Students should refer to Agriculture I and II ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.
ICSE Class 10 Geography Agriculture I and II Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Agriculture I and II in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.
Agriculture I and II ICSE Class 10 Geography
Agriculture I and II ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes
Indian Agriculture-Importance, Problems And Reforms
➢ Agriculture is the most important occupation in India.
➢ The word agriculture is derived from two Latin words- ‘ager’ meaning land and ‘culture’ meaning cultivation.
➢ Agriculture means the cultivation of the soil in order to grow crops and rear livestock.
➢ Agriculture plays an important role in the Indian economy.
➢ Over 60% of India’s land is arable and 70% of the rural families are engaged in this occupation for their livelihood.
➢ Agriculture contributes about 14% of total GDP and 12% share of the country’s export.
➢ India has a vast expanse of agricultural land due to rich fertile soil and a good network of perennial rivers.
➢ In support, India has suitable climatic conditions, good amount of sunshine throughout the year, long growing seasons, etc.
➢ Agriculture is the single largest private sector occupation and provides employment to 58.4% of country’s workforce.
➢ Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. It occupies a significant position in the overall economy of the country.
➢ It plays an important role in the Indian economy due to the following reasons :
(i) Agriculture is essential because it feeds millions of people and its ever increasing population.
(ii) It also helps in raising livestock with suitable environmental conditions and provides fodder to them.
(iii) Agriculture helps in creating job opportunities to millions of people.
(iv) It supports many important industries with the supply of raw materials like cotton and jute textile industries, sugar industries, vanaspati, food processing, etc.
(v) India’s foreign trade and exports are deeply associated with agriculture. It accounts for about 14.7 % of the total export earnings.
(vi) Various small scale and cottage industries like handlooms, spinning oil milling, rice thrashing, etc. are dependent on agriculture for their raw material.
(vii) Agriculture also provides a good market for the farm inputs like implements, fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, etc.
➢ India is witnessing a slow agricultural growth despite its efforts to achieve high agricultural yield.
➢ It is due to unreliable rainfall, poor irrigation system, farmer’s inaccessibility to the market, lack of proper market infrastructure, poor farming techniques, etc.
➢ Many factors attributes to its low development as compared to other developed countries.
These factors are categorized into four groups:
(i) Environmental Factors
(ii) Economic Factors
(iii) Institutional Factors
(iv) Technological Factors.
➢ Environmental Factors :
(i) Erratic and unreliable rainfall.
(ii) Lack of adequate irrigation facilities and dependence on monsoon.
(iii) Soil degradation from erosion and salinization destroys productivity.
(iv) The repetition of growing same crops like rice and wheat lead to soil infertility.
(v) Inadequate use of manures and fertilizers, negligence of crop rotation, use of poor quality seeds, inadequate water supply, etc. leads to low productivity.
(vi) Use of simple and old agricultural tools, use of no or less machines for ploughing, sowing, irrigating, pruning, harvesting and threshing results in low yield.
(vii) In recent years, the net sown area has reduced due to the shifting of cultivating food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oil seeds, etc.
➢ Institutional Factors :
(i) The average size of land holdings is very small and is subject to fragmentation due to land ceiling acts and family disputes.
(ii) The land holdings are uneconomic due to their small size and as such the yields are low.
(iii) The small land holdings do not generate good income which results in selling of a small portion of land by the small farmers to repay their debt.
(iv) The land tenure system in India is a problem for the farmers which is making their life miserable.
(v) Though the tenancy problem has been solved to certain extent but the Indian farmers are suffering from insecurity of tenancy.
(vi) The absentee landowners make their land cultivated through tenants and sharecroppers which results in less production due to their little interest.
➢ Economic Factors :
(i) The Indian farmer’s chiefly practice subsistence farming where large manual labour is employed to work on farms but grow only to suffice their family’s needs and not much is left for sale in the market.
(ii) Farmers are using primitive methods and obtain poor yields as they lack in scientific and technological knowledge.
(iii) The location of the market is an important factor. Markets located at a far off distance costs high transportation.
(iv) Lack of transportation facilities.
(v) Availability of cheap and efficient labour for the cultivation of crops is important, e.g. intensive agriculture requires large supply of cheap labour.
