Notes Energy Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography

Study Material

Students should refer to Energy Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.

ICSE Class 10 Geography Energy Resources Revision Notes

Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Energy Resources Maps in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.

Energy Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography

Energy Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes

Quick Review
➢ Conventional sources of energy are those sources of energy which are non-renewable, i.e. cannot be replenished once they are consumed e.g. coal, petroleum, electricity or hydel power and natural gas.
➢ Conventional sources of energy are hazardous to environment as they cause pollution.
➢ This source of energy is expensive.
➢ Coal is an organic sedimentary rock and is formed due to the accumulation and preservation of plant materials in a swamp environment, deltaic regions, coastal plains, etc.
➢ Coal is a combustible rock and an important fossil fuel but its reserves have depleted in the recent times due to its constant demand.
➢ Coal is widely used and the most important use is for the generation of electricity.
➢ India ranks third in the world in the production of coal.
➢ Raniganj in West Bengal is the oldest coalfield in India while Jharia in Jharkhand is the largest coalfield in India.
➢ In India, coal belongs to two geological ages- Gondwana Coalfields and Tertiary Coalfields.
➢ Gondwana coalfields mainly of bituminous type, makes upto 98% of the total reserves in India and is extensively available unlike Anthracite coal.

The main advantages of Coal are :
(i) It is a source of direct heat and energy for domestic purposes.
(ii) It is one of the cheapest forms of energy making.
(iii) It provides numerous raw materials to chemical industries like benzole, ammonia, coal tar, coal gas, etc.
(iv) Coal is also a source of many by-products like coke, tar, ammonium sulphate, phenol, naphthalene, benzene, etc.

The main disadvantages of Coal are :
(i) Coal releases carbon dioxide which affects the environment leading to Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming effect.
(ii) The coal reserves in India are scattered in small quantities.
(iii) The transportation and production of coal is significantly high.
(iv) Coal reserves are limited in India.

Uses of Coal :
(i) It is used primarily as an energy source either for heat or electricity.
(ii) It is used to run railway locomotives, machines, dynamos and ship engines.
(iii) It is used to produce electricity. Out of the various uses of coal, thermal power generation is the most important.
(iv) Coal is essentially a requirement for the iron and steel industries.
(v) It is also used for building materials like burning of bricks, potteries, in iron and brass foundries, etc.
➢ On the basis of the amount of carbon content, coal may be classified into four varieties or types- Anthracite, Bituminous, Lignite and Peat.

Anthracite Coal :
(i) It is a hard and compressed variety of coal with highest carbon content of 90%.
(ii) It is associated with strongly deformed sedimentary rocks which were subjected to higher pressure and temperature.
(iii) It ignites with difficulty but burns for a long time with a smokeless flame.
(iv) It is lustrous, shiny and jet black in colour.
(v) It has a heating value and leaves behind little ash after burning.
(vi) It has high caloric value and is good for domestic use since it is smokeless.
(vii) Anthracite coal is found only in Jammu and Kashmir.

Bituminous Coal :
(i) It is a black, hard, brittle and compact coal with 50% to 80% of carbon content in it.
(ii) Due to high carbon content its calorific value is very high and it has low moisture content.
(iii) It is used as steam coal, household coal, coking coal, gas coal, etc.
(iv) Steam coal is the best bituminous coal since it contains 80% carbon in it.
(v) Bituminous coal is black and lustrous and is a household coal as it is widely used for domestic purposes.
(vi) It is relatively a soft coal and contains tar like substance called bitumen.
(vii) The highest grade bituminous coal is the coking coal and is an important ingredient in iron and steel smelting in blast furnaces.
(viii) Bituminous coal is found in Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.

Lignite Coal :
(i) Lignite is also referred to as brown coal.
(ii) It is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock.
(iii) It is a low grade coal due to its relative low heat content.
(iv) It has a carbon content of only 40%.
(v) It has high moisture content and is less combustible.
(vi) It is found in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Kerala, West Bengal and Puducherry.

Peat Coal :
(i) Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetative or organic matter which has undergone varying degree of decomposition and carbonisation.
(ii) It contains high moisture and small percentage of volatile matter.
(iii) It has less carbon content and is of inferior grade.
(iv) The formation of Peat is the first step in the geological formation of other fossil fuels.
(v) It is found in the regions of Nilgiri Mountain, in the Kashmir Valley and in the swampy areas of coastal plains.

