Selina ICSE Class 10 Biology Solutions Chapter 10 The Reproductive System

Selina ICSE Solutions

A. Multiple Choice Type

Question 1. Which one of the following is the correct route that a sperm follows when it leaves the testis of a mammal? 
(a) vas deferens epididymis → urethra 
(b) urethra → Epididymis → vas deferens 
(c) Epididymis → urethra → vas deferens 
(d) Epididymis – vas deferens → urethra

Solution .

Epididymis + vas deferens → urethra

Question 2. When pregnancy does not occur, the life of corpus luteum is about
(a) 4 days
(b) 10 days
(c) 14 days
(d) 28 days

Solution .

28 days

Question 3. In female, after how much time after fertilization, does the fertilized egg get implanted in the uterine wall? 
(a) Few months
(b) one month
(c) Three weeks
(d) about seven days 
Solution 3.

Solution .

About seven days

B. Very Short Answer Type.

Question 1. Name the following. 
(a) The body part in which the testes are present in a human male. 
(b) The part where the sperms are produced in the testes 
(c) The fully developed part of the ovary containing a mature egg 
(d) The accessory gland in human males whose secretion activates the sperms
(e) The tubular knot fitting like a cap on the upper side of the testis.

Solution 1. 
(a) Scrotum
(b) Seminiferous Tubules
(c) Graafian Follicle
(d) Seminal vesicle
(e) Epididymis

Question 2. Choose the odd one in each of the following. 
(a) Oestrogen; progesterone; testosterone; prolactin. 
(b) Ovary; fallopian tube; ureter; uterus
(c) Seminiferous tubule; ovum; epididymis; sperm duct; urethra 
(d) Sperm; implantation; fertilization; ovum; ovum; after birth. 

Solution 2. 
(a) Testosterone
(b) Ureter
(c) Ovum
(d) After birth

Question 3. Rewrite the terms in the correct order so as to be in a logical sequence.
(a) Sperm duct, penis, testes, sperms, semen
(b) Puberty, menopause, menstruals, menarche, reproductive age.
(c) Graafian follicle, ostium, uterus, fallopian tube.

Solution 3. 
(a) Testes → Sperms → Sperm duct → Semen → Penis
(b) Menarche → Puberty → Reproductive age → Menstruals → Menopause
(c) Graafian follicle → Ostium → Fallopian tube Uterus

Question 4. Write in sequence, the regions which a mature sperm travels from the seminiferous tubules up to the urethral opening in the human male.
Solution 4. 
Seminiferous tubule → Epididymis → Vas deferens → Penis

C. Short Answer Type.

Question 1. What is semen?
Solution 1.
The mixture of sperms and secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper’s gland is known as sperm (bulbo -urethral gland).

Question 2. Describe the functions of the following. 
(a) Inguinal canal 
(b) Prostate gland 
(c) Testis 
(d) ovary
(e) Oviduct

Solution 2. 
(a) Inguinal canal: It is the canal that allows the testes, as well as their ducts, blood arteries, and nerves, to descend into the abdomen.
(b) Prostate gland: It’s a bilobed structure that covers the urethra and secretes an alkaline fluid into the sperm.
(c) Testis: A male reproductive organ is the testis. A scrotal sac descending outside the body cavity, containing a pair of testes. Male gametes are produced by sperm, which are produced by testes.
(d) Ovary: A female reproductive organ is the ovary. It makes ova, or female gametes.

Question 4. What are the accessory reproductive organs?
Solution 4.
All structures that aid in the transmission and meeting of two types of sex cells, fertilisation, and the growth and development of the egg up to the delivery of the baby are considered accessory reproductive organs. As an example. In females, the uterus is involved, while in males, the penis is involved.

Question 5. Differentiate between primary and accessory reproductive organs 

                   Primary Reproductive OrgansAccessory Reproductive Organs
Sex cells are produced by the primary reproductive organs.The accessory reproductive organs aid in the transfer and union of two types of sex cells, which leads to fertilisation.
The baby’s development is not aided by the primary reproductive organs.The auxiliary reproductive organs aid in the development and expansion of the egg until the baby is born.
Example. Testes in males and ovaries in females.Example. Penis in males, Uterus and Vagina in females.

Question 6. What is hymne?
Solution 6.
In young females, the hymen is a thin membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening.

