Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to The Muslim League ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 The Muslim League Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter The Muslim League provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
The Muslim League Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions
(1) How did the British policy of Divide and Rule promote communalism?
Ans. The government branded the Congress as a Hindu movement and encouraged Muslims to start their separate organisations. They partitioned Bengal on communal lines. They portrayed Muslim rulers as plunderers to their Hindu subjects and Hindu rulers as cruel kings to their Muslim subjects.
(2) Why did Muslims feel insecure after the Mughals lost their sovereignty?
Ans. (i) The British established their supermacy in India after dethroning the Mughal rulers who were the followers of Islam. Therefore, the Muslims became bitter enemies of the British. (ii) The British government consciously discriminated against the Muslims, holding them responsible for the uprising of 1857.
(3) Why did Muslims remain backward in Indian society?
Ans. The upper class Muslims were conservative and hostile towards modern education. Due to lack of technical education required for jobs in civil administration, the rate of unemployment was higher in Muslims. Discrimination was practiced against them for recruitment in military and judiciary as well.
(4) Which activities of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan led to a communal divide in the nation?
Ans. (i) He pioneered modern education for Muslims by finding Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College which later became the centre of Aligarh movement.
(ii) He founded – Mohammedan Anglo – Oriental Defence Association to keep Muslims away from the Congress to promote loyalty towards the rulers, also founded United Indian Patriotic Association.
(iii) His ideas marked the beginning of the Two – Nation Theory – that Hindus and Muslims were distinct and incompatible nations.
(5) How did the Partition on Bengal disturb the communal harmony in India?
Ans. (i) The educated Muslims did not like the Congress support to the anti – partition agitation.
(ii) The politically conscious Muslims felt that Congress had supported a Hindu agitation against creation of a Muslim majority province.
(iii) On October 16, 1905 Mohammedan Provincial Union was founded and Salimullah was chosen as its patron. The British had convinced him that the partition was favourable for Muslims.
(6) Describe one way in which history was misinterpreted?
Ans. Some British and Indian Historians divided Indian history into Hindu and Muslim periods. Hindu communalists highlighted the myth that Indian society and culture had reached great heights during ancient period and fell into permanent decay during the medieval period because of Muslim rule.
(7) Which activities of assertive nationalists alienated the Indian Muslims?
Ans. (i) Tilak was considered as “Father of Hindu Nationalism.”
(ii) He initiated Ganpati Festival and Shivaji Jayanti for mass involvement, but British manipulated it with religious tinge.
(iii) Bipin Chandra Pal regarded Shri Krishna as India’s soul.
(8) What was proposed by the Muslim deputation in its address to the Viceroy?
Ans. The deputation was led by H.H Aga Khan. Mr. Archibald had prepared the draft of the address, to Lord Minto which contained the following points.
(i) The Proclamation of Muslim loyalty to the British.
(ii) Appreciation of the British Government’s policy of reforms in the Legislative Councils in India.
(iii) Reservations of seats on the basis of religious beliefs ie. separate electorates.
(9) What were the main demands of the Muslim deputations?
Ans. Muslims Deputation meets Minto on 1st October, 1906. Main demands of the Muslim Deputation :
(i) The Muslims should be granted the right to elect their own representatives on the basis of a separate electorate.
(ii) The deputation demanded that Muslims should be allotted more seats in Legislative Council at Centre and Provinces.
(iii) They demanded that every High court must have a Muslim judge.
(iv) Establishment of a Muslim University as a centre of religious, cultural and intellectual activities of Muslims.
(v) Preference to Muslims in Viceroy’s Executive Council.
(10) What is Hindi-Urdu controversy?
Ans. The Government in United provinces accepted the use of Devnagari script to issue summons, petitions and other documents along with the court language – Urdu. This provoked the educated Muslims of Northern India, as Hindi was given a status equal to Urdu. The opposition by the Hindus towards the Urdu language made it clear to the Muslims of the region that Hindus were not ready to tolerate the culture and tradition of the Muslims.