Petroleum :
(i) Petroleum is derived from the Greek words ‘Petra’ meaning rock and ‘oleum’ which means oil.
(ii) It is a naturally occurring liquid found beneath the Earth’s surface.
(iii) It is a combination or mixture of hydrocarbons of organic compounds.
(iv) Petroleum is a fossil fuel which is formed when huge quantities of dead organisms are buried beneath the sedimentary rock like shale, limestone, sandstone.
(v) It is called Liquid Gold because not a single drop of crude petroleum goes waste or remains unused.
(vi) Petroleum includes all liquid, gaseous and solid hydrocarbons.
(vii) It is crude oil as a liquid, petroleum gas is called the natural gas and the solid forms of petroleum are called tar, bitumen, asphalt, etc.
(viii) Some of the products of petroleum are petrol, diesel, lubricants, paraffin wax, slack wax, tar, kerosene, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), etc.
(ix) By-products of petroleum are- Fertilizer, petroleum jelly, insecticide, soap, linoleum, perfume, etc.

Advantages of Petroleum :
(i) Petroleum has high density as it can generate 10,000 kcal of energy from 1 kg of burnt oil.
(ii) Extraction of oil is easy and inexpensive due to new technologies used.
(iii) Petroleum in the liquid form can be transported to long distances through pipes or vehicles.
(iv) It has been the primary energy resource of all power plants and has broad areas for applications and thus has high demands for energy.
(v) It is widely used as fuel for transportation on land, on sea and in the air.
(vi) Petroleum is used for power generation.
(vii) Its fuel derivatives include ethane, diesel, gasoline, kerosene and LPG.
(viii) Petrochemicals are chemical products that are derived from petroleum after refining.
(ix) Some examples of petrochemical products are- fertilizers, gasoline, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, explosives, dyes, crayons, paraffin wax, pesticides, perfume, paints, varnishes, phenol, PVC, lubricating oil, printing ink, film photography, carbon black, polystyrene, safety glass, herbicides, detergents, cosmetics, etc.

Disadvantages of Petroleum :
(i) Petroleum is an expensive product and is in high demand due to its limited supply.
(ii) It is a natural fossil fuel and non-renewable.
(iii) It is non-environment friendly as its burning and extracting generates Greenhouse Gasses that lead to pollution and Global Warming.
(iv) It is highly inflammable and can cause fire.
(v) It is harmful to the marine animals as during the extraction and transportation of oil if the oil spills in water, the marine animals die.

Oil Refineries :
(i) Oil refineries are industrial units where crude oil is refined and processed to produce useful products like gasoline, petroleum naphtha, LPG and diesel oil, asphalt base, etc.
(ii) There are 21 oil refineries in India- 17 in the Public Sector and 2 in the Private Sector and 2 in the Joint Sector.
(iii) In India, the maximum oil production is from the Assam- Arakan belt, the Gujarat-Cambay belt and the Mumbai High offshore zone.
(iv) The main oil deposits in India, in accordance to their importance are :
1. Mumbai High
2. Oilfields of Eastern Region
3. Oilfields of Western Region
(v) Mumbai High produces superior quality of crude oil as compared to Middle East countries.
(vi) The oil in Mumbai High is drilled with the drillship Sagar Samrat which has a maximum drill depth of 20,000 feet.
(vii) Oil refineries are located close to oil fields or near ports due to the following reasons-
1. To minimise the cost of transport
2. To avoid transportation of mineral oil to the interior places of the country as it is highly inflammable.
(viii) Some of the oil refineries of India are- Mathura Refinery, Mumbai Refinery, Haldia Refinery, Barauni Refinery, Panipat Refinery, Digboi Refinery, Vishakhapatnam Refinery, Kochi Refineries, Jamnagar Refinery, etc.
(ix) The oldest oilfield in India is Digboi oilfield situated in the Eastern Region of India. The other oilfields in this region are- Moran, Bappapung, Hausanpung and Hugirijang.
(x) Cambay Basin in Gujarat is the main oilfield in the Western Region of India.
(xi) The other important oilfields in Gujarat are Kalol, Koyali, Kosamba, Sanad, Kathana, Ankleshwar and Navgaon.

