Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to The First World War ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 The First World War Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter The First World War provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
The First World War Questions and Answers
Short Answers Type Questions
(1) Whose entry in the colonial world triggered rivalry among Europeans? Why?
Ans. (i) By the end of 19th century, many of the countries of Asia and Africa had been occupied by Britain, France, Spain and Holland. (ii) Germany also wanted a share in the world market. It became necessary for Germany to have her own colonies. This brought her into a direct clash with the existing colonial powers which created a war like situation. The rivalry over the colonies became a major cause of World War I.
(2) What was Arms race ? Why did the European powers indulge in it?
Ans. Stock piling of weapons in the name of self-defence and preservation of peace was Arms race which led to fierce competition among European countries. Competitive nationalism, economic competition and international tension led to piling up of stock of weapons. Britain and France felt concerned with German war-preparations and growing strength, hence they were forced to enter the Arms race.
(3) Explain the Balkan issue.
Ans. (i) Balkans (peninsula to the Mediterranean sea) was a region of geographical importance and ethnic variation. The spread of nationalism in the Balkans together with disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. Unification of Slavs was the most restive movement in the Balkans led by Serbia. (ii) Balkans became a scene of big power- rivalry. The European powers who fought over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might were keen on countering each others’ hold over the Balkans. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
(4) Which two power blocs emerged in Europe prior to World War I ?
Ans. The major European nations were divided into two blocs. (i) Britain, France and Russia (Triple Entente-1907) (ii) Germany, Austria – Hungary and Italy (Triple Alliance-1882) They made treaties of secret military alliances with each other causing suspicion and fear amongst nations.
(5) What do you mean by the Sarajevo Incident? OR What was the immediate cause of First World War ?
Ans. The Sarajevo Incident : Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assasssinated at Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on June 28, 1914. The assassination was organised by a secret society called ‘Black Hand’ or ‘Union of Death’ formed by extremist Serbian nationalists whose aim was to unite all Serbians into a single Serbian State.
(6) Name the Single Nation States and the Imperial States before 1914.
Ans. The single Nation States were France, Holland, and Germany. The Imperial States were Austria-Hungary and Russia.
(7) What was the conflict between Austria and Serbia ?
Ans. The major cause of tension between Serbia and Austria was the annexation of Balkan provinces, Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908 by Austria which Serbia had coveted.
(8) Mention two territorial conflicts between nations before the outbreak of World War I.
Ans. (i) There was tension between France and Germany over the territories of Alsace and Lorraine, which were annexed by Germany in Franco- Prussian War. (ii) Austria and Russia were rivalrous over the Eastern European territories of the Ottoman Empire known as the Balkans.
(9) What were the conditions of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia ?
Ans. Austria served an ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July 1914 making eleven demands. Austria asked Serbia to apprehend the criminals and hand them over to the Austrian government. Austria also sought a ban on anti-Austrian publications, anti-Austrian meetings and institutions in Serbia.
(10) How did the Sarajevo crisis in 1914 lead to the First World War ?
Ans. (i) Austria saw the hand of Serbia behind assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and served her with an ultimatum. (ii) Due to the support of Russia, Serbia refused to accept the demands of the ultimatum. So Austria declared a war on Serbia on 28th July 1914.
(11) Why did Britain declare war on Germany and when ?
Ans. Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914 when German army invaded Belgium, whose neutrality had been guaranteed by Britain.
(12) Which country withdrew from Triple Alliance during the World War I ?
Ans. Italy withdrew from Triple Alliance and joined the war against Germany in 1915.
(13) How did Germany protect its colonial empire amidst competition?
Ans. (i) In order to protect her colonies in Africa and the Pacific, Germany began to build a powerful navy. The Germans dug the Kiel Canal deeper so that battle ships could find shelter in its waters.
(ii) The construction of the Kiel Canal under taken by Germany –
(a) To connect the North sea with the Baltic sea.
(b) To provide a passage for German ships to the North sea.
(iii) In 1912, the Imperator was the largest battle ship built by the Germans.
(14) Which German project caused resentment in Great Britain ? Why ?
Ans. (i) The construction of the Berlin-Baghdad railway line with the cooperation of Turkey was perceived as threat to British trade interest and her colonial empire in Asia.
(ii) Besides, construction of Kiel Canal aggravated the naval competition between England and Germany in the North Sea.