(vi) Agriculture is becoming mechanised and requires huge capital investments to purchase machineries, fertilizers, pesticides and high yielding variety seeds. The Indian farmers are poor to buy all these materials.
(vii) Globalisation has posed a great threat to the Indian farmers. The international market is a big challenge to the farmers because new agricultural products are being imported easily to India.
(viii) The price of the farm products in the international market is declining while in India the price is increasing.
(ix) Reduction in import duties on agricultural products proved detrimental to Indian agriculture.
➢ Technological Factors :
(i) A majority of Indian farmers are still dependent on the primitive and poor techniques of producing crops.
(ii) They use inadequate and obsolete implements and fail to apply modern science and technology to agriculture in India due to their poverty.
➢ Reforms :
(i) Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. Due to too many factors agriculture in the past was declining and was a serious concern.
(ii) The Government of India took various measures to overcome the declining Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
(iii) It established the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast and Kisan Call Centres.
(iv) The Green Revolution and the National Agricultural Policy (NAP) introduced by the Indian government is the turning point in the development of Indian agricultural sector.
➢ The Green Revolution :
(i) The Green Revolution is one of the major break-through in the agricultural sector in India.
(ii) It is considered as the greatest revolution that brought a transform from food scarcity to food self-sufficiency.
(iii) Green Revolution was a technology package comprising material components of improved high yielding varieties of two staple cereals, rice and wheat, irrigation, fertilizers and pesticides and associated management skills.
(iv) During 1960’s, India adopted the New Agricultural Strategy. It was to replace the traditional agricultural practices by modern technological agricultural methods and practices.
(v) The main elements of the New Agricultural Strategy are :
1. Use of large capital and technological inputs.
2. Adoption of modern scientific methods of farming.
3. Use of HYV (High Yielding Varieties) seeds.
4. Extension of irrigation facilities, particularly ground water resources.
5. Proper use of chemical fertilizers.
6. Improvement in marketing and storage facilities.
7. Use of insecticides and pesticides.
8. Consolidation of landholdings.
9. Supply of agricultural credit.
10. Rural electrification.
(vi) The Green Revolution had a great impact on Indian agriculture. They are as follows :
1. It enhanced agricultural production and transformed Indian agriculture from subsistence farming to commercial farming or market oriented farming.
2. There was a spectacular increase in the production of wheat. Besides wheat, rice, sugarcane and oilseeds also showed significant changes in their productions.
3. A remarkable improvement was also seen with an increase in yield per hectare.
4. The strategy also benefitted the associated industries like transportation, marketing, food processing, etc. which have helped to generate additional job opportunities both in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors.
5. It has paved its way to latest and modern technology to raise the productivity per unit of land.
6. The revolution and the new strategy also made a significant change in cropping pattern.
7. It improved the economy of the farmers and increased rural prosperity.
8. The import of food grains has considerably declined.
9. With the adoption of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, irrigational methods, the production has enhanced to a quiet high level.
➢ Besides the Green Revolution, many steps were taken to improve the agricultural production in India. They are-
(i) Passing of legislations to prevent sub-division and fragmentation of lands beyond a certain limit.
(ii) Introduction of various land reforms.
(iii) Rational utilization of country’s water resources for optimum use of irrigation potential.
(iv) The Government declares prices for the protection of farmers, minimises fluctuations in commodity prices and monitors international prices.
(v) Setting up of Kisan Call Centres also known as Farm Tele-Advisors (FTAs).
(vi) The Government of India provides subsidy on fertilizers.
(vii) In order to reduce the burden on chemical fertilizers and to increase the yield of organic food, the Government of India launched a National Project on Organic Farming.
(viii) To avoid the excessive use of chemical fertilizers, soil testing laboratories have been set up to check the health and the fertility of soil.
➢ National Agricultural Policy (NAP)
The National Policy on Agriculture seeks to untap the growth potential of Indian agriculture, strengthen rural infrastructure, generate the growth of agro business, create employment in rural areas and face the challenges arising out of economic liberalisation and globalisation.
The salient features of the National Agricultural Policy are-
(i) Over 4% annual growth rate aimed over next two decades.