Natural Gas :
(i) Natural Gas is a mixture of gases which are rich in hydrocarbons. These gases are- methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc. found in the atmosphere.
(ii) Natural Gas reserves are beneath the earth’s surface near the crude oil deposits.
(iii) It is never used in its pure form. It is processed and then converted into cleaner fuel for consumption.
(iv) It is mainly used as a fuel for generating electricity and heat.
(v) Natural gas in compressed form is used as fuel for vehicles which is known as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas).
(vi) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is the gas which is supplied to household for cooking purposes.
(vii) It is a by-product acquired after refining the crudeoil.
(viii) The main constituents of LPG are butane and propane and are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases.
(ix) LPG is used as fuel for domestic purposes like for cooking and in vehicles.
(x) The gas cylinder contains ethyl mercaptan, which gives out the foul smell, is added to LPG on purpose so that if there is any leakage it can be easily detected.
(xi) LPG is also being replaced in some places with PNG (Piped Natural Gas) which is supplied through pipeline instead of storing in the cylinder.
(xii) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fuel which is used in place of petrol, diesel and LPG.
(xiii) In CNG, methane is stored at high pressure.
(xiv) 3/4th of natural gas in India comes from Mumbai High and the remaining from Assam, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Tripura.

Advantages of Natural Gas :
(i) Natural Gas is considered to be environment friendly as it emits less carbon, i.e. about 60%-90% less smog producing pollutants.
(ii) It can be stored safely and can be transported efficiently through pipelines, cylinders, etc a valuable or useful chemical substance that is formed naturally in the ground.
(iii) It is reliable and is conveniently used for cooking and for running many appliances.
(iv) It is cheaper and cleaner than petrol or diesel.
(v) Natural Gas is colourless, odourless and lighter than air.
(vi) Hydrogen and ammonia is produced from Natural Gas which is used for fertilizers, paints and plastics.
(vii) It has abundance supply and has a good reserve for centuries to come.

Disadvantages of Natural Gas :
(i) Though found in plenty yet it is non-renewable due to its increasing demand.
(ii) Possibility of leakage of gas is of high risk since it is colourless, odourless and tasteless.
(iii) It is highly volatile and need to be handled carefully while transporting.
(iv) The infrastructure for production and distribution is quite expensive which includes plumbing systems and specialized tanks.
(v) In order to use it as fuel all constituents other than methane have to be extracted and this processing result in various by-products: hydrocarbons, sulfur, water vapour, carbon dioxide and helium and nitrogen.
(vi) The mileage of natural gas used as fuels in cars is lower than petrol/diesel.

Know the terms
➢ Conventional sources of energy : These are those sources of energy which are non-renewable.
➢ Coal- It is an organic sedimentary rock and is formed due to the accumulation and preservation of plant materials in a swamp environment, deltaic regions, coastal plains, etc.
➢ Bituminous Coal : It is a soft coal containing a tar like substance called bitumen.
➢ Volatile Matter : In coal, it is those substances, other than moisture, that are given off as gas and vapour during combustion.
➢ Petroleum : It is derived from the Greek words ‘Petra’ meaning rock and ‘oleum’ which means oil.
➢ Hydrocarbons : It is a compound of hydrogen and carbon such as any of those which are the chief components of petroleum and natural gas.
➢ Greenhouse Gas : A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation, e.g. Carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons.
➢ Global Warming : It is the increase of earth’s average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases.
➢ Natural Gas : It is a mixture of gases which are rich in hydrocarbons, e.g. methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide.


Notes Energy Resoirces ICSE Class 10 Geography

Hydel Power
Quick Review
➢ Hydropower is the most widely used renewable sources of energy to generate electricity.
➢ Hydroelectricity is produced from the energy that is released in the fast flowing water or when water falls from a height with a great force.
➢ Energy can be produced from tides by creating a reservoir or basin behind a barrage and then passing tidal water through turbines in the barrage to generate electricity.
➢ It is one of the best, cleanest and cheapest sources of energy.
➢ It plays an important role in reducing Greenhouse Gas emissions.
➢ There is very less possibility of causing pollution.
➢ Most of the hydroelectric power plants have a dam and a reservoir and its power generation depends on the head of water and the volume of water flowing towards the water turbine.