(15) Why did colonial competition among the European powers increase ?
Ans. (i) With the tremendous increase in industrial production after the Industrial Revolution, the industrialised European powers needed overseas markets in Asia and Africa.
(ii) They also needed guaranteed sources of raw material at cheap rates.
(iii) An intense struggle started among the European powers to acquire colonies in Asia and Africa for this purpose, resulting in colonial competition.
(16) Why did the Balkan region evoke interest among the European nations ?
Ans. (i) The Balkan region was strategically located and provided access to the Mediterranean Sea. The trade routes from Europe to Africa and Asia passed through the Mediterranean Sea. (ii) The hold of the Turkish ruler over this east European region had weakened during the second half of the 19th century. The collapse of the crumbling Turkish Ottoman empire allowed Europeans increase their influence in this region.
(17) Which incident provoked the entry of US in the War?
Ans. On 6th April 1917, the United States of America declared war on Germany due to following reasons :
(i) German U-boats had sunk, British ship, ‘Lusitania’ sailing from New York in which 128 Americans were killed.
(ii) Many Americans had invested money in Entente countries which could be paid back if these countries won the war.
(18) Why did Russia withdraw from World War I ?
Ans. Russia withdrew from the war for the following reasons :
(i) Russia had lost more than 600,000 soldiers.
(ii) The new Bolshevik Party was not in favour of the War. Russia withdrew from the War and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed. Germany imposed a war indemnity of six billion marks on Russia. It had to cede many industrial cities to Germany.
(19) What was the Paris Peace Settlement?
Ans. (i) A conference was held in Paris to settle the terms of peace. Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles on 28th June, 1919.
(ii) Separate treaties were signed with Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria to cripple them economically and militarily. Treaty of St. Germaine, Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Neuilly and Treaty of Sevres were other treaties signed with the losers.
(20) When and Where was the Treaty of Versailles signed?
Ans. Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles in France between the defeated nation Germany and the victors Britain, France and the USA.
(21) Which territorial losses did Germany suffer due to the Treaty of Vesailles?
Ans. Germany had to suffer the following territorial losses :
(i) Eupen and Malmedy were returned to Belgium, Schleswig was returned to Denmark.
(ii) Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France.
(iii) Germany had to accept the independence of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Belgium.
(iv) Danzig the only sea port in the Baltic was to be used by Poland for its commercial purposes.
(22) Give the date of the Armistice on which the War came to an end ?
Ans. The date of Armistice on which the War came to an end was November 11th, 1918.
(23) Mention two most important clauses of the Treaty of Versailles.
Ans. (i) Germany was declared guilty of War and was compelled to pay 33 billion dollars as war indemnity to the victor nations.
(ii) Germany had to evacuate the places she had captured during the War.
(24) What did France gain from the Treaty of Versailles ?
Ans. (i) It was given full control over the rich coal mines in the Saar basin although the area was governed by the League of Nations.
(ii) France got back Alsace and Lorraine.
(25) Why did Russia support Serbia ?
Ans : Russia supported Serbia because : (i) Russia had not approved the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria in 1908.
(ii) The defeat of Serbia by Austria would enhance Austria’s influence in the Balkan region. This was detrimental to Russian interests.
(iii) The majority of the people in Russia and Serbia belonged to the Slav race; Russia being the largest Slav nation had an affinity towards Serbia.
(26) How was the German Empire dismantled ?
Ans : (i) The Polish speaking areas within the German Empire were recognised as the independent state of Poland.
(ii) The German port of Danzig on the Baltic Sea was internationalised. A ‘corridor’ connecting Poland and Danzig was given to Poland.
(iii) A new state of Czechoslovakia was formed, which included the German province of Sudetenland.
(iv) Austria and Hungary were separated. Austria was recognised as an independent state. The union of Austria with Germany was banned.
(27) What led to the rise of dictatorships in Europe?
Ans. Democracies set up in Spain, Germany and Italy failed to solve the postwar politico-economic problem of their people. This led to rise of Nazi dictatorship under Hitler in Germany and the Fascist dictatorship under Mussolini in Italy.
(28) Mention the loss of life and money in the First World War.
Ans. Loss of Life : The total number of those killed and dead in the War are estimated at about nine million, that is, about one-seventh of those who participated in it. Several million became invalids. Loss of Money : It was a very expensive war. The expenditure on the Allied side was 41,000 million pounds and that on German side was 15,000 million pounds. Many industries, towns and farms were also ruined.