(11) Who launched the Aligarh movement and Why?
Ans. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan launched the Aligarh movement.
(i) To create the atmosphere of mutual understanding between the British government and Muslims.
(ii) To persuade the Muslims to adopt English education.
(12) What were the main aims and objectives of the Muslim League?
Ans. The objectives of the League were laid down as follows:
(i) To promote, among the Muslim of India, support for the British government and to remove any misconceptions regarding the intention of the government in relation to India Muslims.
(ii) To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims and to represent their needs and Muslims and to represent in mild and moderate language.
(iii) To prevent the rise of feelings of hostility between the Muslims of India and other communities.
(13) Name any two associations founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to safeguard the rights of the Muslims.
Ans. (i) Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association.
(ii) United Indian Patriotic Association.
(14) List two important events that led to the formation of the Muslim League.
Ans. (i) Partition of Bengal : Partition of Bengal widened the gap between the Hindus and the Muslims because Partition was welcomed by some Muslim leaders.
(ii) Aligarh Politics : Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk led the Aligarh Movement after the death of Sir Sayyed in 1898. He criticised the government order granting equal status to Hindi and Urdu in UP. The Lt. Governor of UP, Macdonnel, was furious and he demanded that the Nawab should either resign from the Secretaryship of the Trust or separate himself from the agitation against the government order. Muslim leaders became angry. They suggested that a political organisation of the Muslims should be set up.
(15) What did the British do to foster the policy of Divide and Rule which gave rise to the formation of the Muslim League ?
Ans. (i) In 1871 Lord Mayo’s government adopted a resolution which made Urdu the medium of instruction for Muslims in primary and secondary schools and increased government aid to educational institutions run by the Muslims.
(ii) They tried to justify the Partition of Bengal by convincing the Muslims that Bengal was being partitioned to create a new Muslim majority province where the Hindus would not be able to subvert their interests.
(iii) They treated Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs as separate communities and accepted their communal leaders as authentic representatives of all their co-religionists.
(16) State reasons as to why Muslims could not adopt western system of education.
Ans. (i) The upper class Muslims comprising zamindars and aristocrats, during the first 70 years of the 19th century were anti-British. They were conservative and hostile to modern education. Because of this, the numbers of Muslims educated in western system of education remained small.
(ii) Some members of the Muslim community did not keep up with the modern trends in social and cultural spheres. This was because they were proud of their own literature and culture and did not adopt the Western system of education.
(17) Which aspect of Indian History was ignored by the British historian?
Ans. The British and communal historians ignored the notion of a composite culture in India and tried to create a rift between the two communities. They failed to interpret that the diversity was primarily class-wise and region-wise and not religion-wise.
(18) Give two examples to show that the British encouraged communal and separatist attitude in Indian politics.
Ans. (i) Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal to create a wedge between the Hindus and the Muslims.
(ii) Morley – Minto Reforms of 1909 provided for separate representation to the Muslim community in the Imperial Legislative Council.
(19) In what way did Principal Beck encourage the Muslim communalism ?
Ans. Principal Beck of the M.A.O. College was the secretary of the Defence Association. The sole objective of the Association was to promote loyalty to the British and to prevent the Muslims from participating in any political movement.
(20) With what aim did the British Government encourage the foundation of the Muslim League?
Ans. (i) The Britishers wanted to weaken the national movement. (ii) The British Government wanted to combat the growing strength of the Indian National Congress.
(21) What was the main objective of Syed Ahmed Khan in establishing M.A.O. College?
Ans. (i) To popularize scientific and western learning among the Muslims.
(ii) To promote Muslim loyalty towards the rulers.
(22) In what way did the economic backwardness of the country lead to the growth of communalism in India ?
Ans. Due to the British colonial policies, India lacked modern industrial development; and there was acute unemployment among the educated youth. As a consequence, there was fierce competition among the youth to secure the few available jobs. This led the people to demand reservation in jobs on the basis of caste, creed or religion. The British used this opportunity to push further their policy of divide and rule and an fan communal rivalry among the educated Indians on the question of jobs in government service.