Question 7. Define the following terms. 
(a) Hernia (b) Ovulation (c) Puberty

Solution 7.
(a) Hernia. It is an abnormal condition that occurs when the intestine bulges into the scrotum through the inguinal canal as a result of pressure in the abdomen.
(b) Ovulation. The rupture of the Graafian follicle causes the mature ovum to be released.
(c) Puberty. It is the time when a boy’s or girl’s immature reproductive system matures and becomes capable of reproduction.

Question 8. List any two changes each in human male and female, which occur during puberty.
Solution 8.
Changes in human male.
1. Development of Beard and moustache
2. Voice becomes deeper
Changes in human female.
1. Development of Breasts in females
2. Development of high pitched voice

Question 9. Differentiate between the following pairs.
(a) Menarche and menopause
(b) Bulbo-urethral gland and prostate gland
(c) Hymen and clitoris
(d) Uterus and vegina
(e) Efferent duct and sperm duct
Solution 9.
(a) Menarche is the start of menstruation in young females around the age of 13, and menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation around the age of 45.
(b) In human males, Cowper’s gland secretion serves as a lubricant, but in males, the prostate gland surrounds the urethra and its alkaline secretion neutralises acid in the vagina.
(c) In young females, the hymen is a thin membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening, whereas the clitoris is a tiny erectile structure found in the topmost angle of the vulva in front of the urethral opening.
(d) In the pelvic cavity, the uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped muscular organ. The vagina is the muscular tube stretching from the cervix to the outside, and it is where the embryo is implanted following fertilisation. The vagina accepts the male penis and allows the sperms to enter during sexual intercourse.
(e) The epididymis is formed when the efferent ducts connect, and the epididymis is continued along the side of the testes to produce the sperm duct or vas deferens.

D. Long Answer Type

Question 1. What is the significance of the testes being located in scrotal sacs outside the abdomen. Can there be any abnormal situation regarding their locations? If so, what is that and what is the harm caused due to it?
Solution 1.
The testes are in charge of producing male gametes, or sperms. The maturation of sperms is not possible at normal body temperatures. The temperature in the scrotal sac is 2 to 3°C since it is suspended outside the body cavity, which is the ideal temperature for sperm maturation.
The skin of the scrotum loosens in warmer weather, causing the testes to dangle down away from the body. When the skin becomes too chilly, it folds inward and brings the testes closer to the body for warmth.
The testes do not descend into the scrotum in an aberrant state during the embryonic stage. It can cause infertility or a lack of sperm production.

Question 2. Is it correct to say that the testes produce testosterone Discuss?
Solution 2.
The interstitial cells or Leydig cells create testosterone, which is the male reproductive hormone. The testes are home to these cells. They act as a packing tissue between the seminiferous tubules’ coils. As a result, the testes can be considered to create the male hormone testosterone.

Question 3. Suppose a normal woman has never borne a child; How many mature eggs would she have produced in her lifetime? Your calculation should be based on two clues
(a) Eggs are produced at the rate of 1 egg every 28 days (one menstrual cycle)
(b) A woman’s total reproductive period is 13 – 45 years.
Solution 3.
Total reproductive period = 45 – 13 = 32 years
Total eggs produced = 32×12 = 384 eggs approximately

E. Structured/Application/Skill Type

Question 1. Given below is a diagram of two system together in the human body
(a) Name the systems
(b) Name the parts numbers 1-10
(c) Describe the functions of the parts 3, 4, 5 & 6.

Solution 1.
(a) Excretory system and Female Reproductive system
(b) 1. Kidney
2. Ureter
3. Fallopian Tube
4. Infundibulum
5. Ovary
6. Uterus
7. Urinary Bladder
9. Vagina
10. Valva
(c) Part 3: Function of Fallopian Tube – The ovum discharged from the ovary travels through the fallopian tubes to the uterus.
Part 4: Function of Infundibulum – The infundibulum is the ovary’s funnel-shaped distal end, which takes up the released ovum and propels it into the fallopian tube.
Part 5: Function of Ovary – Female gametes, or ova, are produced by the ovary.
Part 6: Function of Uterus – The uterus permits the embryo to grow and develop.

Question 2. The following diagram represents the vertical sectional view of the human female reproductive system.