(29) What changes were introduced in the political map of the world after the World War I?
Ans. At the end of World War I many empires disintegrated and new nations were born. The Austro-Hungarian empire split into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania. The Ottoman empire disintegrated in Syria, Iraq, Palestine etc. Even Russian Empire received a blow and new countries like Poland, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia emerged. Thus emergence of new independent nations led to recasting of the world map.
(30) When and by whom was the League of Nations initiated ?
Ans. The League of Nations was initiated in January 1920 by President Woodrow Wilson of the USA, with its headquarters at Geneva in Switzerland.
(31) The USA emerged as the Great Power after the War. Why ?
Ans. The British cruise-liner, Lusitania was sunk by the German U-boat killing the on-board Americans. This event instigated the American entry in the World War. The US military was responsible for the victory of Allied Powers and also for turning the tables against Germany and the Central Powers. The Armistice signed by Germany on November 11th, 1918 was based upon the US President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Point Plan. Consequently, USA emerged as a Great Power post WWI.
(32) How was the outbreak of the Second World War an outcome of the First World War ?
Ans. The treatment meted out to the defeated nations of the First World War was the cause of outbreak of the Second World War. The Treaty of Versailles was humiliating and torturous for Germany. Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria had to sign separate treaties like Treaty of St. Germaine, Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Sevres and Treaty of Neuilly respectively which humbled their status. These Peace treaties made the losers feel vengeful. This led to a Second World War.
(33) Why did the League of Nations collapse and who replaced it ?
Ans. (i) The absence of the USA and other important nations weakened the League.
(ii) The League remained ineffective in front of dictators due to lack of military forces. It could only impose sanctions on the defaulters.
(iii) The League suffered from conflicting ambitions of dominant nations like England and France who failed to provide a good leadership. Finally it collapsed at the outbreak of World War II. The League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations in 1945.
(34) What is aggressive nationalism ? What are its features?
Ans. It means obsessive love for one’s own country and hatred for other nations. These countries developed expansionist policies in the name of nationalism.
(i) Maintaining huge armies and navies accompanied by espionage, which led to suspicion, fear and hatred. (ii) Powerful defence personnel, who dominated over civil authorities during political crisis.
(35) Who was blamed for the assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand ?
Ans. Serbia was blamed for the assassination of prince Archduke Ferdinand by Austria. The assassin, Gavrilo Princep was an extremist Serbian Nationalist associated with the ‘Black Hand Society’.
(36) Mention any three results of First World War.
Ans. (i) Unjust Treaty of Versailles
(ii) Territorial rearrangements in Europe
(iii) Formation of League of Nations.
(iv) Rise of extreme ideologies.
(37) Cite a few examples of Aggressive Nationalism.
Ans. Many European nations became expansionist under the guise of Nationalism. France wanted to get back its provinces of Alsace and Lorraine from Germany. Similarly, Italy wanted to get back the territory of Trentino Trieste from Austria and Balkan states like Serbia wanted that their fellow nationals (Slavs) who lived in other states should come together to form a greater Balkan State.
(38) Explain Imperialism. How did the imperialist nations exploit the colonies?
Ans. Imperialism, a system by which a powerful nation used to establish it’s control over another country, either by political pressure, infiltration and annexation or by outright wars. Once conquered, this country was claimed as a colony. The imperial nations exploited the resources of these colonies for their economic interest. Colonies provided raw material, cheap labour, agricultural land and trading ports to the imperial nations.
(39) Which country withdrew from the War and why ?
Ans. The Russian forces were badly defeated by Germany. The Czar was weakened and there was a revolution in Russia which resulted in the establishment of Bolshevik regime in the country. In 1917, Russia withdrew from the War.
(40) What was the fate of Turkey at the end of the War ?
Ans. Under the Treaty of Sevres, Turkey lost the territories of Palestine, Iraq, Syria and Arabian countries to the Allies. Turkey was left only with Constantinople and the Straits of Dardenelles as its possession. The complete dismemberment of Turkish empire took place where by Syria went to France, Palestine and Mesopotamia (Iraq) went to Britain as ‘mandates’ most of the remaining Turkish Empire was given to Greece and Italy.
(41) What were the objectives of the League of Nations ?
