Notes Water Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography

Study Material

Students should refer to Water Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.

ICSE Class 10 Geography Water Resources Revision Notes

Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Water Resources in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.

Water Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography

Water Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes

TOPIC-1
Sources of Water and Need for Conservation
Quick Review
➢ Our Earth is surrounded by water from all sides but unfortunately only 0.03% of water is available to us as freshwater in rivers, lakes and streams.
➢ 97% water supply is from the oceans and seas and due to high salt content water is unfit for drinking and for agricultural purposes.
There are two sources of water :
(i) Surface Water
(ii) Ground Water
Surface Water : Water that collects on the surface of the earth such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, etc.
Ground Water : Water from rainfall that collects or flows beneath the Earth’s surface, sinks into the soil, filling the porous cracks and spaces in soil, sediment and rocks.
➢ Groundwater constitutes 0.66% of usable water on the earth.
➢ Water is the most essential element on earth. Life is impossible without it.
➢ The increasing population, industrialization, urbanisation and agricultural irrigation,have reduced the per capita availability of water.
➢ We need to conserve water due to the following reasons :
(i) High demand of water due to increasing population is leading to the lowering of the ground water levels.
(ii) Rainfall in India is seasonal, erratic and unreliable and thus, the farmers cannot wholly depend on rain.
(iii) More than 90% of water is utilized for irrigation.
(iv) The Industries also utilizes a lot of water and pollutes it too.
(v) A large amount of underground water like lakes, rivers, streams, etc. are polluted which cannot be used without its proper treatment.
(vi) Scanty rainfall affects the growth of vegetation which results in drought and lowering of ground water levels.
(vii) Water is essential for generating hydro-electric power.
➢ In order to overcome the shortage of water due to its increasing demands, we need to manage our water resources.
➢ A number of practices have been initiated and measures have been adopted to conserve water effectively.
➢ Some of these effective measures are- rainwater harvesting, watershed management, water saving technologies, recycling of water and prevention of water pollution.
➢ Rainwater harvesting is a technique through which rainwater is collected from surfaces on which rain falls, filtering it and then storing it for future use.
➢ In other words, it is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rain water.
➢ It includes activities that are aimed at :
(i) harvesting surface and groundwater,
(ii) prevention of losses through evaporation and seepage,
(iii) other techniques aimed at conservation and efficient utilization of limited water endowment.
➢ Rain water harvesting has become a necessity and we need to understand its value by making optimum use of rainwater where it falls.
➢ The main objective of rainwater harvesting is to make water available for future use and to avoid flooding of roads.
➢ Water harvesting has many advantages like no land is wasted for storage purpose, no population displacement is required, ground water is not directly exposed to evaporation and pollution, increases the productivity of aquifer, reduces soil erosion, recharge groundwater resource, etc.
➢ There is different water harvesting mechanisms carried out in different regions of the country. They are-
(i) Surface runoff harvesting
(ii) Roof Top Water harvesting.

➢ In different parts of the country rainwater storing mechanisms were known by different names. They were called Khul in Western Himalayas, Zing in Ladakh, Baolis in the Gangetic Plains, Johads in Central India and Rajasthan, Surangam in Western Ghats, Korambu in the Eastern Ghats and Bhandaras in Deccan Plateau.
➢ Watershed Management refers to the efficient management and conservation of both the surface and groundwater resources.
➢ It includes prevention of runoff as well as storage and recharge of groundwater by various methods like percolation pits, recharge wells, borewells, dugwells, etc.
The elements of water harvesting mechanisms are as follows :
(i) Catchments : The catchment of a water harvesting system is the surface which directly receives the rainfall.
(ii) Conduits : These are the pipelines or drains that carry rainwater from the catchment or rooftop area to the harvesting system.
(iii) Storage Facility : Rainwater can be stored in any available storage container like, masonry or plastic tanks, RCC (Reinforced cement concrete), etc.
(iv) Recharge Facility : Rainwater can be used to recharge groundwater aquifers through any suitable structures like dugwells, borewells, recharge trenches and recharge pits.

Know the terms
Surface Water : Water that collects on the surface of the earth such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, etc.
Ground Water : Water from rainfall that collects or flows beneath the Earth’s surface, sinks into the soil, filling the porous cracks and spaces in soil, sediment and rocks.
Industrialisation : It is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into industrial one or from agriculture to manufacturing of goods.
Urbanisation : It refers to shifting of population from rural to urban areas.
Rainwater harvesting : It is a technique through which rainwater is collected from surfaces on which rainfall, filtering it and then storing it for future use.
Watershed Management : It refers to the efficient management and conservation of both the surface and groundwater resources.
Aquifer : An underground layer of permeable rock, sediment or soil that yields water.
Percolation Pits : It is used to dispose of produced water by percolation and evaporation through the bottom or sides of the pits into surrounding soils.
Surface runoff harvesting : The water from rain, snow melt or other sources that flows over the land surface is caught and collected to a tank below the surface of the ground.
Roof Top Rainwater harvesting : It is the technique through which rain water is captured from the roof catchments and stored in reservoirs.

