Mahatma Gandhi & The National Movement (1919-1934) ICSE Class 10 Board Exam Questions And Answers

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Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to Mahatma Gandhi & The National Movement ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams

ICSE Class 10 Mahatma Gandhi & The National Movement (1919-1934) Questions and Answers

Please refer to solved questions for chapter Mahatma Gandhi & The National Movement (1919-1934) provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.

Mahatma Gandhi & The National Movement (1919-1934) Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions

(1) Describe civil rights movement lanuched by Gandhiji in South Africa?
Ans. (i) From 1893 to 1914, Gandhiji practised Law in South Africa. (ii) Gandhi faced racial discrimination directed at Indians.
(iii) He founded the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 and suffered imprisonment.
(iv) In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated an Asiatic law compelling registration of the colony’s Indian population.
(v) Gandhi adopted his methodology of satyagraha (devotion to the truth), or non-violent protest.
(vi) In 1914, the authorities had to abolish three pound poll tax which Indians had to pay. Two cities i.e., Transvaal and Natal were opened to all Indians who wanted to settle there as free workers.

(2) State the three early Satyagrahas led by Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans. (i) Champaran Satyagraha (1917) : It was Gandhiji’s first satyagraha in India to protect the indigo cultivators of Champaran (Bihar) against the exploitative system of ‘Tin Kathia’ (bound to grow indgo on 3/20th of their land). (ii) Kheda Satyagraha (Gujarat) (1918): Gandhiji led the satyagraha to provide relief to farmers from paying rent due to crop failure. Sardar Patel became a follower of Gandhi.
(iii) Ahmedabad Satyagraha (1918) : He led a mill workers strike to demand higher wages. It succeeded in increasing their wages by 35%.

(3) Which Act is referred as Black Act? Why?
Ans: (i) Rowlatt Act – On April 6, 1919, a nation wide hartal against the Act was observed.
(ii) The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British government in March 1919. To control the public unrest the police could search a place and arrest any person without warrant, wherein the right of Habeas Corpus was suspended. It legalized trials of political offenders by judges in seclusion. Banned demonstrations and meetings. Gandhi described the Rowlatt Act as ‘destructive to the elementary rights of an individual’. He called upon the people to do Satyagraha, i.e., to disobey the law without resorting to violence. It was referred as Black Act.

(4) What was the Jallianwala Baug Incident? When did it take place?
Ans. (i) The police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession of people who were demanding the release of two popular leaders of the Indian Independence Movement, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, who had been earlier arrested on account of their protests. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. His object, as he declared later, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of the satyagrahis, a feeling of terror and awe.
(ii) Jallianwala Bagh Incident occured on April 13, 1919.

(5) Why did Indian Muslims lanuch Khilafat movement?
Ans. Turkey fought against England in the World War I. After the War the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. The Sultan of Turkey, who was the Caliph, was deprived of all authority. The Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction. They launched the Khilafat Movement.

(6) What were the objectives of Khilafat movement?
Ans. The Khilafatists formed a three point programme :
i. The Ottoman Caliph should retain his empire. ii. The Caliph must be left with sufficient territory to enable him to defend the Islamic faith.
iii. The Arab lands (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under the Muslim rule.

(7) Discuss the spread of Khilafat movement?
Ans. (i) On October 17, 1919 the Khilafat day was observed on an all India scale by Ali brothers – Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
(ii) In Bengal, the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation Movement became a mass movement in which both the Muslims and Hindus participated.
(iii) By the end of 1920, the Khilafat Movement and the Congress Non- Cooperation Movement merged into one nationwide movement.

(8) What is meant by Satyagraha ?
Ans. The word Satyagraha is derived from two words Satya and Agraha. Satya means Truth and Agraha is insistence to hold fast.

(9) What is meant by Swadeshi? Why did Gandhiji lay emphasis on ‘Swadeshi’? Give two reasons.
Ans. a) Swadeshi means use of the goods produced within one’s country and by one’s countrymen.
b) (i) Gandhiji favoured ‘Swadeshi’ to get rid of poverty and unemployment.
(ii) It also aimed at hampering British trade in India.

(10) Explain the value of constructive programme in Gandhian methods.
Ans. The constructive programme like removal of untouchability, upliftment of women, provision of basic education, village sanitation, promotion of khadi and village industry, etc. provided the social and moral base to the National Movement.

(11) Name the movements launched by Gandhiji against British rule in India.
Ans. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) and Quit India Momvement (1942-47).

(12) Why did the police arrest Ali Brothers?
Ans. In 1921, the Khilafat Committee appealed to all the Muslims not to join the police and armed forces and not to pay taxes. This enraged the government. The Ali Brothers were arrested on charge of sedition.

(13) Under whose leadership was the Khilafat Movement of 1920 launched? OR Who were the leaders of the Khilafat movement?
Ans. Ali Brothers – Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani.

(14) What was the Rowlatt Act ?
Ans. Under this Act, the government could arrest any person without any reason, search any place without a warrant and imprison anyone without trial.

(15) Why was the Rowlatt Act (1919) passed ?
Ans. The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms failed to meet the expectations of the Indian masses. WWI had already agitated them, to contain the agitations, the Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919.

