Swadeshi and Boycott. All these had been preached and practised by Tilak much before Gandhiji did so.
(ii) Gandhiji’s ideal of complete independence was similar to Tilak’s ideal of Swaraj.
(10) (I) Name the person represented in the picture given below. Write about his following contribution to the
(II) (a) Name that assertive nationalist who was known as ‘Sher-e-Punjab’.
(b) His contribution as an educationist and a forceful writer.
(c) His assertive ideas.
(d) His contribution to the growth of National consciousness in India.
Ans. (I) The person in the picture is Lala Lajpat Rai.
(II) (a) Lala Lajpat Rai was known as ‘Sher-e-Punjab’.
(b) (i) Lala Lajpat Rai emphasised the importance of education in moulding the character of people.
(ii) He was an active worker of the Arya Samaj and laid the foundation of D.A.V. College, Lahore and various other educational institutions.
(iii) In the U.S.A., he started a monthly magazine ‘Young India’ to spread the message of the right of the Indians to attain ‘Swaraj’.
(iv) He also wrote a book on ‘National Education’ which called for the reforms of the prevalent educational system.
(v) His other books were :
(1) The Call to Young India,
(2) England’s Debt to India.
(3) The Political Future of India.
Through these books he inspired the Indian youth to rise and fight for their country.
(c) (i) He was a fearless, bold and passionate lover of India.
(ii) He was against the policies and programmes of the Moderates.
(iii) During the Anti-Partition agitation, he exhorted men and women to fight repression with full strength.
(iv) He led the boycott demonstration against the Simon Commission. He was assaulted in the lathi charge and laid
down his life for the country. But before his death he said,
“The lathi blows inflicted on me would prove one day as nails in the coffin of the British Empire”.
(d) (i) Through his writings he preached radical nationalism, inspired the Indian youth and kindled the fire of patriotism in them.
(ii) He, through his speeches and writings, accelerated its pace and widened its base.
(iii) He went to America in 1914 and joined the Ghadar Party.
During his stay he was able to win many people to the cause of Indian nationalism and freedom struggle.
(iv) He supported Gandhiji’s proposal and spread the message of Non Co-operation throughout India.
(v) He died in 1928.
(11) (I) Name the person represented in the picture given below.
(II) He was the prophet of a bold, self-reliant nationalism in India. In this context describe:
(a) His contribution to the growth of national consciousness in India.
(b) His ideas on national education.
(c) Remedies he proposed to eradicate poverty and unemployment
Ans. (I) The person in the picture is Bipin Chandra Pal.
(II) (a) (i) Bipin Chandra Pal is popularly known as the ‘father of revolutionary thought in India’. In the beginning, he supported the Early Nationalists but after the Partition of Bengal, he joined the Assertives.
(ii) During the Anti-Partition agitation he toured several parts of the country and wherever he went he carried with him the message of Boycott and Swadeshi.
(iii) He exhorted the people to appreciate their own culture and derive strength and unity from it.
(iv) He, along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Tilak, headed a new era of assertive nationalism and was of the opinion that great hardship or suffering was the price that had to be paid for freedom.
(v) He wrote a book ‘The Spirit of Indian Nationalism’ in which he had highlighted the importance of nationalism.
(b) (i) Bipin Chandra Pal wanted education to be organised on nationalistic lines. He was of the opinion that education should not glorify and idealize the British rule.
(ii) Pal was of the opinion that education should become an effective instrument for social progress.
(iii) He considered it a key which opens the great treasures of Indian philosophy and culture to the Indians.
(c) He suggested many methods to remove poverty and unemployment in his book, ‘The New Economic Menace to India’.
(i) To remove poverty and unemployment lots of industries should be developed.
(ii) Rich should be taxed heavily as compared to the poor.
(iii) More money should be spent on education and health.
(iv) Forty-eight hours of work in a week and an increase in the wages.
(v) The practice of ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ should become the means of national freedom so that Indian industries could progress.