(23) Mention two demands of the Muslim deputation which met the Viceroy Lord Minto.
Ans. (i) Representation of the Muslims in elected bodies on the basis of their political importance.
(ii) To establish a Muslim University.
(24) What is meant by separate or communal electorate ? Name the Act which provided separate electorates for the Muslims.
Ans. Separate or communal electorate meant separate representation for the Muslims on the basis of community. Separate representation to the Muslims was provided under the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909.
(25) How did ‘Morley-Minto’ Reforms (1909) encourage communalism ?
Ans. Under this, the Muslims were given separate electorates and they were separated from the other Indians. (26) What was the main demand of the Muslim League in the early years of its formation? Ans. The Muslim League demanded greater representation for the Muslims in all State services and elected bodies.
(27) Mention two demands of the Muslim Deputation which met the Viceroy Lord Minto.
Ans. (i) Representation of the Muslims in elected bodies on the basis of their political importance.
(ii) To establish a Muslim University.
(28) What is meant by separate or communal electorate ? Name the Act which provided separate electorates for the Muslims.
Ans. Separate or communal electorate meant separate representation for the Muslims on the basis of community. It implied that communities should serve on the basis of representation. Separate representation to the Muslims was provided under the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909.
(29) How did ‘Morley-Minto’ Reforms (1909) encourage communalism ?
Ans. Under this, the Muslims were given separate electorates and they were separated from the other Indians.
(30) What was the main demand of the Muslim League in the early years of its formation?
Ans. The Muslim League demanded greater representation for the Muslims in all services, civil as well as military.
(31) When did the All India Muslim League come into being ? Who was the founder of the Muslim League?
Ans. All India Muslim League was founded on December 30, 1906. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca was the founder of the Muslim League.
(32) State the factors responsible for rapprochement of Muslim leaders with Congress?
Ans. (i) Britain’s hostility to Turkey in the Turko-Italian War (1911-12) and the Balkan Wars (1912-13) made a large section of Muslim leaders critical of British policies.
(ii) The annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911 was seen as detrimental interests of the Muslims in India.
(iii) The younger section of emerging Muslim leaders disliked the loyalist polities of the Aligarh group and the leadership of big Nawabs and Zamindars;
(iv) Some young scholars, influenced by the Deoband school of Muslim studies were inspired by nationalist sentiments.
(33) Name the Viceroy who challenged the right of the Congress to represent the multi-lingual Indians.
Ans. Lord Dufferin.
(34) Under whose chairmanship was the first regular session of the Muslim League held? Name the city also.
Ans. The first regular session of the Muslim League was held in 1908 at Amritsar under the leadership of Syed Ali Imam.
(35) Mention the role of Lord Curzon in fostering separatist trends in India ?
Ans. Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal to break the solidarity of Bengali nationalism. He got some success in doing so because some sections of the Muslims welcomed the partition.
(36) How did Theodre Beck create a communal dissession in India?
Ans. Theodre Beck was the Principal of Aligarh College from 1883-1889. He mobilized Muslim opinion and influenced British policy towards the Muslims. He severely criticized the Indian National Congress. He also made Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to think on communal lines.
(37) What were the demands made by the Muslim League at the time of its establishment ?
Ans. (i) Muslims demanded representation on a community basis in the Provincial and Legislative Councils.
(ii) This representation to separate electorates should be based on the political importance of the Muslims and not on their population.
(iii) Muslims should be given seats in municipal bodies, University Councils, military and judicial services. (iv) Every High court should have a Muslim judge.
(v) A Muslim university to be set up.
(38) Write any two features of the Lucknow Pact.
Ans. (i) Judiciary should be separated from the Executive. (ii) Separate Electorates for the Muslims accepted by Congress.
(39) What changes did the Lucknow Pact contemplate in the composition of Viceroy’s Executive Council ?