Advantages of Hydel Power
(i) There is less pollution due to absence of burning fuel.
(ii) It is one of the best, cleanest and cheapest sources of energy.
(iii) Less maintenance costs.
(iv) It plays a big role in reducing Greenhouse Gas emissions.
(v) It is reliable, renewable and sustainable.
(vi) The reservoirs and dams built to produce hydroelectricity helps in saving and restoring water.

Disadvantages of Hydel Power
(i) It is expensive due to its high investment costs to build dams.
(ii) Construction of dams can cause water access problems as it can change the water-table level.
(iii) The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage like it can cause earthquakes.
(iv) Displacement of people living in the villages and towns in the regions to be flooded loses their farms and business and is physically and psychologically disturbed.

Bhakra Nangal Dam
(i) It is the largest and most significant multipurpose project built in India on river Sutlej.
(ii) It is a joint venture of the Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
(iii) Its main aim is to harness the water of river Sutlej for the benefit of the states mentioned.

(iv) The Bhakra Nangal project comprises of :
1. Two dams at Bhakra and Nangal
2. Nangal Hydel Channel
3. Power Houses
4. Bhakra Canal System
5. Electric Transmission lines

(v) The Bhakra Dam :
1. It is one of the highest dams in the world.
2. Gobind Sagar is the name of the reservoir of Bhakra Dam.
3. It is the third largest water reservoir in India.

(vi) The Nangal Dam :
1. It has been constructed on river Sutlej about 13 kms downstream of the Bhakra Dam.
2. It is an auxiliary dam which serves as a balancing reservoir.
3. It is one of the longest cemented canals of the world.
4. Its main function is to turn the turbines of power houses located below the Nangal Dam.

(vii) The Power House :
1. It has been built to generate hydroelectricity from the water of river Sutlej.
2. There are four power houses at Ganguwal, Kotla, Right Bank power house and Left Bank power house.
3. All these power houses have an installed capacity of 1204 MW.

(viii) Bhakra Canal System :
1. The main Bhakra Canal is 174 km long.
2. It provides irrigation to 27.41 lakh hectares in the states of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.

Hirakud Dam :
(i) Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River in Odisha state.
(ii) It is one of the first multipurpose river valley projects in India.
(iii) The dam was completed in 1953 but was formally inaugurated in 1957.
(iv) The dam is the longest major earthen dam in Asia.
(v) This project also provides irrigation for kharif and rabi crop in the districts of Sambalpur, Bargarh, Bolangir and Subarnapur.
(vi) Due to successful irrigation provided by the dam, Sambalpur is called the Rice Bowl of Odisha.
(vi) The dam can generate up to 307.5 MW of electrical power through its two power plants at Burla and Chiplima.
(vii) The objectives of this dam are-
1. It helps to control floods in the Mahanadi delta.
2. It irrigates 75,000 square kilometers of land.
3. It generates electricity through many hydroelectric plants.

The main objective of these multi-purpose projects are :
(i) Provision of irrigation especially to areas of less rainfall areas.
(ii) Generation of hydroelectricity to enhance industrial development besides other basic facilities.
(iii) To control flooding in the Sutlej and Beas rivers.
(iv) To develop river navigation to reduce pressure on the railways.
(v) To provide pisciculture or fish culture.
(vi) Soil Conservation through afforestation and increase the productivity of timber.
(vii) Control of diseases by preventing water logging.
(viii) To develop recreation centres and health resorts

Know the terms
➢ Hydropower : It is a power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water.
➢ Hydroelectric Power Plant : It is a hydropower system that uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity.
➢ Multipurpose Project : It is a large scale hydro project designed to serve many purposes like irrigation, flood control, pisciculture, etc.
➢ Auxiliary Dam : It is constructed to confine the reservoir created by a primary dam either to permit a higher water elevation and storage or to limit the extent of a reservoir for increased efficiency.
➢ Pisciculture : It is the controlled breeding and rearing of fish.
➢ Afforestation : The planting of new saplings in an area where there was no trees before