(16) Which provision of the Rowlatt Act aroused widespread popular indignation ?
Ans. The provision of No Dalil, No Vakil, No Appeal, i.e. No pleas, No lawyer, No appeal aroused popular indignation. The British police was authorised to arrest and detain suspected Indians without arrest warrant. The suspects were deprived of public trials.

(17) What do you mean by Non-cooperation?
Ans. Non-cooperation means to withdraw all support and cooperation to the British Government. The object was to paralyse the government, to bring the administration to a standstill.

(18) What were the aims of Non-cooperation movement?
Ans. Non-Cooperation Movement aimed at three issues.
(i) Redressal of the wrongs committed in Punjab. (Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the atrocities related to the martial laws.)
(ii) Restoring the old status of the Sultan of Turkey.
(iii) Accomplishment of Swaraj.

(19) Discuss the programme of the Non-cooperation movement?
Ans. The programme of the Non Cooperation Movement, 1920 – 1922
(i) Boycott of elections to Legislative Councils.
(ii) Boycott of law courts.
(iii) Boycott of British goods.
(iv) Boycott of British educational institutions.
(v) Use of Swadeshi on a vast scale, prohibition of intoxicants.
(vi) Hindu-Muslim unity and removal of untouchability.

(20) State the events of Non-cooperation movement?
Ans. (i) Hundreds of people including Gandhi and Tagore renounced their titles and honours and many including C.R. Das, Motilal, Rajendra Prasad and Jawaharlal Nehru gave up their legal practice in the courts. (ii) Boycott of foreign cloth and elections to the Legislative Councils were effective.
(iii) At this stage, National Institutions of education were started.
(iv) Swadeshi got a great impetus as hand spinning was revived; khadi became the national dress.
(v) The visit of the Prince of Wales to India on 17th November, 1921 A.D. was boycotted by the Indians.

(21) Why did Gandhiji abruptly call off the Non-cooperation movement? OR Why did Gandhiji suspend the Non Cooperation Movement ?
Ans. (i) On February 5, 1922, around 2000 protesters gathered for picketing of a liquor shop at the local market in Chauri Chaura.
(ii) Three protesters were killed in police firing.
(iii) The crowd decided to take revenge and set the building on fire. Twentytwo policemen were burnt alive, including the station sub-inspector.
(iv) Mahatma Gandhi who advocated non-violence was deeply shocked over this act of violence and decided to suspend the law-breaking part of the movement.

(22) Discuss the impact of Non-cooperation movement?
Ans. (i) It taught the virtues of fearlessness and Hindu-Muslim unity.
(ii) Charkha and Indian handloom products gained back their glory.
(iii) It gave a sense of unity-like common language (Hindi), national uniform (Khadi) and national activity (spinning).
(iv) Establishment of New Educational Institutions.
(v) It was the first mass movement as all sections of society-peasants, workers, students, women and oppressed people participated in the movement.

(23) Name two of the leading lights (main leaders) of the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920.
Ans. C.R. Das and Rajendra Prasad.

(24) At which Session of the Congress was the decision to launch Non-Cooperation Movement undertaken ?
Ans. At a special session of the Congress held in Kolkata on September 4, 1920 a special resolution was adopted accepting Non-Cooperation Movement as the only option left open for the people of India. The regular session of the Congress at Nagpur in December, 1920 ratified this resolution.

(25) What was the purpose of Simon Commission?
Ans. The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British members of Parliament that had been despatched to India in 1927 to study the working of the constitutional reforms. It would inquire into the working of the reforms introduced in the Government of India Act 1919. It was commonly referred to as the Simon Commission after its Chairman, Sir John Simon.

(26) Why was the Simon Commission boycotted everywhere?
Ans. Both the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Muslim League decided to boycott the Simon Commission because :
(i) There was no Indian member in this commission. It was boycotted everywhere because all its members were Englishmen.
(ii) The government showed no inclination towards accepting the demand for Swaraj.

(27) Mention the event which triggered the mass upsurge against Simon Commission?
Ans. On October 30, 1928, the Simon Commission arrived in Lahore. The Lahore protest was led by the Indian nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai. The local police lathi charged the protestors. The police were particularly brutal towards Lala Lajpat Rai. He later died on 17th November, 1928, because of the injuries. Police officer Saunders who was responsible for the assault was later shot dead by Bhagat Singh and Rajguru. This event triggered the mass upsurge against Simon Commission.

(28) Mention recommendations of the Simon Commission.
Ans. (i) Abolition of Dyarchy and grant of full provincial autonomy to the provinces with the Governors having some overriding powers in the matter of internal security.
(ii) Enlargement of Provincial Legislative Councils.
(iii) Governor General should select and appoint members of the Cabinet.
(iv) British troops and British officers would stay on in India.
(v) High courts should be under the administrative control of the Government of India.
(vi) Communal representation was to continue.

(29) How did the Nehru Report drawn in 1928 lead to the launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement ?
Ans. The Nehru Report declared that India’s immediate objective was Dominion Status before the end of 1929. As it was not granted, the Congress decided to launch Civil Disobedience Movement.

