Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. In case of an infertile couple, the male partner can inseminate normally but the mobility of sperms is below 40 percent. Judge, which kind of ART is suitable in this situation to form an embryo in the laboratory, without involving a donor ?
Answer : Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
Question. State one reason why breast feeding the baby acts as a natural contraceptive for the mother.
Answer : Breast feeding the child particularly after parturition fully prevents conception, because during this period there is high level of progesterone which prevents menstruation flow. Just after parturition there is a phase of lactational amoenorrhoea characterized by absence of menstruation and immense lactation. Breast feeding during this period approximately upto six months acts as a natural contraceptive for the mother.
Question Govt. of India has raised the marriageable age of female to 18 years and of males to 21 years. Suggest any two more measures adopted by Government for the purpose.
Answer : (i) Incentives should be given to couples with small families.
(ii) Media Publicity, Posters of happy couples with two children.
(iii) Motivate families to use contraceptive measures.
Question. Why is tubectomy considered a contraceptive method ?
Answer : In tubectomy, a piece of fallopian tube is cut and the cut ends are tied. Therefore, the sperms are not able to reach the egg. Thus, tubectomy is considered as a contraceptive method.
Question. Mention one positive and one negative application of amniocentesis.
Answer : Positive application : It helps to detect any genetically controlled congenital disease or any metabolic disorder in foetus. Negative application : People use this method for female foeticide.
Question. Name an IUD that you would recommend to promote the cervix hostility to the sperms.
Answer : Cu-T (Copper releasing IUD) suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms.
Question. Our government has intentionally imposed strict conditions for M. T. P. in our country. Justify giving a reason.
Answer : To prevent female foeticide / to maintain sex ratio / to avoid any danger for (young) mother (and foetus)
Question. Name any two assisted reproductive technologies that help infertile couples to give children.
Answer : (i) GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer)
(ii) ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection)
Short Answer Type Questions – l
Question. Describe the Lactational Amenorrhea method of birth control.
Answer : It has been noticed that during the period of intense lactation after the parturition, the mother does not undergo menstruation and ovulation so the chances of conception are nearly nil. It also has no side effects but is effective only upto a maximum period of six months after parturition.
Question. The alarming population growth is leading to scarcity of basic requirements. Suggest with reason, any two population control measures other than contraception to address the situation.
Answer : Population control measures other than contraception are :
(i) Advertisements in the media, to generate awareness. People particularly those in reproductive age group should be given education regarding the advantages of small family and family planning methods. Mass media and educational institutes can play an important role in this campaign, posters exhibiting a happy couple with a slogan “Hum Do Hamare Do’’
(ii) Marriageable age : Statutory raising of marriageable age of the female to 18 years and that of males to 21 years, is more effective means to control population. It help to delay the number of births.
(iii) Incentives : This will certainly help to check population growth. Incentives should be given to couples with small families and to families adopting family planning methods and motivate others to comply. (Any two of the above measures with explanation)
Question. Why are copper containing intra-uterine devices considered an ideal contraceptive for human females ?
Answer : Cu-T is a copper releasing IUD that increases phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus. Cu ions released by some IUDs suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms.
Question. Why there is a statutory ban on amniocentesis ?
Why is this technique so named ?
What is amniocentesis ? Why has the government imposed a statutory ban inspite of its importance in medical field.
Answer : Amniocentesis is a technique of foetal sex determination based on the pattern of chromosome, in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo. A statutory ban has been imposed on this to stop its misuse and therefore to check the increasing cases of female foeticides resulting in the imbalance of sex ratio in human population. It is so called because it is basically a technique of investigating the genetic and metabolic disorders if any of the foetus by taking out a small quantity of amniotic fluid
Question. Why is ‘Saheli’ considered an effective contraceptive for women to space children ?
Why is ‘Saheli’ considered to be an improved form of oral contraceptive for human female ?
Answer : ‘Saheli’ is considered as an improved form of contraceptive for human females because :
(i) It is a non-steroidal preparation.
(ii) It has lesser or no side effects.
(iii) It has a high contraceptive value.
(iv) It is once a week pill.
Question. How do ‘implants’ act as an effective method of contraception in human females ? Mention their one advantage over contraceptive pills.
Answer : The contraceptives in the form of progestogen or progestogen–estrogen combination are used by females as injections or implants under the skin. These implants are an effective contraceptive method as they check ovulation and sperm transport. They prevent the fertilization of the egg or implantation of the embryo. They makes the egg to move down the fallopian tube and uterus quickly before fertilization.
Advantage : The advantage of implants is their effective periods for longer duration.
Question. Why is ZIFT a boon to childless couples ? Explain the procedure.
Answer : ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer) method helps the infertile couples to have babies.
The ZIFT is considered as a boon to childless couples because it enables them to attain the parent hood. In this technique, fusion of the ovum from the donor emale (wife) and the sperm from the donor male (husband) is done outside the body, in the laboratory. Then the zygote or early embryo (with up to 8 blastomeres) is transferred into the fallopian tube of the woman. Implantation takes place at this early embryo stage in the uterus where further development of the embryo takes place.