Ans. The aims and objectives of the League of Nations were as follows :
(i) All the member-states of the League were not allowed to enter into any secret treaties.
(ii) The member states were not supposed to maintain warships, and destructive armaments.
(iii) All the states should refer to the League of Nations their mutual disputes, if any.
(iv) The states should respect each other’s independence.
(v) The League of Nations was responsible for promoting cultural, social and economic cooperation among the member states.
(vi) The member states should take necessary actions as directed by the League of Nations against any state which tried to disturb the world peace.
(vii) To establish ‘International Law’ as the actual rule of conduct among governments.
(viii) Protection of national minorities.
(42) With reference to Austrian-Serbian clash, explain annexation of Bosnia Herzigovina.
Ans. Pan Slavism was a movment led by Serbia for unification of Slavs in the Balkan region. Serbia coveted the Balkan territories of Bosnia-Herzigovina for its expansion into a bigger South Slav Sate. However Bosnia Herzigovina were under the administrative control of Austria. Taking advantage of the revolution that broke out in Turkey, Austria annexed these territories in 1908. Serbia resented this annexation. Serbia was supported by Russia in its bid for the Balkans.
(1) With reference of the following points, explain the causes of World War I.
(a) Imperial rivalries.
(b) Aggressive Nationalism and Arms race.
(c) Division of Europe into two power blocs.
Ans. (a) There was a scramble among the European nations for new territories in Africa and Asia in the 19th century. Most of the countries were occupied by Britain and rest by France, Spain, Holland, Portugal and Belgium. These colonies were used as captive markets for the sale of goods. Germany was left behind. But when Germany entered the race of establishing colonies and wanted a share in the world market, then Britain, France etc. became concerned. This was the beginning of clashes between Germany and other colonial powers.
(b) Aggressive Nationalism and Arms race :
(i) Nationalism had become competitive and aggressive. Love for ones nation meant hatred towards the other. France and Germany were old rivals as Germany had seized its provinces, Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War 1871.
(ii) Balkan states like Serbia wanted that their follow nationals (Slavs) who lived in other States should come together to from a greater Balkan State.
(iii) These countries devloped expanisonist policies in the name of nationalism. Therfore military strength became synonymous with national prestige and every country began to increase her military power.
(iv) Competitive nationalism, economic competition and international tension led to piling up of stock of weapons. Britain and France felt concerned with German war-preparations and growing strength, hence they were forced to enter the arms race.
(c) Division of Europe :
(i) There were two kinds of States in Europe in the early 20th century. On one hand there were single Nation-States like France, Holland and Germany. On the other, there were imperial States like the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russian Empire.
(ii) Germany entered into an alliance with Austria-Hungary. In 1882 Italy joined the alliance and it came to be known as the Triple Alliance.
(iii) After the death of Bismarck, France was able to establish friendly relations with Russia and England. The three countries entered into the Triple Entente in 1907 to counter the Triple Alliance.
(2) In context World War I explain the following :
(i) The assassiantion of Austrian Prince immediately led to the War.
(ii) The War changed the political map of the World. (iii) Formation of League of Nations.
Ans. (i) The Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir-apparent to the throne of Austria and his wife were shot dead in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 by Gavrilo Princep, a nineteen year old Bosnian. The murder was planned by a secret society of patriotic terrorists called the “Black Hand”. Serbians were blamed for the crime by Austrians as the assassin and fellow conspirators had received their guns and bombs in the Serbian capital with the help of Serbian officials. As a result of this, Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia to apprehend the criminals and hand them over to the Austrian government. It also sought a ban on anti-Austrian publications, anti-Austrian meetings and institutions. Serbia did not accept this demands as it led to the loss of a sovereignty. Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914.
(ii) The peace treaties signed after the War transformed the political map of the world, particularly of Europe. Three ruling dynasties were destroyed -the Romanov in Russia during the War itself, the Hohenzollern in Germany and the Hapsburg in Austria-Hungary. Soon after the War, the rule of Ottomans came to an end in Turkey. Austria and Hungary became separate independent States. Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia emerged as independent States. Empires having different cultures were dissolved and independent states having distinct cultures emerged after the War. These included Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Yugoslavia. Under the impulse of nationalism Alsace-Lorraine was restored to France and Schelswig- Holstein was restored to Denmark.