(a) Label the parts indicated by the guidelines 1 to 8
(b) How does the uterus prepare for the reception of zygote?
(c) What happens to the uterus, if fertilization fails to take place?
Solution 2.
1 Fallopian Tube
2 Infundibulum
3 Ureter
4 Vagina
5 Ovary
6 Uterus
7 Urinary Bladder
8 Urethra
(b) Oestrogen produced by the corpus luteum is secreted. Oestrogen causes the endometrial wall of the uterus to thicken. The uterine membrane thickens and receives a lot of blood in order to receive the fertilised egg.
(c) On the 28th day of the menstrual cycle, if fertilisation fails, the endometrial lining of the uterus begins to shed. Finally, as part of the menstrual flow, it is expelled along with the unfertilized ovum.

Question 3. Given below is the schematic diagram of the sectional view of the human male reproductive system.

(a) Name the parts numbered 1-11
(b) State the functions of the parts numbered 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 and 11
Solution 3.

1 – Seminal vesicles
2 – Prostate gland
3 – Bulbo-urethral gland
4 – Epididymis
5 – Testis
6 – Scrotum
7 – Urinary bladder
8 – Vas deferens
9 – Erectile tissue
10 – Penis
11 – Urethra
(b) Functions of
(i) Functions of Seminal vesicles: They make the fluid that is used to transfer sperm.
(ii) Functions of Prostate gland: It secretes an alkaline secretion that combines with the sperm and aids in the neutralisation of vaginal acids.
(iii) Functions of Bulbo-urethral gland: It secretes a lubricant that allows the semen to travel through the urethra with ease.
(v) Functions of Testis: It is responsible for the production of male gamete sperm as well as the male sex hormone testosterone.
(viii) Functions of Vas deferens: They are responsible for transporting sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
(xi) Functions of Urethra: Urethra is a type of urethra. It acts as a conduit for sperm delivery into the vaginal canal.

Exercise 2

A. Multiple Choice Type.

Question 1. In humans, the fertilization takes place in.
(a) Uterus
(b) Oviduca funnel
(c) Fallopian tube
(d) vagina

Solution .

fallopian tube

Question 2. The middle piece of sperm provides.
(a) energy
(b) food
(c) gene
(d) chromosomes

Solution .


Question 3. The normal gestation period in humans is.
(a) 270 days
(b) 290 days
(c) 280 days
(d) 295 days

Solution .

280 days

B. Very Short Answer Type.

Question 1. Name the following.
(a) The fluid surrounding the developing embryo
(b) The body part in which the embryo develops.
(c) The membrane which protects the foetus and encloses a fluid
(d) The canal through which the testes descend into the scrotum just before birth in human male child.
Solution 1.
(a) Amniotic fluid
(b) Uterus
(c) Amniotic membrane
(d) Inguinal canal

Question 2. Choose the odd one in each of the following.
(a) Sperm; implantation; fertilization; ovum; afterbirth
(b) Relaxin; cervix dilated; amniotic sac ruptures; child birth; follicle.
Solution 2.
(a) Sperm
(b) Follicle

Question 3. Rewrite the terms in the correct order so as to be in a logical sequence.
(a) Implantation → Ovulation → child birth → gestation → fertilization.
(b) coitus → ovum → Sperm → sperm duct → urethra → Vagina.
Solution 3.
(a) Ovulation → fertilization → implantation → gestation child birth
(b) Sperm → sperm duct → urethra → coitus → vagina → ovum

Question 4. Give appropriate terms for each of the following.
(a) The onset of reproductive phase in a female.
(b) Rupture of follicle and release of ovum from the ovary.
(c) Monthly discharge of blood and disintegrated tissues in human female
(d) Process of fusion of ovum and sperm
(e) Fixing of developing zygote (blastocyst) on the uterine wall.
Solution 4.
(a) Menarche
(b) Ovulation
(c) Menstruation
(d) Fertilization
(e) Implantation

Question 5. Match the items in column I with those in column II and write down the matching pairs (some may not match)

Column IColumn II
(a) Acrosome(i) An embryo which looks like human baby
(b) Gestation(ii) Luteinizing hormone
(c) Menopause(iii) ovum producing cells
(d) Foetus(iv) complete stoppage of menstrual cycle
(e) Oogenesis(v) spermatozoa
(f) Ovulation(vi) Complete stoppage of menstrual cycle.
 (vii) Time taken by a fertilized egg till the delivery of baby.

Solution 5. 