Flowchart

Notes Water Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography

TOPIC-2
Importance and Methods of Irrigation
Quick Review
➢ Irrigation refers to the process by which a controlled amount of water is artificially supplied to the plants at regular intervals to help in the production of crops.
➢ In other words, Irrigation is the supply of water to the plants through artificial means from wells, tanks, tubewells, canals, etc.
➢ Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy and about 70% people are engaged in it.
➢ 92% of water is utilized for irrigating the agricultural fields.
➢ Though rainfall is still an important source of water for the farmers yet these artificial means of irrigation support the farmer to a large extent.
➢ Irrigation is the most essential requirement for the development of agriculture in India due to the following reasons:
(i) Uncertainty of rainfall
(ii) Uneven distribution of rainfall
(iii) Requirement of different quantities of water for various crops for their growth
(iv) Dependent of crops on the nature of soil
(v) Utilization of river water effectively
(vi) To increase or maximise production.
➢ There are various means of irrigation- Traditional and Modern means.
➢ Traditional means of irrigation includes wells, tanks and inundation canals and modern means include tubewells, perennial canals, drip irrigation, spray irrigation, furrow irrigation and sprinkler irrigation.
➢ Well irrigation is the oldest method of irrigation. It is normally carried out in the places where the soil is soft and easy to dig.
➢ Well irrigation is practised in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
➢ There are different methods of lifting water from the wells for irrigation in India. They are :
(i) Persian Wheel Method
(ii) Lever Method
(iii) Inclined method
➢ There are many advantages and disadvantages of well irrigation.

➢ Advantages of Well Irrigation :
(i) Less expensive.
(ii) Can be dug anywhere where the soil is soft.
(iii) Oxen kept for ploughing of field can be utilized for drawing water from the wheel at no extra cost.
(iv) By using pumps and tubewells, water can be lifted from great depths.

➢ Disadvantages of Well Irrigation-
(i) It is difficult to dig wells or bore tubewells in the hilly regions and in the rocky areas of Southern Peninsula.
(ii) Due to uneven distribution of underground water resources in different areas, wells do not function effectively.
(iii) Owing to excessive withdrawal of underground water and lowering of water table, the conventional wells dry up.
(iv) It is expensive for a farmer to use electricity or diesel to operate tubewells which also causes many problems.
➢ Tubewells are deeper wells from where the water is lifted from a great depth of 20-30 m by the use of power pumps.

➢ The tubewells can be drilled in places which has the following conditions :
(i) Availability of plenty of water.
(ii) Soft soil, level land and fertile area.
(iii) Availability of cheap electricity at a regular basis to run tubewells.
➢ Advantages of Tubewell Irrigation :
(i) It is able to irrigate a larger agricultural land.
(ii) Large amount of underground water is easily available.
(iii) It is reliable during dry season when the surface water dries up since the tubewell is drilled upto the permanent water table.
(iv) A good amount of water can be pulled out in a short period of time.

➢ Disadvantages of Tubewell Irrigation :
(i) Irrigation is not possible if the groundwater is brackish.
(ii) It is costly as it requires regular supply of electricity.
(iii) Irrigation is not possible if the underground water level is low.
(iv) Excessive use of tubewell leads to lowering of groundwater level.
➢ Tubewell irrigation is mainly prevalent in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
➢ Canal is an important and effective means of irrigation in India.
➢ Canal irrigation is mainly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.
➢ Since digging is difficult in the rocky and uneven surfaces of land, canals are practically absent in the Southern Peninsular region.
➢ There are two types of canals in India :
(i) Inundation Canal
(ii) Perennial Canal
➢ Inundation Canals are those canals which are taken out directly from the rivers without any regulating systems like barrage or dam.
➢ This type of canal provides water for irrigation only during the rainy season and at times of flood.
➢ Since the level of water drops after the rainy season is over, the canal dries up and thus it has limited use.
➢ Perennial Canals are those canals which taken off from perennial rivers by constructing a dam or a barrage across the river.
➢ These canals help to irrigate large areas and can draw water throughout the year.
➢ Today in India most of the canals are perennial.
➢ Canal irrigation is practiced in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Assam and Tripura.
➢ Uttar Pradesh has constructed a large number of canals to irrigate around 3,091 thousand hectares of land which is 30.91% of the total canal irrigated area of the country.
➢ The important canals of Uttar Pradesh are Upper Ganga Canal, Lower Ganga Canal, Sharda Canal, Eastern Yamuna Canal, Agra Canal and Betwa Canal.
➢ The important canals in Punjab are Upper Bari Doab Canal, Srihind Canal, Bhakra Canal, Bist Doab Canal.
➢ In Haryana, the Western Yamuna Canal, Bhakra Canal, Jui Canal and Gurgaon Canal are the main canals.
➢ The important canals of Rajasthan are Indira Gandhi Canal, Gang or Bikaner Canal and Chambal Canal Projects.