(30) When did Congress formalise it’s demand of Purna Swaraj?
Ans. At its Lahore session, in December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Congress formalised the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was declared that January 26, 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day.

(31) Which event marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience movement?
Ans. (i) On 12th March 1930, Gandhiji along with his 78 followers began the historic march from Ashram Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi in Gujarat.
(ii) On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufactured salt by boiling seawater to disobey the government laws. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

(32) Mention the circumstances leading to Civil Disobedience movement?
Ans. (i) Failure of Simon Commission.
(ii) Death of Lala Lajpat Rai in the Anti-Simon Movement.
(iii) Non-acceptance of the Nehru report.

(33) When was the Gandhi Irwin Pact signed? What were the main proposals of the Pact?
Ans. On March 5, 1931, the Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed. Important Points of the Pact : The Congress consented to the following.
(i) Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities of the Indian National Congress.
(ii) Restoration of confiscated properties to the Congressmen.
(iii) The removal of the tax on salt, allowed the Indians to produce, trade, and sell salt legally and for their own private use.
(iv) Discontinuation of the Civil Disobedience movement by the Indian National Congress.

(34) What were the Communal Award?
Ans. System of separate electorates was extended to Depressed Classes, Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans to serve their narrow interest. The Depressed Classes were assigned a number of seats, to be filled in by elections from special constituencies in which voters belonging to the Depressed Classes could only vote.

(35) What was the agreed between Gandhiji and Ambedkar in the Poona Pact?
Ans. Gandhiji was in jail and observed fast unto death against the provisions of separate electorates for Harijans. By this Poona Pact Dr. Ambedkar agreed to replace separate electorates with reservation of seats for Harijans. This compromise was accepted by the British Government and Gandhi ended his fast.

(36) Describe the role of Khudai Khidmadgars in Civil Disobedience movement?
Ans. The Movement reached the extreme north-western corner of India and stirred the brave Parthans. Under the leadership of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, popularly known as “The Frontier Gandhi”, the Pathans organised the society of Khudai Khidmadgars (Servants of God), known as popularly as Red shirts. They were pledged to non-violence and the freedom struggle.

(37) How did the Civil Disobedience movement spread to the eastern parts of the nation?
Ans. The movement also became popular in the esternmost part of the country where the Manipuris joined the movement with great enthusiasm. In Nagaland, Rani Gaidilieu, at the age of 13, responded to Gandhiji’s call and raised the banner of revolt against the British rule.

(38) Name two leaders who encouraged socialism in the Congress.
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose.

(39) In which session of the Congress demand for Poorna Swaraj was declared as the goal of the Congress?
Ans. The Nehru Report was declared to have lapsed at the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929. Jawaharlal Nehru was made the President of the Congress at the historic Lahore session of 1929. It passed a resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj (complete independence) to be objective of the Congress.

(40) When was the First Round Table Conference held ? What was the major cause of the failure of the First Round Table Conference?
Ans. The First Round Table Conference was held in 1930-31. It failed because the Congress boycotted the Conference.

(41) When did Mahatma Gandhi start his historic march to Dandi? Why was Dandi March undertaken?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi start his historic march to Dandi on March 12th, 1930. The Dandi March was undertaken to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement and to break the Salt Laws.

(42) Which changes were made in the Constitution of the Congress at its annual session at Nagpur?
Ans. Provincial Congress Committiees were reorganised on the basis of linguistic areas. The Congress was now to be led by a Working Committee of 15 members, including the President and the secretaries.

(43) Mention any two events which led to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. (i) The passing of ‘Complete Independence’ or ‘Poorna Swaraj’ resolution at Lahore session of the Congress. (ii) Rejection of Gandhi’s ‘Eleven Point’ programme by the British government.

(44) Why was the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ of March, 1930 withdrawn?
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn because of the brutal repression of the Satyagrahis and the atrocities against Harijans by some sections of the Indian.

(45) State the new methods of propaganda popularised in the civil disobedience movement.
Ans. The movement also popularised new methods of propaganda. Prabhat Pheris, in which hundreds of men and women went around singing patriotic songs in the early morning became popular in towns and villages. Handwritten Patrikas or news-sheets were issued in large numbers. Even children were organised into Vanara Sena and girls had their own separate Manjari Sena or the cat army.

(46) What was the plan of action decided by the Congress Working Committee in January 1930?
Ans. The Congress Working Committee met in January 1930, and decided the following programme:
(i) Preparation for Civil Disobedience.
(ii) As per the Poorna Swaraj resolution, the word Swaraj in the Congress Constitution would thenceforth mean Complete Independence or Purna Swaraj which was set forth as the goal of the National Movement.
(iii) Observance of 26th of January as the ‘Poorna Swaraj’ day, all over the country with the hoisting of the tricolour flag.
(iv) Resignations by members of the legislature.
(v) Withdrawal from all possible association with the British Government.
(vi) It was decided to observe January 26, as the Day of Independence every year.