(iii) The horrors of War convinced the leaders of the world that there must be a mechanism to prevent War and promote international cooperation. This culminated in the setting up of the League of Nations. An important part of the peace treaties was the covenant of the League of Nations. Wilson’s Fourteen Points included the creation of an international organisation for the preservation of peace and to guarantee the independence of all states. Thus, the League of Nations was created as a world organisation of all independent States in 1920.
(3) Write a note on Treaty of Versailles with reference to :
(a) Loss to Germany in material and military arrangement.
(b) Losses with respect to her own territories.
(c) Losses with respect to her colonies.
Ans. (a) (i) Germany had to pay the damages of War called war-indemnity to the victor nations which cost it 33 billion dollars. (ii) The German army was disbanded. She was allowed to keep only one lakh soldiers. The air force and sub marines were also banned. Her navy was limited to 15,000 men and 24 ships. (iii) Germany had to cede to the Allies her merchant ships as compensation.
(iv) Germany was to supply huge quantity of coal to France, Italy and Belgium for 10 years.
(v) To compensate France for the destruction of the coal mines by Germany in 1918, she was given full control over the rich coal mines in the Saar basin. But the area was governed by the League of Nations.
(b) (i) The Rhine Valley was to be demilitarised. The German territory to the West of Rhine Valley was to be occupied by the Allied Troops for 15 years.
(ii) Germany was to return Alsace and Lorraine to France.
(iii) She was to hand over Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium.
(iv) She also had to give Schleswig to Denmark.
(v) The German city of Danzig was made a free port in the Polish territory.
(c) (i) Britain and France shared Togoland and the Cameroon.
(ii) Other German colonies were shared between England, Belgium, Portugal and South Africa.
(iii) Japan was given Shantung and fort Kiao-chow in China and German colonies in the pacific.
(iv) New Zealand was given Samoa Islands.
Notes for The First World War
The First World War And National Movement
• 1914-1918: WWI took place.
• Allied powers: Britain, France, Japan, Russia etc.
• Axis powers: Germany, Austria, Italy, Turkey, Hungary etc.
India and The WWI
• One of the main cause of WWI was to expand their empires.
• India was the colony of England.
• British wanted to include Indians in WWI.
• Indian were opposed it to join WWI.
• Early nationalist thought after WWI they gave swaraj to Indians.
• But they forgotten that the British involved in war for their colonies.
Effects of the WWI on the National movement
• 1915-1916: Home rule league started by tilak and Annie Besant.
• 1916: Early and assertive and Muslim league were united in Lucknow to work together.
• 1918: Montague-Chelmsford Reforms introduced to please Indian Nationalists.
The Lucknow Pact
Circumstances leading Lucknow Pact
• England fought against turkey in WWI.
• Muslims felt british as anti-Muslims.
• So Muslims supported congress in the freedom movement.
• Some Muslims leader arrested.
• Partition of Bengal spread nationalism among Muslims.
• 1914: Tilak’s release from jail.
Changes the objectives of Muslims:
• 1913: League wanted system of self government.
• League and Congress’s same interest united them.
Compromise between the two factions of the Congress:
• Annie Besant and Tilak played important role in it.
• 1916: Tilak re-joined congress.
• He resolve many dispute between congress and league.
• However, The pact was signed between Congress and league at Lucknow 1916 known as Lucknow pact.
Provisions of Lucknow Pact:
✓ The council of the Secretary of State for India shall be abolished.
✓ One-half members of Executive council shall be Indians.
✓ One-third members shall be Muslims in legislative council out of 150 members.
✓ Imperial Legislative council shall have full control on government.
✓ Four-5th members shall elected directly in Provincial legislative council.
✓ The Provincial legislative council shall have full control on the government.
✓ Executive officers shall have no judicial powers.
Significance and Impact of The Lucknow Pact:
• It united Hindu Muslims.
• It united Early and Assertive nationalist.
• It united Congress and League.
• Now the British have no choice to reject their demands.
• Government forced to adopt policy of appeasement.
• Because of it Montague-Chelmsford reforms were announced in 1918.
The Home Rule Movement(1915-1916) and Home Rule Leagues
• 1914: Tilak was freed.
• Tilak and Annie Besant started movement to give new life of freedom movement.
• 12-1915: Tilak started Home rule movement at Poona.
• 9-1916: Annie Besant started home rule movement at Adyar near Madras.