Ans. It stated that half of the members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be Indians elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council.
History 64 ICSE X Robomate+
(40) Critically evaluate the drawbacks of Lucknow Pact ?
Ans. (i) The League remained a separate entity, advocating that Muslim political interests were separate from those of Hindus.
(ii) Pact also recognised the principle of weightage of Muslims in certain provinces.
(iii) According to the Pact, no legislature could enact a law if it was opposed by 3/4th of members of a particular community.
(iv) There was no involvement of Hindu and Muslim masses.
(41) What compromises did Congress make over the Lucknow Pact ?
Ans. Since the Congress agreed to the scheme of communal electorates for the Muslims, it lost it’s secular character.
(42) What is the importance of the Lucknow Session of 1916 of the Indian National Congress ?
Ans. In December 1916, the Congress and the League held their sessions at Lucknow. In the session, both the parties decided to work together and signed a Joint Scheme of Reforms, that later came to be known as the Lucknow Pact.
(43) What was the attitude of the Congress towards the British during the First World War ?
Ans. Most of the Congress leaders decided to support the government in the First World War as they believed that after the War was over, India would be given political reforms and self governing institutions.
(44) What was the impact of the First World War on India or on the National Movement?
Ans. (i) The War was indirectly responsible for changing the aims and objectives of the Muslim League. After the War, both the Congress and the Muslim League decided to work together.
(ii) The War period was full of intense nationalist political activities.
(45) What is the importance of the Lucknow Session of the Congress ? OR Mention two reasons why 1916 is considered very important in the history of the Indian National Congress. Ans. i. Hindu- Muslim Unity – It was the year when Lucknow Pact was signed which created understanding between Muslim League and Congress. ii. Unity within the Congress – It was the year in which both Early Nationalist and Assertives decided to work together. iii. Swaraj – The pact led to the gradual development of self – governing institutions.
(46) State the provisions in Lucknow Pact for election of Muslims in provincial legislatures?
Ans. Four-fifths of the members of the Provincial Legislatures were to be directly elected and one-fifth to be nominated. The number of members in the provinces was laid down in the scheme. The number of Muslims members was laid down for each Province. They were to be elected through separate electorates. On the whole, the proportion of Muslim members was large, for example, 50 per cent in Punjab, 40 per cent in Bengal and 30 per cent in U.P.
(47) State the clause related to communal veto in the Lucknow pact?
Ans. No Legislative Council (Imperial or Provisional) was to proceed with any Bill or Resolution, affecting one or the other community, if three-fourths of the members of that community opposed it on the ground that it adversely affected their interests.
(48) Name the organisation established by Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan to oppose Indian National Congress.
Ans. When the Indian National Congress was founded, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan opposed it. He founded the United Indian Patriotic Association in 1888 mainly with a view to oppose the Congress.
(49) Which actions of the Assertive Nationalists had annoyed the Muslims?
Ans. The speeches and actions of some of the assertive nationalists annoyed some sections of Indians. For example, the propogation of Shivaji and Ganapati festivals by Tilak, Aurobindo Ghosh’s concept of India as mother and nationalism as religion and the intiation of the Anti-Partition agitation with dips in the Ganga did not appeal to some of the Muslims.
(1) Describe briefly the important factors which led to the formation of the Muslim League with reference to the following :
(i) The British policy of Divide and Rule.
(ii) The Partition of Bengal.
(iii) The efforts of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
Ans. (i) The Britishers followed the policy of Divide and Rule to rule over India. One of the main features of this policy was to create disunity among the Hindus and the Muslims.
(a) After the revolt of 1857, they discriminated against the Muslims by treating them as their main enemies. But later on, when the nationalist movement started gaining strength, they started favouring upper class Muslims to keep them away from the nationalist movement.
(b) They encouraged the Muslims to start a separate organisations. They created a feeling in the minds of the Muslims that their rights would not be protected in the Hindu dominated society.