Structured Questions

(1) The advent of Mahatma Gandhi into the Indian National Congress in 1919 brought a dramatic change in the National Movement. In this context explain :
(a) His doctrine of Satyagraha and Swadeshi.
(b) His belief in Non-Violence.
(c) His belief in the Mass Movement.
Ans. (a) Gandhiji’s doctrine of ‘Satyagraha’ consists of two Sanskrit words. The word ‘Satya’ means ‘truth’ and ‘Agraha means ‘insistence’. So the term means “firm insistence on truth”. According to this doctrine a Satyagrahi should always be ready to accept pain and suffering. He should remain peaceful under provocation and should not harm others under any conditions. To fight injustice, a Satyagrahi should use non-violent and non-co-operative methods. ‘Satyagraha’ stood for self-restraint and did not mean lack of courage. ‘Swadeshi’ literally means ‘of one’s own country’. The ‘Swadeshi’ movement was mainly directed towards social and economic upliftment of society, especially of the rural workers. He was in favour of using ‘Swadeshi’ goods and boycott of foreign goods to harm the English trade. He emphasized the use of ‘charkha’ and ‘khadi’ to improve the economic condition of workers. He was in favour of establishing cottage industries in rural areas to uplift the rural people by providing them employment.

(b) Gandhiji’s whole philosophy was based on nonviolence. According to Gandhiji, it is the weapon of the strong. He launched many movements for gaining freedom but none of them was violent. During the Non-Cooperation movement, he suspended the movement when it was at its zenith just because of Chauri Chaura incident in which 22 policemen were burnt alive.

(c) Gandhiji realised the importance and power of the organised masses. It is the power of the masses which will force the Britishers to leave the country. He launched Non-Co-operation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement in which workers, women, students, farmers all participated.

(2) Various circumstances were responsible for the Non-Co-operation Movement started by Gandhiji. In this context, write short notes on the following :
(a) Rowlatt Act, 1919.
(b) Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy.
(c) Khilafat Movement.
Ans. (a)a The Act was passed after receiving a report from the Sedition Committee headed by Justice Rowlatt. To curb the growing upsurge in the country the Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919. This Act authorised the Government to imprison any person without trial and convict him in a court. The Act came like a sudden blow to the Indians who were expecting self governance. Gandhiji appealed to the Viceroy to withhold his consent to such measures. However, his appeal was ignored. He started ‘Satyagraha’ as a challenge to the government.

(b) A large but peaceful crowd gathered at the Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar on April 13, 1919, to protest against the arrest of leaders like Dr. Saifuddin Kitchelu and Dr. Satya Pal. General Dyer, the military Commander of Amritsar surrounded the Bagh (garden) with his soldiers. After closing the exit with his troops, he ordered them to shoot at the crowd. The troops kept on firing till their ammunition was exahausted. About one thousand innocent demonstrators were killed and many more wounded. The conscience of the nation was shaken at the massacre of innocent people.

(c) The Muslim population in India started a powerful agitation known as the Khilafat Movement, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers- Mohammed Ali and Shukat Ali-Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal and Hasrat Mohani due to injustice done to Turkey in WWI. Mahatma Gandhi was elected as President of the All-India Khilafat Conference in November, 1919. He advised the Khilafat Committee to adopt a policy of Non-Co-operation with the Government. By August 31, 1920, the Khilafat Non-Co-operation Movement started. People resigned from government services; shops selling foreign goods were picketed, students boycotted schools and colleges; and hartals’ and demonstrations were held. By the end of 1920, the Khilafat Movement and the Congress Non-Co-operation Movement merged into one nationwide movement and established an outstanding example of Hindu-Muslim unity.

(3) The famous Nagpur Session of the Indian National Congress in 1920 adopted a resolution to launch Non-Co-operation Movement. In this context, answer the following questions :
(i) Programmes and methods of the Movement.
(ii) Reason for the withdrawal of the Movement.
(iii) Impact of the Movement (any four).
Ans. (i) The Non-Co-operation Movement had two kinds of programmes: negative and positive. Negative
1. The boycott of government schools and colleges.
2. The boycott of British goods.
3. The boycott of Legislative Councils.
4. The boycott of the law courts by the lawyers.
5. Surrender of titles and honorary posts.

1. Removal of untouchability.
2. The prohibition of intoxicating drinks.
3. Hindu-Muslim Unity.
4. Promotion of swadeshi, especially homespun and home-woven cloth.

Methodology :
1. The Movement began with the renunciation of titles. Mahatma Gandhi surrendered his title of Kaiser-e-Hind, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore surrendered his knighthood, and many other people followed him.
2. All Congress candidates withdrew from the elections and nearly two-thirds of the voters boycotted the elections.
3. The lawyers like C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad suspended their practices.
4. Students left the educational institutions run by the government.
5. People boycotted the foreign clothes, and shops selling foreign goods and liquors were picketed.

(ii) 1. The Movement was suspended by Gandhiji due to the ugly incident which took place in Chauri Chaura village of Uttar Pradesh in which 22 policemen were burnt alive by a mob. Gandhiji could hardly tolerate that his followers should indulge in violence. So he took the step of suspending the movement.
2. In 1922, there was a revolution in Turkey. Turkey became a republic, so after the revolution the movement lost its importance.