(ii) Greater private sector participation through contract farming.
(iii) To minimise fluctuation of prices to protect the farmers from risks.
(iv) National agricultural insurance scheme to be launched.
(v) Remove restrictions on the movement of agricultural commodities throughout the country.
(vi) Exemption from payment of capital gains tax on compulsory acquisition of agricultural land.
(vii) Progressive institutionalisation of rural and farm credit.
(viii) High priority to rural electrification.
(ix) Plant varieties to be protected through legislations.
(x) Monitoring of international prices.
(xi) Adequate and timely supply of quality inputs to farmers.
(xii) Setting up of agro-processing units and creation of off-farm employment in rural areas.
(xiii) High priority to be given for the development of animal husbandry, poultry, dairy and aquaculture.
Know the terms
➢ GDP : It is Gross Domestic Product which means the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period.
➢ Salinization : It is the process by which water- soluble salts accumulate in the soil.
➢ Crop Rotation : It is the practice of growing different types of crops in succession on the same land to preserve the fertility of the soil.
➢ Pruning : The process of cutting off unwanted branches.
➢ Land Ceiling : It means fixing maximum size of land holding that an individual can own.
➢ Absentee Landowners : A person who rents or leases real estate for profit earning to another individual or group of individuals but does not reside within the property’s premises.
➢ Green Revolution : It is considered as the greatest revolution that brought a transform from food scarcity to food self-sufficiency.
➢ Kisan Call Centres : It is a scheme of the Department of Agriculture launched across the country to deliver extension services to the farming community.
➢ Organic Farming : It is a farming method that involves growing and nurturing crops without the use of synthetic based fertilizers and pesticides.
➢ Animal Husbandry : It is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs or other products.
Types of Farming in India
➢ The farming system is based on the nature of land, climatic conditions, technological knowledge and irrigational facilities.
➢ In India different types of farming is practiced in different parts of the country.
➢ The different types of farming practiced in India are-
(i) Subsistence Farming
(ii) Shifting Agriculture
(iii) Plantation Farming
(iv) Commercial Farming
(v) Intensive Farming
(vi) Extensive Farming
(vii) Mixed Farming.
➢ Subsistence Farming-
(i) Subsistence farming is a self-sufficient farming in which the farmers grow enough food to feed himself and his family.
(ii) The farmers have small land and do not use fertilizers and thus the yield is low.
(iii) The output is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus trade.
(iv) The land holdings are small and scattered.
(v) The farmer uses simple and primitive tools with traditional method of agriculture.
(vi) Farming is very intensive and double or treble-cropping is practiced.
(vii) A good amount of hand labour is required.
(viii) This type of farming is highly dependent on monsoon since there is no irrigational facilities and also depends on the natural fertility of the soil.
➢ Shifting Agriculture :
(i) Shifting agriculture is known as “slash and burn method”.
(ii) It is a primitive method of farming in which a patch of forest is cleared by felling trees or by burning the trees.
(iii) The patch of land is cultivated with primitive tools like sticks and hoes with no use of machines.
(iv) The cultivation on this land is done for 2-3 years or until the soil fertility is lost.
(v) Then the farmer shifts to another piece of land and again cultivates that piece of land.
(vi) This type of agriculture is a great menace to environment.
(vii) It encourages soil erosion and causes floods.
(viii) The crops grown in this type of farming are- maize, millets, barley, buckwheat, root crops, rain fed rice and vegetables.
(ix) The yield per hectare is quite low since no fertilizers are used.
(x) It is called by different names in different regions in India. It is called Jhum in Assam, Poonam in Kerala, Koman or Bring in Odisha, Khil in the Himalayan region, Podu in Andhra Pradesh, Kuruwa in Jharkhand and Bewar, Masha, Penda and Hera in different parts of Madhya Pradesh.
(xi) Shifting agriculture is discouraged by the government because frequent shifting from one land to another land has affected the ecology of the regions.
➢ Plantation Farming :
(i) Plantation farming is an extensive system of agriculture in which single cash crop is cultivated on a large scale in an estate.
(ii) Crops like tea, coffee, rubber, spices, etc. are grown under plantation farming mainly for profit.