Question. An infertile couple is advised to adopt testtube baby programme. Describe two principal procedures adopted for such technologies.
Answer : The test-tube baby programme involves mainly following two principal procedures:
(i) In-vitro fertilization (IVF) : It is the fertilization outside the body in the conditions almost similar to those which exist in the body. The ova and sperms from the donor parents are taken and fused to form the zygote in the laboratory outside the body of female. Then the zygote is transferred into the fallopian tube.
(ii) Embryo transfer (ET) : The embryo is transferred into the reproductive tract. The zygote is allowed to divide so as to form about 8-blastomeres. The zygote or the embryo in early stage of development is transferred into the fallopian tube by Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT) technique. If the embryo is in a bit later stage having about 8 blastomeres it is transferred into uterus by intra uterine transfer (IUT) of infertile female partner or into that of surrogate mother for giving birth to the baby.
Question. Why is Cu-T considered a good contraceptive device to space children ?
Answer : Cu-T is a non-hormonal, and non-medicated contraceptive device which increases phagocytosis of sperms. The Cu ions suppress motility and fertilising capacity of sperms.
Short Answer Type Questions – ll
Question. Explain any three contraceptive devices that can be used by women for their family planning.
Answer : Copper releasing IUDs—suppress sperm motility/fertilizing capacity of sperms
Hormone releasing IUDs—make uterus unsuitable for implantation/cervix hostile to sperms
(Female) Condoms—provide physical barrier and prevent meeting of sperm and ovum
Oral pills—inhibit ovulation and implantation/alter quality of cervical mucus and prevent entry of sperms.
Injections/Implants—inhibit ovulation and implantation/alter quality of cervical mucus and prevent entry of sperms. (Effect is same as that of pills but lasts much longer).
Question. A woman has certain queries as listed below, before starting with contraceptive pills. Answer them.
(i) What do contraceptive pills contain and how do they act as contraceptive ?
(ii) What schedule should be followed for taking these pills.
Answer : (i) The contraceptive pills contain little amounts of hormones like progesterone or a combination of progesterone and oestrogen. They act bringing about the inhibition of ovulation and implantation.
They also act by altering the quality of cervical mucus to prevent or retard entry of sperms.
(ii) These pills have to be taken regularly for 21 days starting within the first five days of menstruation, to be repeated after a gap of seven days.
Question. (i) Mention the problems that are taken care of by Reproduction and Child Health Care programme.
(ii) What is amniocentesis and why there is a statutory ban on it ?
Answer : (i) Uncontrilled population growth/social evil like sex abuse/sex related crime/STDs.
(ii) Foetal sex determination tests based on chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid/to study chromosomal abnormalities in the foetus is banned to prevent female foeticide.
Question. Describe any three steps taken up by our government to check population growth rate.
Answer : (i) Motivate smaller families.
(ii) Use modia/poster showing a happy coiple with two children with slogan ‘hum do hamare do’.
(iii) Statutory raising of marriageable age of the female to 18 years and male to 21 years.
Question. (i) Name two copper releasing IUDs.
(ii) Explain how they act as effective contraceptives in human females.
Answer : (i) Intra uterine Devices-CuT, Cu7 Multiload 375.
(ii) Suppress sperm motility, suppress fertilizing capacity of sperms, increase phagocytosis of sperms within uterus.
Question. (i) List any four characteristics of an ideal contraceptive.
(ii) Name two intrauterine contraceptive devices that affect the motility of sperms
Answer : (i) User friendly, no side effect reverside, effective, should not interfere with sexual drive and desire of the user, easily available.
(ii) Copper T / Multiload 375.
Question. Name two hormones that are constituents of contraceptive pills. Why do they have high and effective contraceptive value ? Name a commonly prescribed non-steroidal pill.
Answer : Progestogen-estrogen / Progesterone-estrogen combination, Progestogen–Progesterone. They inhibit ovulation, inhibit implantation, alter quality of cervical mucus to retard entry of sperm
Question. (i) Explain MTP.
(ii) Give two situations when MTP is advised.
(iii) Write when amniocentesis and MTP can be misused.
Answer : (i) Medical Termination of Pregnancy :
Intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy before full term with help of an expert doctor is called MTP
(ii) MTP is advised in the following situations—
(a) When there is an unwanted pregnancy.
(b) When continuation of pregnancy is harmful or fatal to either mother or foetus or both.
(c) When there is failure of contraceptive used during coitus or rapes, in either case it is advisable to go for MTP during first trimester i.e., up to 12 weeks of pregnancy.
(d) MTP is also advised if the foetus suffers from incurable genetic and metabolic disorder.
(iii) Amniocentesis is a prenatal technique of studying genetic disorders of foetus by taking out amniotic fluid. But however amniocentesis and MTP has been misused for knowing the sex of the foetus and destroying the same if the foetus is female.
Question. Name and explain the surgical method advised to human males and females as a means of birth control. Mention its one advantage and one disadvantage.