(iii) (a) Establishment of New-Educational Institutions : The Non-Cooperation Movement gave a boost to the Indian Education System. Institutions such as the Jamia Milia Islamia and the Kashi Vidya Peeth were established.

(b) The National Movement Became a Mass Movement : The Indian national movement, for the first time in hisrtory, acquired a real mass base with the participation of different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women. However, the big industrialists, capitalists and zamindars still remained hostile.

(c) Fostered Hindu-Muslim Unity : It fostered Hindu-Muslim unity which could be seen in the merger of the Khilafat issue with this Movement. It provided an opportunity to the Congress to bring the urban Muslims into the National Movement by convincing them that the nation was equally concerned with the problems affecting them.

(d) Change in the Character of the Congress : Congress began to function as a continuous political organisation and was able to reach down to villages. Its membership fee was reduced to four annas (25 paise of today) per year to enable the rural and urban poor to become its members.

(4) Discuss the impact of Non Cooperation movement uder following headings:
(i) Popularised the Cult of Swaraj
(ii) Promoted Social Reforms (iii) Congress Became a Revolutionary Movement
(iv) Constitutional changes with in Congress
Ans: (i) Popularised the Cult of Swaraj : The goal of the Non-cooperation Movement was to attain Swaraj within the British empire, if possible, and outside, if necessary. The Congress realised the nature and value of the popular support and though the movement failed immediately to attain Swaraj, it definitely came nearer to it.

(ii) Promoted Social Reforms : As a consequence of the Non-cooperation Movement several steps were taken in the direction of prohibition and removal of untouchability. Many national schools and colleges were set up in different parts of the country. The boycott of the foreign goods led to the promotion of Indian handicrafts and industries. ‘Khadi’ became the symbol of the National Movement.

(iii) Congress Became a Revolutionary Movement : It transformed the Indian National Congress from a deliberative assembly into an organisation for action. It became the organiser and leader of the masses in their national struggle. Thus, the Congress bacame a force to reckon with.

(iv) Changes in the constitution of the Congress : The movement gave a new boost to nationalism in India. At its annual session at Nagpur in December 1920, changes were made in the Constitution of the Congress. Provincial Congress Committees were reorganised on the basis of linguistic areas. The Congress was now to be led by a Working Committee of 15 members, including the President and the secretaries.

(5) In the context of the Civil Disobedience Movement, explain the importance of the following:
(i) Purpose of Simon Commission
(ii) Rejection of Simon Commission
(iii) The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress (1929).
Ans. (i) Purpose of Simon Commission :
(a) In November 1927, the British Government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission, (after the name of its Chairman Sir John Simon) to investigate the need for further constitutional reforms.

(ii) Reaction of Simon Commission :
(a) The Commission was composed of seven British members of Parliament. It had no Indian member. This was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians.

(b) At its Madras session in 1927, presided over by Dr. Ansari, the National Congress decided to boycott the commission ‘at every stage and in every form’. The Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha decided to support the Congress decision.

(c) On February 3, the day the Commision reached Bombay, an All India Hartal was organised. Wherever the Commission went, it was greeted with hartals and black flag demonstrations under the slogan ‘Simon Go Back’.

(d) Lala Lajpat Rai was beaten up mercilessly on October 30, 1928 at Lahore railway station, while leading a big demonstration and lost his life as a result of the lathi blows.

(iii) Lahore Session of the Congress : (1929) The one year time-limit set at the Calcultta session passed without any positive response from the British Government. The Nehru Report was declared to have lapsed at the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929. Jawaharlal Nehru was made the President of the Congress at the historic Lahore session of 1929. It passed a resolution declaring Purna Swaraj (complete independence) to be the Congress objective. The Congress Working Committee met in January 1930, and decided the following programme : • Preparation for Civil Disobedience.
• Purna Swaraj resolution.
• Resignations by members of the legislature.
• It was decided to observe January 26, as the Day of Independence every year.

(6) Which respect to the Civil Disobedience movement discuss the following.
(i) Dandhi March
(ii) Programme of the movement
(iii) Progress of the movement
Ans. (i) Dandhi March
(a) On 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi began the historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea coast. A number of people followed him.
(b) On the morning of 6th April, Gandhiji violated the Salt Laws at Dandi by picking up some salt left by the seawaves.
(c) He had selected to attack the Salt Laws beacause the salt-tax affected all sections of society, especially the poor. Gandhiji’s breaking of the Salt Laws marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

(ii) Programme of the Movement
(a) Millions broke the salt laws by making salt or buying illegal salt.
(b) Foreign cloth was burnt openly.
(c) Non-payment of land revenue.
(d) The members of the Legislative Councils resigned from their membership.

(iii) The progress or the spread of the movement.
(a) In different parts of the country people broke the salt law, manufactured salt, boycotted foreign cloth and picketed liquor shops.

(b) In the North West Frontier Province, Satyagraha was led by a Muslim Pashto disciple of Gandhi, Gaffar Khan, who had trained a 50,000 member army of non-violent activists called Khudai Khidmatgar. (The servants of God). They were also called Red Shirts. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan is popularly known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’.

(c) Midnapur in Bengal went out of control of the Government.