Column IColumn II
(a) Acrosome(v) spermatozoa
(b) Gestation(vii) Time taken by a fertilized egg till the delivery of baby.
(c) Menopause(vi) Complete stoppage of menstrual cycle.
(d) Foetus(i) An embryo which looks like human baby.
(e) Oogenesis(iii) ovum producing cells
(f) Ovulation(ii) Luteinizing hormone

C. Short Answer Type.

Question 1. (a) State whether the following statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).
(i) Fertilisation occurs in vagina 
(ii) Uterus is also known as birth canal 
(iii) Nutrition and oxygen diffuse from the mother’s blood into the foetus’s blood through
(iv) Gestation period in humans is about 380 days. 
(b) Rewrite any two of the wrong statements by correcting only one word either at the  beginning or at the end of the sentences.

Solution 1. 
(i) False
(ii) False
(iii) False
(iv) False
(i) The fallopian tube is where fertilisation takes place.
(ii) The birth canal is another name for the vaginal canal.
(iii) The placenta transports nutrition and oxygen from the mother’s blood to the foetus’s blood. (iv) The human gestation period is approximately 280 days.

Question 2. Complete the following table by writing the name of the structure or the function of the given structure. 

1. Corpus luteum1. ……
2. …..2. produces male gametes in mass
3. Placental disc3. ……
4. ……4. increases the force in uterine contractions during child birth
5. Umbilical cord5. …….
6. Fallopian tube6. ……

Solution 2.

1. Corpus luteum1. Secretes progesterone & other hormones to prepare the uterine wall for the receival of the embryo.
2. Testes2. produces male gametes in mass
3. Placental disc3. supplies oxygen and nutrients to embryo
4. Oxytocin4. increases the force in uterine contractions during child birth
5. Umbilical cord5. connects placenta with foetus
6. Fallopian tube6. The site of fertilization for the sperm and ovum

Question 3. Given below are the names of certain stages/substances related to reproduction and found in human body. Answer the questions related to them.
(a) Foetus.
• Where is it contained?
• How does it differ from embryo?
(b) Hyaluronidase
• Is it an enzyme or simply a protein?
• What is its function?
(c) Morula.
• What is this stage?
• Name the stage which comes next to it?
(d) Amniotic fluid.
• Where is it found?
• What are its functions?
(e) Gestation
• What is its meaning?
• How long does it normally last?
(f) Placenta
• What are the two sources that form placenta?
• Name any two main substances which pass from foetus to mother through placenta
• Name any two hormones it produces
(g) Implantation
• The development stage that undergoes this process
• The approximate time after fertilization, when it occurs. 
Solution 3.
(a) Foetus.
• It is contained in the uterus.
• In foetus, limbs have appeared and resembles the humans unlike the embryo which is a growing or dividing zygote.
(b) Hyaluronidase.
• Enzyme.
• It is an enzyme secreted by the sperm that allows the sperm to penetrate the egg.
(c) Morula.
• It is the stage in the development of human embryo which consists of a spherical mass of cells.
• Blastocyst
(d) Amniotic fluid.
• Between amnion and embryo
• It protects the embryo from physical damage, keeps the pressure all around embryo and prevents sticking of foetus to amnion.
(e) Gestation.
• Gestation is the full term of the development of an embryo in the uterus.
• 280 days in humans.
(f) Placenta.
• The villi are two pairs of tiny finger-like structures that make up the placenta. The uterine wall provides one set of villi, while the allantois provides the other.
• Oxygen and amino acids.
• Progesterone and oestrogen.
(g) Implantation.
• Blastocyst
• It occurs in about 5-7 days after ovulation.

D. Long Answer Type

Question 1. Differentiate between.
(a) Semen and sperm
(b) Implantation and pregnancy
(c) Follicle and corpus luteum
(d) Amnion and allantois
(e) Impotency and sterility
(f) Prostate gland and cowper’s gland (the nature of secretion)
(g) Identical twins and fraternal twins
Solution 1.
(a) The male gamete produced by the testes is sperm. On the other side, sperm and alkaline secretions from the seminal vesicle, prostate gland, and Cowper’s gland make up sperm.
(b) Implantation is the process of securing an embryo in the uterine wall. Pregnancy is the state that results from implantation.
(c) The cellular sac enclosing a developing egg is known as a folicle. The corpus luteum, on the other hand, is the follicular remnant that releases the ovum during ovulation.
(d) An amnion is a sac that forms around the embryo, whereas an allantois is an extension of the embryo that generates placental villi.
(e) The inability to generate sperm is referred to as sterility, whereas the inability to copulate is referred to as impotency.
(f) The prostate gland secretes alkaline secretions into the sperm to neutralise the acid in the female’s vagina, while Cowper’s gland secretion acts as a lubricant.
(g) Identical twins are created when one ovum is fertilised, which means one developing zygote splits into two foetuses, whereas fraternal twins are created when two ova are fertilised at the same time.

