Students should refer to Mineral Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.
ICSE Class 10 Geography Mineral Resources Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Mineral Resources in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.
Mineral Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography
Mineral Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes
➢ Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical and physical properties and general structure.
➢ Minerals are very important because they are the source of raw materials and form the basis for industries.
➢ They are the source of energy/power e.g. coal and petroleum.
➢ Minerals also help to earn foreign exchange.
➢ Minerals are classified into two categories- Metallic and Non-metallic.
➢ Metallic minerals are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products like iron, copper, bauxite, tin, gold, manganese, etc.
➢ These minerals are usually hard, ductile and malleable and are associated with igneous rocks.
➢ Metallic minerals have lustre or shine of their own.
➢ They are further categorised into ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.
➢ Ferrous minerals are those which have iron content like iron ore whereas non-ferrous minerals do not have iron content like bauxite, copper, gold, etc.
➢ Non-Metallic minerals are either organic or inorganic in origin.
➢ They are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.
➢ They do not have metallic luster and break easily.
➢ Non-metallic minerals are not malleable.
➢ Organic non-metallic minerals include fossil fuels and inorganic non-metallic minerals include mica, graphite, limestone, etc.
➢ Some unique characteristics of minerals are–
(i) They are not evenly distributed.
(ii) They are exhaustible.
(iii) They have inverse relationship in quality and quantity.
➢ India is rich in mineral deposits. A wide variety of minerals like iron, bauxite, mica, copper, gold, chromite, manganese, limestone, etc.
➢ Iron Ore- India is rich in Iron deposits and is the largest producer of it in Asia.
➢ In India four varieties of iron ore are found- Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite and Siderite.
➢ The primary use of iron ore is in the production of iron.
➢ Iron ore is usually smelted to produce pig iron (metallic iron) used to make steel.
➢ It is alloyed with other elements to make it strong and hard and then utilize for construction, automobile manufacturing, etc.
➢ Uses of Iron ore :
(i) Used in airplanes, beams used in the construction purposes.
(ii) Manufacturing automobiles, trains, trucks, etc.
(iii) Manufacturing metallurgy products, magnets, etc.
(iv) Used in appliances and surgical instruments in the form of steel.
(v) Radioactive iron is used in medicine as tracer element.
(vi) Iron blue is used in blueprints, inks, paints, enamels, crayons, linoleum, etc.
➢ Iron Ore is found in the deposit areas of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Goa, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
➢ Singhbhum, Keonjhar, Myurbhanj and Sundargarh districts have large deposits of Iron ore.
➢ Iron ore is exported Italy, Iran, China, Japan, etc. The main exporting ports are Mormugao and Vishakhapatnam.
➢ Manganese is an important ferro-allied ore mined in India.
➢ It is hard, black and iron like metal, an important raw material for smelting of iron ore and is used in the manufacture of steel.
➢ Uses of Manganese–
(i) It makes steel tough and hard and is rust resistant.
(ii) It is used in manufacture of chemical and electrical equipments.
(ii) It is used to manufacture coloured glass.
(iv) It is used in chemical industries for manufacturing bleaching powder.
(v) It is used in dry cell batteries.
(vi) Manganese is also used to manufacture vital enzymes for the metabolism of fats and proteins.
(vii) Manganese is also used to regulate blood sugar levels, supports immune system, involved in bone development and reproduction.
(viii) It is useful in plant growth too as it reduces nitrates in green plants and algae.
(ix) It is an essential trace element in higher animals.
➢ The important Manganese producing areas in India are- Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Telangana, Jharkhand and Rajasthan.
➢ The main buyers of Manganese from India are USA, Japan, France, The Netherlands, UK, West Germany and Belgium.
➢ Copper is an important non-ferrous metal.
➢ It is a good conductor of electricity and is ductile.
➢ Copper is found in old as well as young rock formations and occurs as veins and as bedded deposits.
➢ Copper contains a very small percentage of metal and thus copper mining is an expensive and tiring affair.
➢ Uses of Copper–
(i) Since copper is a good conductor of electricity, it is used for making electric wires.
(ii) It is also used in automobiles and in defence industries.
(iii) It is alloyed with nickel and iron to make stainless steel.
(iv) It is alloyed with aluminium to make duralumin.
(v) When it is alloyed with zinc, it is called brass and when alloyed with tin, it is called bronze.
(vi) Copper is also used in building construction, plumbing and in ship building.
➢ India has low grade copper ore and thus imports from USA, Canada, Japan, Mexico and Zimbabwe.
➢ The major copper mines are in Khetri in Rajasthan, Singhbhum in Bihar and Malanjkhand in Madhya Pradesh. Besides these, Guntoor in Andhra Pradesh and Nagpur in Maharashtra.
➢ Bauxite is an important ore of aluminium.
➢ It is mixed with sand and iron oxide.
➢ It is sticky like clay and is found in the tertiary deposits of Peninsular Plateau.
➢ Bauxite has 60-70% of aluminium oxide and by melting aluminium is obtained.
➢ India has a huge deposit of Bauxite and ranks 5th in the world production.
➢ The largest integrated aluminium plant in India is at Renukoot in Uttar Pradesh.
➢ It gets its supply from Amarkanth Plateau and Ranchi.
➢ Uses of Bauxite :
(i) Bauxite is rust resistant, strong and lightweight metal.
(ii) It is mainly used in aircrafts, automobiles, shipping industry, household appliances, rail wagons, coaches, etc.
(iii) Bauxite is a good conductor of electricity and is used in electrical equipment industries.
(iv) It is also used in making mirrors, headlight reflectors and in telescopes.
➢ The main deposits are in Odisha, Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka ad Tamil Nadu.
Know the terms
➢ Minerals : They are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical and physical properties and general structure.
➢ Metallic Minerals : These are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products like iron, copper, bauxite, tin, gold, manganese, etc.
➢ Non-Metallic Minerals : They are either organic or inorganic in origin, associated with sedimentary rocks and are not malleable.
➢ Haematite : It is a good quality of iron ore with 60%-70% of pure iron. It is reddish in colour and is also called Red Ore.
➢ Magnetite : It is the finest quality of iron ore with more than 70% of iron and possesses magnetic property. It is brown to blackish in colour and also called Black Ore.
➢ Limonite : It contains 35% to 50% of iron. It is a low quality iron ore. It is yellowish to yellowish brown in colour.
➢ Siderite : It contains 20%-30% iron content and a residual ore. It is a carbonate of iron and is found near coal fields.
➢ Metallurgy : It is a science that deals with the nature, uses, production and purification of metal.
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