Notes Energy Resoirces ICSE Class 10 Geography

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Quick Review

➢ Non-conventional sources of energy are that energy which is generated by solar energy, wind, tides, geothermal heat, nuclear energy, biomass including farm and animal waste and human excreta.
➢ They are renewable and inexhaustible and do not cause any environmental pollution.
➢ It is inexpensive and easy to maintain.
➢ The non- conventional sources of energy are gaining importance because of the increasing demand for energy and the fast depleting conventional sources like coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.
➢ Solar Energy is the primary source of energy which is inexhaustible.
➢ To harness solar energy in India many techniques have been developed-

(i) Solar Cells or Photovoltaic Cells :
1. Solar energy can be converted into electrical energy by using solar cells or photovoltaic cells.
2. The solar cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy.
3. These cells are made using a silicon wafer.
4. The light shining on the solar cell produces both a current and a voltage to generate electric power.
5. Solar cells are regarded as one of the key technologies towards a sustainable energy supply.
6. Solar cells are used in calculators, wrist watches, traffic signals street lighting, water pumps, etc.

(ii) Solar Cooker :
1. Solar cooking is done by the use of sun’s UV rays.
2. The UV rays enter the solar and convert into infrared light rays.
3. The food in the solar cooker is not cooked by the sun’s heat. It is the sun’s rays that are converted to heat energy that cook the food.
4. The heat energy is retained by the utensil and the food with a lid.
5. A new design of solar cooker has been invented which uses a spherical reflector instead of a plane mirror as the reflector has more heating effect and efficiency.

(iii) Solar Water Heater :
1. Solar energy is best used for the heating of water.
2. A sun facing collector heats a working fluid that passes into a storage system for later use.
3. The plate is a simple glass-topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber made of sheet metal, attached to copper heat exchanger pipes.

Advantages of Solar Energy :
(i) It is a renewable and an inexhaustible source of energy.
(ii) It is environment friendly.
(iii) It can be used for varied purposes like electricity, heating, drying, etc.
(iv) After the initial cost of installation its maintenance and repairing is less and inexpensive.
(v) Solar energy save fossil fuels like coal and petroleum to generate electricity and also helps in reducing electricity bills.
(vi) A solar energy system can be installed anywhere and solar panels can be easily placed in houses.
➢ Wind Energy or wind power is the process by which the wind is used to generate electricity.
➢ Through the windmills wind energy is produced.
➢ The wind turns the blades of the windmill, which spins the shaft and the turbine moves; turbines are connected to a generator and produces electricity.
➢ A wind farm is a group of wind turbines or windmills in the same location used for the production of electricity.
➢ The windmills are installed in open areas, in coastal regions or in hilly areas.
➢ There are both onshore and offshore wind farms.
➢ Onshore wind farm is an inexpensive source of electric power while offshore wind farms are steadier and stronger but its construction and maintenance costs are higher.
➢ They generate a large amount of electricity.
➢ The largest wind farm network in India is located from Nagarcoil to Madurai in Tamil Nadu.
➢ Muppandal wind farm, situated in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, is the second largest onshore wind farm in the world.

Advantages of Wind Energy :
(i) Wind energy is plentiful and is renewable.
(ii) It is widely distributed.
(iii) It is the cleanest of all and do not produce any greenhouse gas emissions during operation.
(iv) It uses small areas of land and consumes no water.
(v) It is an alternative to burning fossil fuels.
(vi) The electricity produced by wind energy is used for domestic purposes and is economical.
➢ Tidal Energy is a form of hydropower that generates electricity through high tidal movements.
➢ Tidal energy can be harnessed from the tides in two ways-
(i) By using the change in height of the tides (potential energy).
(ii) By using the flow of water (kinetic energy).
➢ In-Stream Device or Tidal Stream Generator, Tidal Barrage, Dynamic Tidal Power and Tidal Lagoon are the four main categories of tidal power technology.
➢ Tidal stream generator makes use of the kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines.
➢ Tidal barrages make use of the potential energy in the difference in height between high and low tides.
➢ Tidal barrages are the oldest methods of tidal power generation.
➢ A barrage is built across a bay or a river that is subject to tidal flow.
➢ During high tides, the sea water flows into the reservoir of the barrage and turns the turbine which in turn produces electricity by rotating the generators.
➢  When the tides are low, the sea water stored in the barrage reservoir flows out in the sea and the flow of water turns the turbines in its process.
➢ Dynamic tidal power is a promising technology and proposes to build very long dams from coasts straight out into the sea or ocean, without enclosing an area.
➢ Tidal lagoons are independent enclosing barrages built on high level tidal estuary land that trap the high water and release it to generate power.