Question 2. Name and describe very briefly the stages in the development of human embryo.
Solution 2.
(a) A zygote is created inside the fallopian tube after fertilisation.
(b) The zygote divides again and again, eventually becoming a spherical mass of cells known as a ‘Morula.
(c) The morula then matures into a hollow sphere of cells with a cellular layer surrounding it and an inner cell mass protruding from the centre. The ‘blastocyst’ is the name for this stage. It makes an incision in the uterine wall.

(d) A three-week-old embryo emerges from the blastocyst. It’s a little creature that bears little resemblance to a human.
(e) The embryo has a formed heart and blood vessels by the end of 5 weeks.
(f) Limbs are developed by the conclusion of the 8-week period. The term ‘foetus’ refers to this stage.
(g) The infant is born after about 40 weeks of gestation, i.e. at the end of the gestation period.

Question 3. Describe the functions of
(a) Amnion (b) placenta
Solution 3.
(a) Amnion: Amnion is the first name that comes to mind. The amniotic fluid that surrounds the embryo is contained in the amnion.
The embryo is shielded from physical harm by this fluid. It keeps a constant pressure on the embryo.
It also prevents the foetus from attaching to the amnion.
b) The placenta: The placenta allows oxygen and nutrients including glucose, vitamins, and amino acids to pass from the mother to the unborn.
It also allows carbon dioxide, urea, and waste materials to diffuse from the foetus to the mother.
The placenta also serves as an endocrine organ. It produces the hormones oestrogen and progesterone.

E. Structured/Application/Skill Type

Question 1. The diagram below represents two reproductive cells A and B. study the same and then answer the questions that follow.

(a) Identify the reproductive cells A and B
(b) Name the specific part of the reproductive system where the above cells are produced.
(c) Where in the female reproductive system do these cells unite?
(d) Name the main hormones secreted by the (1) ovary (2) testes
(e) Name an accessory gland found in the male reproductive system and state the function of its secretion.
Solution 1.
a. A – ovum
B – sperm
b. Sperms are produced in the testis.
The ovum is produced in the ovary.
c. The reproductive cells unite in the fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system.
d. Ovary – Oestrogen and progesterone
Testis – Testosterone
e. Accessory glands.
• Seminal vesicle – Seminal fluid
• Prostate gland – Alkaline secretion
• Bulbo-urethral gland – Lubricant

Question 2. The diagram given alongside is that of a developing human foetus in the womb. Study the same and answer the questions that follows.
(a) Name the parts ‘l’to 5′ indicated by guidelines
(b) What term is given to the period of development of the foetus in the womb?
(c) How many days does the foetus take to be fully developed?
(d) Mention two functions of the parts labeled “2’other than its endocrine function
(e) Name (any one) hormone produced by the part labelled “2’

Solution 2.
1 – umbilical cord,
2 – placenta,
3 – amnion,
4 – mouth of uterus,
5 – muscular wall of uterus
(b) Gestation
(c) 280 days
(d) The placenta supplies oxygen and nutrition to the foetus. Furthermore, the placenta eliminates carbon dioxide and the foetus’ waste products.
(e) Progesterone

Question 3. Given below is a portion of the diagram to show the diagrammatic highly magnified view of a single human sperm. Complete the diagram to show its normal structure.

Solution 3.

Question 4. The figure given alongside represents the female reproductive system of a mammal.
(a) Name the parts labelled A – D 
(b) What will happen if the part sides B on both gets blocked?

Solution 4
(a) A Muscular wall of uterus,
B – Oviduct,
C – Ovary,
D – Cervix
(b) If component B is obstructed, the ovum produced from the ovary will not be fertilised by the sperm, preventing pregnancy.

Question 5. Given below is the outline of the male reproductive system. Name the parts labelled 1 to 5.

Solution 5. 
1 – Prostate gland
2 – Bulbo-urethral gland
3 – Urethra
4 – Vas deferens
5 – Testis

Selina ICSE Class 10 Biology Solutions Chapter 10 The Reproductive System