➢ Advantages of Canal Irrigation :
(i) The perennial canals provide constant supply of water and save the crops from drought situations.
(ii) Canal irrigation has proved to be a boon to the sandy areas of Rajasthan which are yielding good agricultural crops.
(iii) Canal irrigation has converted Punjab and Haryana into a Granary of the country.
(iv) Canals carry a lot of sediment brought down by the rivers which gets deposited in the agricultural fields and add to the fertility of the soil.
(v) Although the initial investment for constructing a canal is high but it is quite cheap in the long run.

➢ Disadvantages of Canal Irrigation :
(i) During rainy season, many canals overflow and flood the already cultivated areas.
(ii) In areas where the water is excessively flowing in fields, it raises the ground water level and results in bringing the alkaline salts to the surface, thereby making the field unfit for agriculture or unproductive.
(iii) Due to waterlogging, the capacity of soil to absorb water reduces and thus ruins the standing crops, stored grains etc.
(iv) Canal irrigation is suitable mainly in plain areas.
➢ Tank comprises an important source of irrigation mainly in the southern part of the country.
➢ Tank irrigation is one of the oldest irrigation systems in India.
➢ It is mainly carried out in the rocky plateau region of South India where the rainfall is highly seasonal and uneven.
➢ Tank Irrigation is practiced in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, etc.
➢ Tank irrigation is mainly prevalent in South India due to the following reasons :
(i) The Southern rivers are not snow-fed and are dependent on rainfall.
(ii) The streams are mainly seasonal and dry up once the rainfall is over.
(iii) Due to hard rocks, non-porous and rocky surface the water doesn’t penetrate through the layers of the soil, so digging wells is not possible.
(iv) The Deccan terrain is uneven with many natural depressions which facilitate the construction of tanks.

➢ Advantages of Tank Irrigation-
(i) It is inexpensive as they are mostly natural.
(ii) It is highly beneficial in the uneven rocky plateau of Deccan since rainfall is seasonal.
(iii) It is highly significant because it stores the abundant rainwater and reduces the waste of the excessive flowing water.
(iv) Since wells and tubewells cannot be dug in the rocky surface of the Deccan Plateau, tanks are easily constructed.

➢ Disadvantages of Tank Irrigation-
(i) In the absence of rainwater during dry season, the tanks become dry and fail to provide water for irrigation.
(ii) Due to deposition of sediments, the tanks get silted up soon and desilting is necessary for making irrigation suitable which is expensive.
(iii) Tanks occupy large fertile areas which otherwise could be used for agricultural purposes.
(iv) Since tanks are very extensive and shallow, huge quantities of stored water go waste as it gets evaporated or sinks underground.

 The conventional system of irrigation or the traditional method of irrigation has a number of disadvantages. They are :
(i) In this method large quantity of water cannot be used.
(ii) Waterlogging is caused in the low lying agricultural fields due to the flowing of excess water which damage the crops and gives poor yield.
(iii) Due to accumulation of salts in arid and semi-arid regions of India, large tract of lands are left barren and cannot be utilized for cultivation.
➢ Modern methods of irrigation are efficient and supply water to the fields more uniformly as compared to the traditional methods of irrigation.
➢ The important modern methods of irrigation are :

(i) Drip Irrigation : This method is considered to be the most efficient and advanced system of irrigation. It supplies the water to the roots of the plants slowly through pipes, valves, tubing etc. and thus saves water and fertilizer. This helps in the reduction of evaporation.

(ii) Sprinkler Irrigation : It is a method by which water is supplied to the plants uniformly through a nozzle fitted in a pipe. It is widely used in the arid areas as it checks and controls the wastage of water through evaporation and seepage.
One advantage of this type of irrigation is that there is no loss of water through evaporation and seepage and one disadvantage is that it is expensive and can water only a small area.

(iii) Furrow Irrigation : It is a type of surface irrigation in which furrows are dug between the rows of the crops and water is evenly distributed to the entire field. It is one of the oldest methods of irrigation and is cheap.

(iv) Spray Irrigation : In this type of irrigation, water is shot from high pressure sprayers onto the crops through a long hose pipe. It is expensive but utilizes water more efficiently. Since it is sprayed so a good amount of water gets evaporated.

Know the terms
➢ Irrigation : It is the supply of water to the plants through artificial means from wells, tanks, tubewells, canals, etc.
➢ Well : A pit or a hole created in the ground by digging, boring or drilling to access groundwater. It is drawn by a pump or by a pulley.
➢ Persian Wheel Method : It is a mechanical water lifting device operated by draught animals like bullocks, buffaloes or camels.
➢ Tubewell : Tubewells are deeper wells from where the water is lifted from a great depth of 20-30 m by the use of power pumps.
 Inundation Canals : These are those canals which are taken out directly from the rivers without any regulating systems like barrage or dam.
➢ Perennial Canals : These are those canals which taken off from perennial rivers by constructing a dam or a barrage across the river.
➢ Drip Irrigation : It supplies the water to the roots of the plants slowly through pipes, valves, tubing etc. and thus saves water and fertilizer.
➢ Sprinkler Irrigation : It is a method by which water is supplied to the plants uniformly through a nozzle fitted in a pipe.

Flowchart

Notes Water Resources ICSE Class 10 Geography

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