Answer : Vasecotomy in males & Tubectomy (like nausea,
Devoid of ill effects of contraceptive (like nausea, abdominal pain, breakthrough bleeding, irregular menstruation or breast cancer), Reversibility is very poor.
Question. List any two types of IUDs that are available for human females and state their mode of action.
Answer : (i) Non medicated IUDs, increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
(ii) Copper releasing IUDs cuions suppress sperm motility and fertilising capacity of sperms.
(iii) Hormone releasing IUDs make uterus unsuitable for implantation/makes cervix hostile to sperms.
Question. A couple where both husband and wife are producing functional gametes, but the wife is still unable to conceive, is seeking medical aid. Describe any one method that you can suggest to this couple to become happy parents.
Answer : Methods IVF/ZIFT/AI :
(i) IVF : Ova from wife and sperm from the husband is collected. It is induced to formed zygote under laboratory conditions. 1
(ii) ZIFT : Zygote or early embryo are then transferred to the fallopian tube (ZIFT) or into iterus (iUT) to complete further development
(iii) AI : Semen collected from the husband is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus (IUI) of the wife
Question. Explain how do the following act as contraceptives :
Answer : (i) Cu-T a copper-releasing intra uterine device
(IUDs) ir prevents pregnancy in the following ways :
(a) By increasing phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
(b) By suppressing sperm motility due to copper ion release and thereby its fertilizing ability.
(c) By making the uterus unsuitable for implantation.
(d) By making the cervix hostile to sperms.
(ii) Saheli is an example of oral contraceptive that contains a non-steroidal component called ‘Centchroman’; it is a once-a-week pill. Other oral contraceptive pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days, starting within the first five days of a menstrual cycle.
Question. Suggest and explain the assisted reproductive techniques which will help a couple to have children, where the female had a blockage in the fallopian tube and the male partner had a low sperm count.
Answer : (a) As the male partner is suffering from low sperm count, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection technique should be used to directly inject sperm into the ovum.
(b) As the female partner is having blockage in the fallopian tube, In vitro fertilization, followed by embryo transfer (ET) will help her to conceive.
(c) In this case, sperms from the male partner will be collected and injected into the ovum of the female partner to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory and embryo with more than 8 blastomeres will be transferred into the uterus IUT (intr uterine transfer) to complete its further development.
Question. (i) Name a terminal method to prevent pregnancy in humans.
(ii) Describe the procedure of the terminal method carried in human male and female.
Answer : (i) Surgical methods / Sterilisation
(ii) Males : Vasectomy, a small part of vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum.
Females : Tubectomy, a small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up through a small incision in abdomen or through vagina.
Question. Suggest and explain any three assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to an infertile couple.
Explain the Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT).
How is Intra Uterine Transfer Technique (IUT) different from it
Answer : (i) ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer) is related to embryo transfer in the test-tube programme.
In this technique, the zygote or embryo up to 8 blastomeres is transferred into the fallopian tube.
(ii) IUT (Iterine transfer) is the technique in which the semen of the husband or a healthy donor is introduced into the uterus of a female.
(iii) GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer). It is the technique in which the ovum collected from the donor female is transferred into the fallopian tube of another female, who cannot produce an ovum but can provide suitable conditions for fertilization and pregnancy.
Question. After a brief medical examination a healthy couple came to know that both of them are unable to produce functional gametes and should
look for an ‘ART’ (Assisted Reproductive Technique). Name the ‘ART’ and the proce dure involved that you can suggest to them to help them bear a child.
Ans. Test-tube baby programme
Collection of ova and sperm from donor
(Corresponding procedure correctly explained)
(i) IVF : Fertilisation outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body.
(ii) ICSI : Sperm is directly injected into the ovum
ET-Embryo is transferred into reproductive tract/uterus.
(iii) ZIFT : Zygote or early embryos (upto eight blastomeres) transferred into fallopian tube.
(iv) IUT : Early embryos (with more than eight blastomeres) transferred into uterus.
Question. If implementation of better techniques and new strategies are required to provide more efficient care and assistance to people, then why is there a statutory ban on amniocentesis ? Write the use of this technique and give reason to justify.
Ans. To legally check female foeticide/Misuse of sex determination technique.
To detect the abnormal chromosomes/genetic disorder.
Justify : Prevent (female foeticide) change in sex ratio of the population.
Long Answer Type Question
Question. A village health worker was taking a session with women. She tells the women that one has to be very careful while using oral pills as method of birth control. Wrong usage can actually promote conception.
(i) Analyze the statement and compare the merits and demerits of using oral pills and surgical methods of birth control.
(ii) Village women were confused as to how a thin metallic copper loop can provide protection against pregnancy. Justify the use explaining the mode of action of IUDs.
(ii) Mode of action of IUDs:
(a) Increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
(b) Cu++ released suppress sperms motility/fertility capacity of sperm.
(c) Hormone releasing IUDs make uterus unsuitable for implantation/cervix hostile to the sperms.