(c) Bengal was partitioned to please the Muslims. Lord Curzon said, “his object in partitioning was not only to relieve the Bengal administration, but also to create a Mohammedan province.”
(d) The system of separate communal electorates sowed the seeds of communalism and widened the gulf between the two communities.
(ii) Curzon’s scheme for the partition of Bengal, found favourable response among the Muslims. They found in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam the fulfillment of their cherished desire of forming a separate Muslim state. The Muslims of East Bengal, led by Nawab Salimullah of Dacca, welcomed the partition.
(a) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the most important leaders of the Muslims.
(b) He was the first leader who strove hard to remove the hostility of the British rulers towards the Muslims.
(c) He opposed the activities of the Indian National Congress and advised the Muslims not to join it.
(d) He founded Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College which later on became the nucleus of Aligarh Movement which worked to instill into the minds of the Muslims a spirit of loyalty towards the British crown.
(e) In 1888, he founded United Indian Patriotic Association to counter the Congress propaganda.
(f) He also founded Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association to combat the growing influence of the Congress.
(2) There were many events that led to the formation of the Muslim League in 1906. In this context, describe :
(a) The Hindi-Urdu Controversy.
(b) Deputation to Lord Minto (1906).
(c) The Aligarh Politics.
Ans. (a) It was a practice in Uttar Pradesh that all petitions to the courts had to be written in Urdu as it was the court language. Responding to the protests of the Hindus, the Government passed an order in 1900 that court summons and all official announcements would in future be issued both in Urdu and Hindi. The Muslims resented this. This incident worsened the relations between the Hindus and the Muslims.
(b) Lord Minto gave assurance to the delegation which met him in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan. The demands of the delegation widened the gulf between the Hindus and the Muslims and paved the way for the formation of the Muslim League. The Principal Demands :
(i) Separate Electorate : The delegation demanded separate electorate for the Muslims.
(ii) Weightage in Representation : The Muslim representation should be determined not on the basis of their total population but on political importance and services rendered to the British empire.
(iii) Adequate Representation : The delegation demanded a greater representation of the Muslims in all services – civil and military.
(iv) Demand for Muslim University : The delegation further wanted to establish a Muslim University with the help of the government. The University would be the centre of religious, cultural and intellectual activities.
(c) After the death of Sir Syed in 1898, Nawab Mosin-ul-Mulk led the Aligarh Movement. The Nawab tried to continue the policy of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan i.e. the Muslim must not participate in politics against Britishers and should refrain from joining the Indian National Congress. In order to combat the growing influence of the Congress, the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association was founded. The members of Aligarh Movement severely criticized the government when equal status was granted to Hindi. All these incidents widened the gulf between the Hindus and the Muslims.
(3) Describe how each of the following contributed to the growth of communalism in India :
(a) Assertive Nationalists.
(b) Communal viewpoint in History textbooks.
(c) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
Ans. (a) (i) There is no doubt that the militant nationalists gave great impetus to the national movement but some of their actions led to the growth of communalism.
(ii) Tilak started the celebration of the Ganapati festival. He also glorified Shivaji’s battles against the Mughal empire. This hurt the sentiments of the Muslims.
(iii) The assertive nationalists glorified India’s past by presenting a one sided picture of India’s composite culture. They glorified the activities of Shivaji, Rana Pratap, Guru Gobind Singh etc. but forgot that the Muslims were also a part of India. Bipin Chandra Pal regarded ShriKrishna as India’s Soul but this was misinterpreted by many Muslims.
(iv) Most of the leaders believed in Hindu-Muslim unity but in their writings and speeches they used symbols derived from the Hindu sources, for example Gandhiji used the slogan “Ram Rajya”.
(b) (i) Indian history was presented by the British historians in such a way as to arouse and foster communal feelings among the Indians.
(ii) The history was divided into Hindu and Muslim periods. During the Hindu period, the Muslims were shown as invaders. During the Muslim period Muslims were identified as rulers and Hindus as their subjects.