(d) In Nagaland, Rani Gaidilieu, a Satyagrahi (13 years of age) raised the banner of rebellion against foreign rule. Large-scale participation of women was observed throughout the country.

(e) Thakur Chandra Singh of Garhwal platoon was punished when he refused to open fire on the protestors demanding the release of Khan Adul Gaffar Khan.

(f) The first Round Table Conference was held in London from November 16, 1930 to January 19, 1931 in which Congress did not participate.

(7) Disuss the impact of Civil Disobedience movement with respect to
(i) Mass paticipation
(ii) Moral values
(iii) New methods of protest
(iv) Contribution of Women and Dalit
(v) Legislative impact
Ans. (i) Mass paticipation : The Civil Disobedience movement widened the base of the freedom struggle. A large number of social groups like merchants and shopkeepers, peasants, tribals and workers in different parts of the country were mobilised for the Indian national movement.

(ii) Moral values : The movement caused a tide of patriotic fervour in the country that would not leave the Government in peace. The government withdrew the ban on the Congress in June 1934. The suspension of the movement did not mean that people had abandoned their struggle for freedom. It made people understand the significance of the principles of non-violence. People could resist violence with tolerance and courage.

(iii) New methods of protest : The movement also popularised new methods of propaganda. Prabhat Pheris, in which hundreds of men and women went around singing patriotic songs in the early morning became popular in towns and villages. Handwritten Patrikas or newssheets were issued in large numbers. Even children were organised into Vanara Sena and girls had their own separate Manjari Sena or the cat army.

(iv) Contribution of Women and Dalit : The movement under the leadership of Birla and the ‘Harijan Sevak Sangh’ changed the social conditions. The depressed classess were given entry into temples and access to wells, which was earlier denied to them. It brought women out their homes to participate in politics and to make them equal partners in the freedom struggle. (v) Legislative impact : The Government was convinced that basic constitutional reforms were necessary. The Govenment of India Act 1935, introduced the principle of a Federation and the principle of Provincial Autonomy; i.e, responsible government in the provinces.

(8) Trace the Civil Disobedience Movement with reference to the following:
(a) Gandhi-Irwin Pact 1931.
(b) The Second Round Table Conference of 1931.
(c) Political, Social and Constitutional impact of the movement
Ans. (a) The Government started negotiations with Gandhiji in jail. This resulted in the signing of a pact by Gandhiji and Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, in March 1931. This is known as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The government agreed to :
(i) Withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions.
(ii) Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.
(iii) Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops.
(iv) Restore the confiscated properties of the satyagrahis.
(v) Premit the free collection or manufacture of salt by persons near the seacoast.

The Congress, in its turn, consented to the following:
(i) To suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) To paticipate in the second session of the Round Table Conferece.
(iii) Not to press for investigation into police excesses.

(b) (i) It was attended by Gandhiji as a sole representative of the Congress, according to the terms of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 1931.
(ii) The conference was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue, with separate electorates being demanded now not only by Muslims but also by the Depressed Classes, Indian Christians, Anglo- Indians and Europeans.
(iii) The question of Independence or setting up of a responsible Government receded into the background.
(iv) The British government refused to concede the immediate grant of dominion status. Gandhiji returned to India disappointed.

(c) (i) Political impact : The Civil Disobedience Movement caused a tide of patriotic fervour in the country. People became fully aware of their responsibilities and the Movement succeeded in creating political awakening among the masses. Propaganda through Prabhat Pheris and hand written Patrikas was the trend those days.
(ii) Social impact : The Movement had a healthy impact upon the social conditions. The ‘Harijan Sevak Sangh’ was established which helped the untouchables to obtain the basic rights. The depressed classes were given entry into churches, temples. School childeren organised ‘Vanar Sena’, while girls formed their own ‘Manjari Sena’ to participate in anti-British agitation.
(iii) Constitutional impact : The government was convinced that bold constitutional reforms were essential. So the government introduced the Government of India Act, 1935; which accepted the principle of Federation and provincial Autonomy.

(9) The Indian National Congress in 1930 resolved to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) Why was the movement launched ?
(b) Why was the movement suspended ?
(c) Why was the movement renewed ?
Ans. (a) (i) The Simon Commission :
• The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British members of Parliament that had been despatched to India in 1927 to study the working of the constitutional reforms. • It was commonly referred to as the Simon Commission after its Chairman, Sir John Simon.
• Both the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Muslim League decided to boycott the Simon Commission because :
1. There was no Indian member in this commission.
2. The terms of the commission did not give any indication of Swaraj.
• On October 30, 1928, the Simon Commission arrived in Lahore.
• The Lahore protest was led by the Indian nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai.
• The local police lathi charged the protestors. The police were particularly brutal towards Lala Lajpat Rai. He later died because of the injuries.
• Police officer Saunders who was responsible for the assault was later shot dead by Bhagat Singh and Rajguru.

(ii) The Nehru Report :
• Lord Birkenhead, the Secretary of State for India, said that the Indians were not united and could not arrive at an ‘agreed scheme of reforms’.
• A committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru which included leaders from different political parties (including Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberal party.)
• The main objective of the Nehru report was to secure the dominion status under the subordination of the English.
• Recommendations of Nehru Report :

(1) Attainment of Dominion status for India.
(2) Proposal for Joint Electorates with reservations for minorities.
(3) Linguistic reorganisation of the states.
(4) Provincial councils to be elected on universal adult franchise principle for a period of 5 years.