Advantages of Tidal Energy :
(i) Tidal energy is an inexhaustible source of energy.
(ii) It is non-polluting and does not lead to any carbon emissions like fossil fuels.
(iii) It is predictable since tides rise with great uniformity and energy can also be produced if the speed of water is slow.
(iv) Once a tidal energy power plant is installed, its maintenance costs are extremely low.
(v) The energy density of tidal energy is much higher than that of other forms of renewable energy like wind power.
➢ Geothermal Energy : Geothermal is derived from a Greek words ‘Geo’ which means earth and ‘Thermos’ meaning heat. It is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
➢ Due to very high temperature below the earth’s crust, hot magmas from deep down below rises up and the temperature of water and rocks get increasingly hotter. This heated substance contains enormous energy and power and is tapped for creating geothermal energy.
➢ To obtain geothermal energy, a geothermal power plant has to be set up. A well has to be dug in a place where there is a good source of superheated fluid or magma.
➢ Pipes have to be fitted that would go down into the source and then the fluids would be forced upto the surface in order to produce the required steam. This steam would be used to rotate a turbine engine, thus generating electricity or geothermal power.

Advantages of Geothermal Energy :
(i) Geothermal energy is considered to be sustainable and renewable source of energy.
(ii) It is inexpensive, reliable and easily accessible.
(iii) It is environment friendly and emits less Greenhouse gases.
(iv) Geothermal energy power plant requires low maintenance costs and the electricity bills are reduced.
➢ In India, Geothermal plants have the potential to harness about 12,000 MW.
➢ Geothermal Plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.
➢ Nuclear Power : It is the energy that is created by nuclear reactions.
➢ Inside the nuclear reactor, energy is generated by means of a chain reaction involving uranium atoms.
➢ When the uranium atom is split into pieces, it releases heat and energy which is converted into electricity.

Advantages of Nuclear Power :
(i) Since single uranium can generate a lot of energy when it spilt, so it is found in abundance.
(ii) It is clean and do not produce substantial Greenhouse Gases.
(iii) It is reliable unlike solar energy which is dependent on weather.
(iv) It is a viable alternative as fossil fuels are non-renewable.
(v) Though there is an initial cost factor during installation but once it starts functioning it provides a cheap source of energy.
(vi) The waste produced by nuclear power plants can be re-used and the waste can be turned to make useful materials like aircraft production.

Biogas : It is a mixture of different gases like methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.
➢ It is produced by processing residual waste from livestock, food production and effluents from industrial and municipal wastes.
➢ Biogas is produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen which is referred to as anaerobic digestion.
➢ A biogas plant can convert animal manure, vegetative matter, waste from agro industry and slaughter houses into combustible gas.
➢ The plants which use cattle dung are called Gobar Gas Plant.
➢ The biogas can be used for power generation, cooking, lighting, etc.

Advantages of Biogas :
(i) Biogas is a cheap and clean source of energy.
(ii) It is non-polluting and reduces greenhouse gases.
(iii) It is renewable source of energy.
(iv) There is no storage problem since there is direct supply of gas from the plant.
(v) The sludge left behind is a good fertilizer for pastures and meadows and is better from an ecological point of view.
(vi) Leads to employment generation in rural areas.
(vii) It produces enriched organic manure which can supplement or even replace chemical fertilizers.

Know the terms
➢ Non-conventional sources of energy : These are that energy which is generated by solar energy, wind, tides, geothermal heat, nuclear energy, biomass, etc.
➢ Photovoltaic Cells : It is a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun.
➢ Wind Energy : It is the process by which the wind is used to generate electricity.
➢ Wind Farm : It is a group of wind turbines or windmills in the same location used for the production of electricity.
➢ Potential Energy : It is an energy an object has because of its position relative to some other object.
➢ Kinetic Energy : It is an energy possessed by an object in motion.
➢ Geothermal : It is derived from a Greek word ‘Geo’ which means earth and ‘Thermos’ meaning heat.


Notes Energy Resoirces ICSE Class 10 Geography
Energy Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes

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