(c) (i) In the beginning Sir Syed Ahmed Khan preached Hindu-Muslim unity.
(ii) He came under the influence of Mr. Beck, Principal of M.A.O College. He started many anti-Congress movements.
(iii) He advised the Muslims to remain away from National Movement and the Congress.
(iv) He also advised the Muslims to support the British rule in India and was of the opinion that the Indians were not strong enough to rule themselves.
(v) He founded Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College and later on this college became the nucleus of the Aligarh Movement.
(vi) The Aligarh Movement worked to instill into the minds of the Muslims a spirit of loyalty towards the Britishers and, worked to keep the Muslims away from the main stream of National Movement.
(vii) In August 1888, he set up the United Indian Patriotic Association to combat the Congress.
(4) Describe how each of the following contributed to the growth of communalism in India :
(a) Educational and economic backwardness of the Muslims.
(b) Economic backwardness of the country.
Ans. (a) (i) The Muslims became the special target of the English after the revolt of 1857. The British Government looked at them as their real enemies in India. They were not recruited in the army. The British tried to win over the Hindus. This widened the gap between the two communities.
(ii) Educational backwardness of the Muslims led to their inferior economic position. The Muslims were left to believe that supporting the Britishers was the surest way of getting jobs and other rights.
So they started supporting the government and its policies. Leaders like Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims not to join the Congress. This widened the gap between two communities.
(b) The economic backwardness of the country also contributed to the growth of communalism. Underdevelopment of agriculture and industry caused an acute unemployment problem. It tempted the people to demand reservation in jobs on the basis of caste, religion and region.
This widened the gulf between the Hindus and the Muslims.
(5) A Muslim deputation was received by Lord Minto on October 1, 1906 :
(i) Who was its leader?
(ii) What were its main demands?
(iii) What assurance did the deputation had from the Viceroy? (iv) What was the impact of the assurance on the country?
(v) How this led to the formation of the Muslim League.
Ans. (i) Agha Khan.
(ii) It mainly demanded separate electorates for Muslims, reservations in government jobs and more state aid for promoting Muslim Universities.
(iii) Lord Minto, the Viceroy, gave an assurance that the political rights and the interests of the Muslims would be duly protected. Actually, he got the opportunity to introduce the Communal Electorates in Morley- Minto Reforms of 1909. This created the gulf between the two communities the Hindu and the Muslims.
(iv) (a) Formation of the Muslim League : This event is considered as the event which led to the formation of the Muslim League.
(b) Set-back to National Movement : This incident gave a big blow to the National Movement. Many Muslim leaders and the Muslim people were cut off from the National Movement.
(c) Success for the Britishers : The Britishers were successful in sowing seeds of conflict between the two communities. The success of the Muslim deputation to the Viceroy motivated the Muslims to start a separate political organisation. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca took the initiative. In December 1906, when eminent Muslim leaders assembled at Dacca in connection with the Mohammedan Educational Conference, he arranged a meeting to consider proposal for a separate organisation for the Muslims. The proposal to form a central organisation for Muslims was accepted and a political association “All-India Muslim League” was set up on December 30, 1906 under the presidentship of Nawab Salimullah. Aga Khan was elected as Permanent President of the Muslim League. Its headquarters were to be at Aligarh but its central office was shifted to Lucknow in 1910.
(6) Regarding the Muslim League, answer the following :
(a) What were the aims and objectives of the League ?
(b) Attitude of the Nationalist Muslims towards the League.
Ans. (a) (i) To promote amongst the Muslims of India, the feeling of loyalty to the British Government.
(ii) To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India and to represent their needs and aspirations to the government.
(iii) To prevent feelings of hostility towards other communities without adversely affecting the objectives of the League.
(b) (i) The Nationalist Muslims believed that India could not win freedom unless co-operation was established between the two communities.
They disliked the loyalist politics or the Aligarh group.