• To attain self government.
• They used constitutional means.
• Tilak’s activity confined to the Bombay while Annie’s popularised rest of India.
• Tilak Preach their idea through his newspapers The kesari and Maratha.
• Annie Besant preach their idea through her newspapers New India and Commonwealth.
Reaction of the Government:
• Government followed repressive policy toward it.
• Various restrictions imposed on leaders.
• Tilak banned to enter in Delhi and Punjab.
• Annie Besant was interned.
• Various restrictions imposed on press.
• Against it various protest organised.
• Ghadar Party: it tried to overthrow British rule and 7000 man of Indian army revolt under it at Singapore.
• Indians were prepared for self rule.
• British makes promises to stop movement.
Importance of Home rule movement:
• First: Transformed national movement into a people’s movement.
• Second: It worked as lighthouse.
• Third: it made popular to Annie Besant and Tilak.
• Fourth: its voice reached many nations. Indian home rule league established in New York and London.
• Fifth: Under the pressure of home rule movement government promised to give responsible government after the war.
August Declaration of 1917 and Montague-Chelmsford Reforms
• Under the pressure of Home rule and WWI British forced to introduced new policy towards India.
• Secretary of State for made a declaration on 20 august 1917 for it.
• Montague came to India and Chelmsford toured whole nation to assessment of Public opinion in order to introduced reforms which called Montague-Chelmsford reforms.
Causes of Circumstances leading to this act
• The reforms of 1909 was not adequate.
• In the beginning Muslims were satisfied but later not.
• Indians helped during war so they introduced it.
Provisions of Act:
✓ Indians members was raised to three in Executive council.
✓ The Central legislature consisted two houses. The upper House(60 members) and the lower house(176 members)
✓ The system of dyarchy was introduced in the provinces. Under this provinvincial government divided into two parts i.e. Reserved subjects and Transferred subjects.
✓ Direct election introduced.
✓ Separate electorates for the Sikhs and Anglo-Indians.
✓ The power of the Secretary of State was reduced.
✓ The Secretary of State and his staff were to be paid out of the revenue of England.
Causes of The First World War
Division Of Europe into Two Hostile Groups
• Bismarck (Germany) formed Dual alliance with Austria in 1879. Italy joined it later(Triple Alliance)
• After the death of Bismarck France established friendly relation with Russian and U.K.(Triple Entente)
• Germany started making arms and ammunition on large scale.
• After it every country started making arms for own safety.
• This was era of hatred for other.
• Each nation thought about her own interest.
• France wanted to get back her provinces.
• England and Germany were colonial rivalry.
• Murder of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand provided the spark which set the whole Europe ablaze.
• The murderer was Serbian.
• Austrian put blame on Serbian Government.
• As a result first world war started.
• Serbia, Russia , France , England , Japan , Italy , America (The Allies).
• Germany , Austria , Turkey , Bulgaria (The central Powers).
Results of WWI
• The WWI came to end with treaty of Versailles, 1919.
• Main provision of Treaty was:
o Germany forced to cede their territories to Denmark , Poland etc.
o The Saar Valley (coal mines) was ceded to France for 15 years.
o Germany lost their colonies and was ceded among victors.
o The area of the Rhine Valley was also demilitarized.
o Germany was compelled to pay a heavy sum as war compensation to the allies.
The Consequences of territorial rearrangement the first world war on Austria- Hungry(Treaty of St. Germain)
o Austria-Hungry were setup separately.
o Austria had to cede territories.
o Austria was also forced to pay war compensation.
The Consequences of the WWI on Turkey (Treaty of Sevres)
o The control of Syria was given to France while Palestine and Mesopotamia were handed over to Britain.
o England gained control over Egypt.
o Some parts were shared by Greece and Italy.
League of Nations
• Formation of The league of Nation
• It was result of Treaty Of Versailles.
• It was set up on 10/01/1920 at Geneva (Switzerland).
• It had six main Organs:
1. The Assembly
2. The Secretariat
3. The League of Council
4. Permanent Court of International Justice
6. The Mandates Commission
• To achieve international peace.
• To promote co-operation.
• To reduce arms.
• To preserve political independent.
• To promote Human Welfare.
• It failed to maintain peace.
• WWII started.
• Hitler refused to accept treaty.
• Again Europe was divided into two groups.