(iii) Lahore Session and the Demand for Complete Independence :
The failure of the British Government to give Dominion Status to India hardened the Congress attitude. So at its Lahore Session, presided over by Jawahar Lal Nehru in December, 1929, the Congress passed resolution of ‘Poorna Swaraj’, and also took steps to launch a programme of Civil Disobedience.

(iv) Gandhi’s Eleven Demands : On 30th January, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi in a statement, put forward Eleven Demands to correct injustices done to the Indians, but Gandhiji’s demands were declared to be unrealistic by the Viceroy Lord Irwin.

(b) The Movement was suspended because of the following reasons.
(i) Failure of the repressive measures : The Government was willing to talk to the leaders when lathi charge and arbitrary arrest failed to control the spirit of the people.
(ii) Failure of the First Round Table Conference: The First Round Table Conference was held in London in 1930. But the Conference failed because of non participation of the Congress. So the Government was eager to compromise with the Congress.
(iii) Gandhi-Irwin Pact : Government through Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jaykar started negotitions with Gandhiji while he was in jail. An agreement was reached in March 1931, the movement was suspended on following assurances. Assurance from Governor
1. To release all political prisoners except those guilty of violence.
2. To withdraw the Ordinances promulgated in connection with the Civil Disobedience Movement and stop persecution.
3. To permit people who lived near sea-shore to manufacture salt.
4. Restoration of confiscated properties of Congressmen.
5. Peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops.

Assurance from Gandhiji
1. Civil Disobedience movement was to be called off.
2. Gandhiji would participate in the Second Round Table Conference as the Congress representative.
3. Not to press for investigation in police excesses.
(c) The movement was renewed because of the failure of the Second Round Table Conference in London. Gandhiji reached Bombay on 28th December, 1931 and found that the Government, despite the Gandhi- Irwin Pact, had again let loose its repression. Thus, on Jan. 1, 1932 the Congress Working Committee met and adopted a resolution for the renewal of this movement and boycott British goods. On Jan. 4, Gandhiji was arrested and the Congress was declared to be an illegal body.

Notes for Mahatma Gandhi & The National Movement

Mahatma Gandhi
• He was the greatest national leader of India.
• He was great orator, reformer.
• He worked for mankind.
• 2-10-1869: born in Porbandar (Kathiawar).
• His full name was Mohan Das Karmachand Gandhi.
• His father was dewan of Rajkot state.
• His mother name was kasturba.
• After matriculation he went to England.
• 1890: came back to India as Barrister.
• He gone to south Africa as legal advisor of Muslim’s firm.
• He stayed there 25 years.
• He raised voice against apartheid regime.
• He fought against unjust laws there.
• He beaten many times.
• Under his pressure government accepted his demands.
• 1915: returned to India.
• 1919-1947: Gandhian Era.
• He known as father of nation.

 Methods and Ideals of Gandhiji
 Religious Ideals:
• Religion is the chief basis of his ideals.
• He believed that morality(good deeds,good conduct,truth) is fundamental basis of religion.
• He believed in humanism.
• He wanted equality.

Social Ideals:
• He was great social reformer.
• He was against caste system.
• He considered untouchability as a curse to Hindu society.
• He launched many movements against it.
• He wanted to give equality for woman.

An Ideal State:
• He was supporter of democracy.
• He wanted a welfare of nation.
• He wanted India shall be secular.
• He believed in decentralization.
• He believed in Ram Rajya.

The Ideal of Trusteeship:
• Gandhi Ji believed all property belonged to God.
• Landlords his trustees.
• There should be economic equality.
• So land should give them who need it.
• He advocated the establishment of cottage industries.

Doctrine of Non-Violence:
• He believed ahimsa is powerful and active force.
• He inspired people to fought against British with ahimsa.

Doctrine of Satyagraha:
• According Gandhi Ji satyagrahi must be strong morally and spiritually so they fight with love and peace against injustice.
• He followed peaceful means i.e. strike, hunger strike etc.

Hindu-Muslim Unity:
• British sown seed of communalism in India.
• Gandhi Ji believed if Hindu-Muslim united than they become strong to challenge British.
• So He supported Muslims in Khilafat Movement.
• When he launched Non-Cooperation movement Muslims participated.
• Due to efforts of Gandhi Ji India got independence in 1947.

The Rowlatt Act
• Indians were not satisfied from Indian council act(1919)
• The concessions were not enough.
• Annual session of INC held in Amritsar.
• Here congress again divided.
• 3-1919: Rowlatt act introducRowlettgives power to government to arrest and to detain any person without any trial for 2 years.

Reaction of People:
• It was against justice and equality.
• Gandhi Ji launched satyagrah movement.
• Meetings were held.
• 6-4-1919: Hartals held.