(iii) This type of farming is practiced in vast lands extending from a few hectares to thousands of hectares.
(iv) Only one type of crop is cultivated like rubber, bananas, tea, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, etc.
(v) Modern methods, techniques and machineries are used for growing crops.
(vi) Huge capital is invested in buying machineries, fertilizers, pesticides and building factories for processing of crops.
(vii) Due to the large size of the plantation, large numbers of labourers are required to tend to the crops and work in the nearby processing factories.
(viii) The plantation crops earns a good amount of foreign exchange as they are exported in huge quantities.
➢ Commercial Farming :
(i) Commercial farming is a farming where crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in the market for commercial purposes.
(ii) The crops like tobacco, sugarcane, oilseeds, jute and cotton that are sold in the market are also called cash crops.
(iii) It largely depends on machines, uses HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides to obtain higher yield.
(iv) This type of farming is practiced in large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares of land.
(v) The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies in different parts of the country, e.g. rice is grown as a commercial crop in Punjab and Haryana but it is a subsistence crop in Odisha.
(vi) Since most of the states have small landholdings as such commercial farming is not popular throughout the country.
➢ Intensive Farming :
(i) Intensive farming is a system of farming that involves higher input of labour, increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, high quality seeds, etc.
(ii) It is practised in the regions where the density of population is high.
(iii) It requires good amount of irrigation as it is characterised by a high incidence of multiple cropping.
(iv) This type of farming is also called labour intensive farming.
(v) Rice and wheat are the main crops that are grown in intensive farming.
➢ Extensive Farming :
(i) Extensive farming unlike intensive farming requires less labour to farm large areas of land.
(ii) It uses machinery and scientific methods to produce large quantity of crops.
(iii) Mechanisation is effectively used over large and flat areas.
(iv) It is highly capital intensive.
(v) Crop specialisation is one of the major characteristics of this type of farming.
(vi) The main crops grown are rice, wheat, sugarcane, etc.
(vii) One of the advantages of extensive farming is that local environment and soil are not damaged by overuse of chemicals.
(viii) This type of farming is practised in the Terai region of Sub-Himalayas and in parts of North-Western India.
➢ Mixed Farming :
(i) Mixed farming is a type of farming in which a farmer conducts different agricultural practices on a single farm to increase income through different sources.
(ii) It is a combination of growing crops and rearing of cattle simultaneously.
(iii) In it along with farming other occupations carried out are- poultry farming, dairy farming, bee keeping, sericulture, piggery, goat and sheep rearing, agro forestry, etc.
(iv) The main benefit of this type of farming is that it ensures a steady income for the farmers because if any one business or farming fails, the other means can support.
(v) It maintains soil fertility, soil biodiversity, minimize soil erosion and help to conserve water.
(vi) Farmers can grow sorghum, pusa giant napier, berseem, etc. as fodder crops for their cattle along with food crops.
Agricultural Seasons and Food Crops
➢ In India, different crops are grown in different seasons.
➢ There are two major agricultural seasons in India- Kharif Season and Rabi Season.
➢ In Kharif season, the crops are grown in the months of June and July and harvested in September and October.
➢ Rice, jowar, sugarcane, bajra, ragi, maize, cotton and jute are some of the important kharif crops.
➢ In Rabi season, the crops are sown in October and November and harvested in March and April.
➢ Crops like wheat, barley, rapeseed, linseed, gram, peas, mustard, potatoes, etc. are grown as Rabi crops.
➢ There are some crops which are grown throughout the year and are known as Zaid.
➢ Zaid and Kharif crops are sown in August and September and harvested in December and January, e.g. mustard oilseed.
➢ Zaid and Rabi crops are sown in February and March and harvested in April and May, e.g. jowar, maize, watermelons, cucumbers, etc.
➢ In India agriculture occupies 65% of the total cropped area.
➢ With the advent of Green Revolution technology, India focused on the goal of food grain self-sufficiency.
➢ The important crops grown in India are rice, wheat, pulses, millets, barley, jowar, gram, oats, maize, rye, etc. and fall in the category of food crops called Cereals.