(ii) In 1912, Abul Kalam Azad founded the Al Hilal and Maulana Mohammed Ali started ‘The Comrade’ in English and ‘Hamdard’ in Urdu to infuse the spirit of nationalism among the Indians.
(iii) Many nationalist Muslims, including Habibur Rahman joined the Congress. He also founded ‘Majlis-i-Ahrar’.
(7) The All India Muslim League was founded in December 1906 to voice the political interests of the Muslim community. In this context, state :
(a) the attitude of the nationalist Muslims towards the formation of the League.
(b) the impact of the Lucknow Pact of 1916 as an important step to achieve Hindu-Muslim unity.
(c) main impact of the Muslim League on the National Movement.
Ans. (a) Most of the nationalist leaders were of the opinion that personal belief should not be mixed with political activities. In spite of the appeals from the Muslims League, many nationalist leaders like Habibur Rehman, Abul Kalam Azad, Mohammad Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan joined the national movement.All these leaders carried on national propaganda among the people and brought them into the fold of struggle for freedom.
(b) The Lucknow Pact was signed between the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 to work together. They joined hands in demanding Self-Government or Swaraj at an early date. The Congress, according to this Pact, accepted separate representation of the Muslims in the Councils. This removed the Muslim League’s fear that the Councils formed through elections would be dominated by the Hindus and the Muslims interests would suffer. The coming together of the Congress and the Muslim League to jointly fight for a common cause was an important political event.
(c) With the establishment of the Muslim League, the National Movement got a set back. The formation of the party on the basis of religion was an unhealthy sign in the political life of the people. Though the Muslim League preferred to serve the interests of its community, it actually served the interests of British rulers. In many situations, the Muslim League demanded concessions for the Muslims. The activities of the Muslim League and other communal parties took a dangerous turn when they started saying that the Indian people were not one nation but were two nations. While the national movement united the people on the basis of their common aspirations to take India on the road to progress, the communal parties questioned the very basis of the Indian nationhood.
(8) The bond of alliance between the Congress and the Muslim League was cemented by the conclusion of the Lucknow Pact in 1916. In this context, answer the following questions :
(a) What were the main features of the Pact?
(b) What was the significance of the Pact?
Ans. (a) (i) Independent Unit : India was to be treated as an independent unit of the Empire, as a self autonomous state with equal rights and responsibilities.
(ii) Provincial Legislatures : Four-fifths of the members of the Provincial Legislatures were to be elected and one fifth nominated. The number of Muslim members was laid down for each Province. They were to be elected through separate electorates. On the whole, the proportion of Muslim members was large, for example, 50 per cent in Punjab, 40 per cent in Bengal and 30 per cent in U.P.
(iii) Imperial Legislative Council : The Imperial Legislative Council was to have 150 members. Of these four-fifths were to be elected and one-fifth nominated. One-third of the elected members were to be Muslims.
(iv) Powers of the Imperial Legislative Council: Defence, foreign affairs and political relations of India i.e. waging of war, peace and signing of treaty were to be excluded from the control of the Imperial Legislature.
(v) Bills related to Religious Interests : No bill could be introduced in the Legislative Council if it affected the interests of any community and such a bill could not be passed if it was opposed by three-fourths of that community.
(vi) Composition of Viceroy’s Executive Council : Half of the members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be Indians elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council.
(vii) Separation of Judiciary from Executive : Judiciary should be separated from Executive. Members of the judiciary in every Province should be placed under the control of the highest court of that Province. Executive officers should not have judicial powers.
(viii)Abolition of Council of the Secretary of State : The Council of the Secretary of State for India which operates from London shall be abolished. Secretary of State for India shall have the same position with regard to the Government of India as he has in relation to the government of self-governing colonies. The Secretary of State for India was to be assisted by two Under Secretaries, of whom one should be an Indian.
(b) (i) Unity : It brought the Hindu and the Muslim unity which was the need of the hour. It also brought Early Nationalist and Assertives leaders at the same platform.