The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy 1919
• 6-4-1919: peaceful strike held in Amritsar.
• Principal leader was Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu were arrested.
• People marched to residence of Deputy Commissioner to release them.
• Police fired two rounds.
• People looted godowns,killed official, burnt government building etc.
• 11-4-1919: General Dyer took charge of Amritsar.
• 13-4-1919: Protest meetings held at Jallianwala.
• Dyer reached their.
• He ordered to open fire upon people.
• 1000 people died.

Impact of Jallianwala Incident on National Movement:
• It has great significance in Indian History.
• It has great impact on politics.
• British government lose his prestige.
• Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood.
• More and more people participated in national movement.
• Now Gandhi Ji wanted to curb British rule with the help of Ali brothers.

The Khilafat Movement
• It gave new direction to Indian national movement.
• Lucknow Pact united Hindu Muslims.
• The muslims requested to Swami Sharaddanand to address in Jama masjid.
• Sikh gave key of Golden Temple to Dr. Kicthlu.
• Both community inspired by nationalism.
• Khilafat movement started against British policy toward turkey.
• Allied divided Turkey.
• They abolished khalifa.
• Muhammad ali and Shuakat ali led movement.
• Gandhi Ji supported them.
• Khilafat committee consisted hakim Ajmal khan, Maulana Azad, Hasrat Mohani, Ali brothers.
• Khilafat committee adopted non-cooperation.
• Khilafat committee appealed to all Muslims to refuse British services.
• Khilafat movement merged with non-cooperation movement.

The Non-Cooperation movement(1920-22)
     ✓ People of India faced economic problems. Peasants paid unjust taxes.
     ✓ British did not fulfil his promised to grant the right of self determination.
     ✓ The Indians realised that British will not give Independence.
     ✓ Montague-Chelmsford Reforms were not ssatisfactionery.
     ✓ British policy toward turkey made HINDU MUSLIMS united.

Objectives of the Movement:
    ✓ To attain self government
    ✓ Annulment of the Rawlatt Act
    ✓ Restore the old status of Caliph
    ✓ To cripple the government

Methods and Programme of the Movement:
❖ Gandhi Ji launched Non-Cooperation movement.
❖ Titles and Honours returned.
❖ Degrees returned.
❖ Left government Jobs.
❖ Left schools.
❖ Lawyers left their practice.
❖ Boycotted elections.
❖ Use Swadeshi.
❖ Refused to pay taxes.
❖ Talki and Charkha appeared in every house.

Repression by the Government:
• Moplas revolted against British but they killed many Hindus.
• 1921: The prince of Wales visited to India.
• People boycotted him.
• Mob attacked on Europeans.
• The police killed 53 people.
• The khilafat and Congress organisations declared unlawful.
• Many leaders were arrested.

Suspension of the Movement:
• About 3000 peasants organised a procession at chaura chauri(Gorakhpur).
• British opened fire on them.
• Angry crowd killed 22 policeman.
• Gandhi Ji was against violence after it he called of movement.
• Importance of the Non-Cooperation Movement:
• Inspiring people to fight against British rule with new confidence.
• INC became mass organisation.
• It led Hindu-Muslim Unity.
• The Notion that the British rule was good was shattered.
• The British rule was shacked and forced to bring changes in its politics.

Civil Disobedience Movement
• Failure and Boycott of the Simon Commission
• 1929: Demand for Poorna Swaraj

Progress of the Civil Disobedience Movement:

1. The Dandi March: On 12 march 1930 from Sabarmati ashram to Dandi with his 87 inmates Gandhi Ji marched to break salt law.

2. Spread of the Movement: Gandhi Ji was arrested than whole people were shocked.
People violated other laws. Khan Abdul Gaffar khan launched movement against British government.

3.Policy of Repression Followed by the Government: The people had to face brutal lathi charge. More than 90000 people were arrested. Many nationalist were sentenced for long terms. Houses of people burnt. Many killed.

4. The First Round Table Confrence(1930-31): Held in London. Chief agenda to discuss Simon Commission Report.

5.Terms of Gandhi Irwin Pact:
o End prosecutions
o Release politicians
o Permit the collection of salt
o Suspend civil disobedience movement
o To participate 2nd round table conference

6. Revival of the Civil Disobedience Movement(1932): Gandhi Ji and many leaders were arrested. Censorship was imposed. Land, Houses etc. Confiscated. Government announced communal award(1932). Poona Pact happened. 3rd round table conference held in London(1932). Gandhi Ji called of due to atrocities on Harijans in may 1934.

Impact of Civil Disobedience Movement:
• Faith in the British rule end
• Will to Fight the elections was revived
• Revival of the revolutionary movement
• Deepened the ROOTS OF FREEDOM

Gandhi Ji’s Contribution To The Freedom movement
• Gandhi Ji launched satyagrah movement against Rawlat act.
• Gandhi Ji called of strike against Rawlatt act than Gandhi Ji was arrested.
• Gandhi Ji launched Non-Cooperation movement.
• To attain his aims used the satyagrah movement as weapon.
• He used policy of non-violence.
• He proposed boycotted of foreign goods and use of swadeshi in order to curb British rule.
• Gandhi Ji encouraged Hindu Muslims to unite.
• Gandhi Ji worked for upliftment of Harijans.
• For Indian national movement Gandhi Ji gone many times to jail.