➢ Rice :
(i) It is the most important staple food crop of India.
(ii) India is one of the world’s largest producers of white and brown rice.
(iii) Rice is an indigenous crop and is grown in all parts of the country specially in the north eastern part of India and in the coastal part of southern India.
(iv) Rice is grown in the rain fed areas where the annual rainfall is heavy and is thus a Kharif crop.
(v) The climatic conditions of rice are as follows :
1. Temperature : 18°C – 32°C
2. Rainfall : 150 cm- 300cm
3. Soil : Deep fertile clayey or loamy soils
The soil should be able to retain standing water in the field.
➢In India the rice crops are grouped into two categories :
(i) The Upland Rice : grown on mountainous regions, sown in March-April and harvested in September and October, crop is locally used and depends entirely on rainfall.
(ii) The Lowland Rice : grown in low lying areas, sown in June and harvested in October, requires plenty of water and is locally used and supplied to other regions too.
➢ Methods of cultivation : Rice is cultivated in two methods in India. They are : Dry Method and Puddled or Wet Method.
➢ Rice grown by dry methods are confined to rain fed areas and do not have any irrigation facilities.
➢ Wet method of cultivation is practiced in areas which have a good supply of water. The field is ploughed and filled with 3 to 5 cms of standing water.
➢ The steps followed were :
➢ In India rice is sown in the following ways- Broadcasting Method, Drilling Method, Dibbling Method, Transplanting Method and Japanese Method.
(i) Broadcasting Method : After ploughing, the seeds are scattered all over the field before the onset of monsoon.
(ii) Drilling Method : In this method the seeds are sown in the furrows with the help of a drill made of bamboo.
(iii) Dibbling Method : It refers to sowing of seeds at regular intervals in the furrows.
(iv) Transplanting Method : Seedlings are first grown in nurseries and after 4 to 5 weeks when the saplings attain a height of 25 to 30 cm they are transplanted to prepared rice fields. It is a popular method because it gives a higher yield.
Advantages of Transplanting Method :
(1) It enables to select only healthy seedlings for the plants.
(2) Less wastage of seeds.
(3) It minimizes weed pressure by resowing.
(4) It gives higher yield.
(v) Japanese Method : It was introduced in 1953 and is the most popular method. In this method, High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds called Japonica are used.
Important features of Japanese method of rice cultivation :
(i) Use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds.
(ii) Saplings are sown in the nursery and raised in the nursery beds for 4-5 weeks.
(iii) Manure is extensively used to enhance the yield.
➢ Processing of Rice
(i) Harvesting : A sickle is used to cut the stalk. It is labour intensive.
(ii) Threshing : It is done by beating the sheaves against the wooden bars for separating the grains from the stalks.
(iii) Winnowing : It is the process of removing the unwanted husk from the grains.
(iv) Milling : It is done to remove the yellowish husk from the grains. Traditionally it was done by hitting in a wooden mortar but now it is done by machines.
➢ The leading producers of rice in India are West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
(i) It is a staple food for the people of Northern and Northern-western parts of the country.
(ii) It grows best in cool, moist climate and ripens in a warm and dry climate.
(iii) It is mostly confined to the cool winter regions.
(iv) In south, the growing period is shorter than in the north.
(v) Wheat is a Rabi crop.
(vi) The climatic conditions are :
1. Sown in October-November and harvested in January in south, by March-April in north
2. Temperature : 10°C-15°C is suitable for sowing and 20°C-25°C during harvest.
3. Rainfall : 50 cm to 100 cm.
4. Soil : It grows best in well-drained loamy and clay loams.
➢ Methods of Wheat cultivation :
1. Sowing :
(i) The seeds can be sown by using drilling or the broadcasting method.
(ii) The seeds germinate in about three or four days.
(iii) The temperature should be low during the growing season.
2. Harvesting :
(i) Wheat is harvested in April when the temperature is 27.5°C.
(ii) The crop is harvested by using a sickle.
(iii) States like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar uses machines for harvesting.
(iv) Threshers are used to separate the grain from the husk.
➢ India has shown a tremendous increase in the production of wheat in comparison to other crops grown in the country.