(ii) Strengthening of the National Movement : The unity between the Congress, the League and between the Early Nationalist and Assertives demoralised the British Government. Now the government was under pressure for granting constitutional reforms. This helped in strengthening the national movement.
(iii) Constitutional Reforms : At that time, the Home Rule League was also gaining momentum, both the leaders of the Congress and the League made it clear to the British Government that their demands for constitutional reforms could not be easily rejected if they wished Indians to be loyal to the British. In the face of overwhelming, odds the government announced on August 20, 1917 that their policy in India was “the gradual development of selfgoverning institutions”.
Notes for The Muslim League
Factors Leading to the foundation of Muslim League
Loss of Sovereignty for the Muslims
• British established their rule after dethroning Mughal Empire (Muslim rule).
• Muslims were against British
• They considered British their most dangerous enemies.
• British began to crush Muslims.
Economic Backwardness of the Muslims
• Muslim were not recruited to Civil and Military services.
• Government Job was reserved mostly for Hindus.
• The Muslims remained poor.
• The crippling of arts and crafts in villages also led poverty among the Muslims.
Backwardness in the Social and Cultural Fields
• Persian was replaced by English.
• Muslims were proud on their literature and language and did not adopt western education.
So they were backward in the social and cultural fields.
• Hindus adopted western education.
British Policy of Divide and Rule
• The English resorted to different methods to divide Indians.
• British painted several Hindu rulers as cruel to their Muslims subjects.
• British introduced Minto-Morley Reforms 1909.
• British tried to justify the partition of Bengal for Muslims interest.
New Interpretation to Indian History
• The English historians tried to create hatred among Hindus and Muslims for each other.
• British Divided Indian history into Hindu and Muslim periods.
Rise the Revolutionary Nationalism
• Some action of Nationalists gave birth of communalism.
• They identified the Indian nation with the Hindus and the Hindu religion.
• They ignored Muslim role in Indian History.
Economic Backwardness of the country
• Economic Backwardness was the responsible for communalism.
• There was acute unemployment in youth.
• They demanded reservation in Jobs.
• Both the Hindu and Muslims leaders failed to convince that the English were responsible for their backwardness.
• As a result communal forces grew.
Efforts of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
• Sir Syed Ahmad khan advised Muslims to get western Education.
• He founded the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental college at Aligarh in 1875.
• He advised Muslims to remain far away from Hindus and National movement.
• Aligarh became centre of Muslim communalism.
• Events Leading to the foundation of the Muslim League
• Sir syed Ahmad khan set up various institutions.
• He founded the Mohammedan Civil Service Association and demanded the appointment of Muslims to higher posts through examination.
• 1887:He convened a Muslim conference with aim of keeping Muslims away from the congress.
• 1893:Organised the Mohammedan Defence Association to prevent Muslims to join Congress.
• 1905:Partition of Bengal was reward of muslims for their support.
• New Principal of MAO college invited Nawab Mohsin ul Mulk to Shimla and advised him to demand for separate electoral system.
• 1906/10/1: Lord Minto received various demands under the leadership of Agha Khan
1. The Muslims should have their own separate electorates.
2. A muslim should be given a seat in High courts and Chief Courts.
3. The proportion for Muslim representative entitled for nomination to provincial councils should be determined and declared.
4. There should be a Muslim university.
• 1906: The Mohammedan Educational Conference was held to form a separate body of Muslims at Dacca. After the long discussion under Waqar ul Mulk Muslim league formed.
• Aims and Objectives of Muslim League
i. Promotion of loyalty to the British Government
ii. Protection of Muslims interest
Impact of the Muslim League on the Indian National Movement
➢ Morley Minto reform introduced to please Indian Muslims.
➢ Congress was against of it.
➢ British against the Turkish interest thereafter Indian Muslims launched Khilafat Movement and congress supported them.
➢ 1916: Lucknow pact signed between congress and league.
➢ 1934: Mr. Jinnah put forward two nation theories.
➢ 1947: communal riots broke out.
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