Notes For ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Study of Compounds Sulphuric Acid

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Study of Compounds Sulphuric Acid ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Revision Notes

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Revision Notes ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Study of Compounds Sulphuric Acid

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Sulphuric Acid

Notes For ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Study of Compounds Sulphuric Acid

General Methods of Preparation
By the action of heat on nitric acid and sulphur.
S + 6HNO3 → 6NO2 + 2H2O + H2SO4
By passing chlorine through an aqueous solution of sulphur trioxide.
Cl2 + SO2 + 2H2O →2HCl + H2SO4
By dissolution of sulphur trioxide in water.
SO3 + H2O →H2SO4
By hydrolysis of sulphuryl chloride.
SO2Cl2 + 2H2O →H2SO4 + 2HCl

Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid [Contact Process]

Steps involved in the contact process

(1) Production of sulphur dioxide
SO2 is produced by roasting metallic sulphides in air.
4FeS2 +11O2 → 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
(2) Purification of gases
To enhance the efficiency of a catalyst, various impurities present in the mixture of sulphur dioxide and air
are first removed.
(3) Catalytic oxidation of sulphur dioxide
Oxidation of SO2 to SO3 at 450°C in the presence of catalyst vanadium pentaoxide.

Notes For ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Study of Compounds Sulphuric Acid

(4) Absorption of sulphur trioxide in sulphuric acid
Sulphur trioxide vapours are absorbed by a stream of conc. sulphuric acid.
SO3 + H2SO4 → H2S2O7 (oleum or pyrosulphuric acid)
(5) Dilution of oleum to obtain sulphuric acid
A calculated amount of water is added to obtain sulphuric acid of desired strength.
H2S2O7 + H2O → 2H2SO4

Properties of Sulphuric Acid

(A) Physical Properties
Colourless, odourless with slight sour taste.
It is highly corrosive in nature and chars the skin black.
It is heavier than water and soluble in water.
Boiling point is 338°C, and melting point is 10.4°C.

(B) Chemical Properties
Properties of Dilute Sulphuric Acid
Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with metals to form metallic sulphate and hydrogen.
Mg + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2
Fe + H2SO4 → Fe2SO4 + H2
It neutralises bases to form salts and water.
NaOH + H2SO4 →NaHSO4 + H2O
It liberates carbon dioxide from metallic carbonates and bicarbonates.
Na2CO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2
2KHCO3 + H2SO4 →K2SO4 + 2H2O +2CO2
It evolves hydrogen sulphide from metal sulphides.
Na2S + H2SO4 →Na2SO4 + H2S
ZnS + H2SO4 →ZnSO4 +H2S
It evolves sulphur dioxide from sulphites and hydrogen sulphites.
Na2SO3 +H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + SO2
2NaHSO3 +H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2SO2

Properties of Conc. Sulphuric Acid

Non-volatile nature
It has a high boiling point so it is used to prepare volatile acids such as HCl, HNO3 and acetic acid
from their salts.
NaCl + H2SO4 →NaHSO4 + HCl
NaNO3 + H2SO4 →NaHSO4 + HNO3
As an oxidising agent
C + 2H2SO4 → CO2 + 2H2O +2SO2
Cu + 2H2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2H2O +SO2
2HBr + H2SO4 →Br2 + 2H2O + SO2

As a dehydrating agent
H2SO4 has a great affinity for water, and therefore, it acts as a dehydrating agent.

Notes For ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Study of Compounds Sulphuric Acid

Uses of Sulphuric Acid

In the preparation of halogens, CO, CO2 and SO2.
Extraction of metals: Leaching of metallic compounds produces sulphates which give the metal in pure
form on electrolysis.
Pickling of metals: Removes metallic impurities from the surface of metals before galvanising.
Industrial uses:
i. In the manufacture of fertilisers such as ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] and superphosphate of
lime [Ca (H2PO4)2 +CaSO4].
ii. In the manufacture of explosives such as trinitrotoluene and picric acid.

ICSE Class 10 Study of Compounds Sulphuric Acid Notes