➢ The leading producers of wheat in the country are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
➢ Millets [Jowar, Bajra and Ragi] :
(i) Millets refers to inferior grains like jowar, bajra and ragi which serves as food grains for the poor sections of the society.
(ii) The straw of these grains are a valuable cattle fodder.
(iii) These crops can grow in infertile soil with harsh climatic conditions.
(iv) They grow for a short period of time i.e. for 3 to 4 months.
➢ Jowar :
(i) It is both, a Kharif and a Rabi crop.
(ii) It grows well in dry areas even without irrigation.
(iii) Temperature- Between 27°C and 32°C
(iv) Rainfall- under 45 cms. The crop can grow in arid and semi-arid areas.
(v) Jowar can grow on different kinds of soil ranging from heavy and light alluvium to red, grey and yellow loams.
(vi) It is widely grown in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
➢ Bajra :
(i) It is a rain fed kharif crop and is grown as a pure and mixed crop.
(ii) It is grown along with cotton, jowar and ragi.
(iii) It is sown in June-July and harvested in September- October.
(iv) Temperature- 25°C and 30°C.
(v) Rainfall- Less than 50 cm.
(vi) Bajra is grown on red soil or sandy loams soil.
vii) It is grown mainly in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
➢ Ragi or Buckwheat :
(i) It is grown in drier parts of South India almost throughout the year with the help of irrigation.
(ii) Temperature- 20°C to 30°C.
(iii) Rainfall- 50 cm to 100 cm.
(iv) Ragi is sown between May and August and harvested between September and January.
(v) It can grow in drier conditions and can withstand severe drought conditions.
(vi) It is grown on red, light black and sandy loam soil in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and on alluvial loam soil in Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Gujarat.
(vii) It gives higher yield than jowar and bajra and lower yield than wheat and rice.
(viii) Karnataka is the leading producer of Ragi in India. The other producers are Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
➢ Pulses :
(i) Pulses form an important part of the Indian diets because they are full of protein.
(ii) Pulses are grown as rotation crops as they are leguminous crops that fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and increase the natural fertility of the soil.
(iii) Pulses are good cattle fodder too.
(iv) The two most important pulses are gram and tur. Other important pulses are urad, moong, masur, kulthi, matar, khesari and moth.
(v) Temperature- 20°C to 25°C.
(vi) Rainfall- 50 cm -75 cm.
(vii) Pulses grow on dry light soil, light loams and alluvial soil, black and red soil too.
(viii) Gram is raised as Rabi crop and is sown mixed with wheat.
(ix) Tur, urad and moong are raised as Kharif crop in most part of India but khesari and masur are raised as Rabi crops in north India.
(xi) India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world.
(xii) The important pulses producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh.
Know the terms
➢ Kharif Season : This cropping season is from July to October during the south west monsoon. The main crops are millet and rice.
➢ Rabi Season : This cropping season is from October to March. The main crops are wheat and barley.
➢ Zayad : These crops grow on irrigated lands during summer season from April to June.
➢ Cereals : It denotes all kinds of grass-like plants which are starchy and edible seeds like, rice, wheat, barley, maize, oats, millets, etc.
➢ The Upland Rice : It is grown on mountainous regions, sown in March-April and harvested in September and October.
➢ The Lowland Rice : It is grown in low lying areas, sown in June and harvested in October, requires plenty of water and is locally used and supplied to other regions too.
➢ Broadcasting Method : After ploughing, the seeds are scattered all over the field before the onset of monsoon.
➢ Drilling Method : In this method the seeds are sown in the furrows with the help of a drill made of bamboo.
➢ Dibbling Method : It refers to sowing of seeds at regular intervals in the furrows.
➢Transplanting Method : Seedlings are first grown in nurseries and after 4 to 5 weeks when the saplings attain a height of 25 to 30 cm they are transplanted to prepared rice fields.
➢Threshing : It is done by beating the sheaves against the wooden bars for separating the grains from the stalks.
➢ Winnowing : It is the process of removing the unwanted husk from the grains.
➢ Milling : It is done to remove the yellowish husk from the grains. Traditionally it was done by hitting in a wooden mortar but now it is done by machines.
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