# Selina ICSE Class 10 Biology Solutions Chapter 11 Population The Increasing Numbers and Rising Problems

#### Review QuestionsMultiple Choice Type:

Question 1: What was directly responsible for the rapid rise of world population in the twentienth century?
(a) Increased food production
(b) Better transport facilities
(c) Better education and job prospects
(d) Use of antibiotics and prophylactic vaccinations

Solution :

Use of antibiotics and prophylactic vaccinations

Question 2: Birth rate is the number of live births
(a) Per 1000 people per year
(b) Per 100 people per decade
(c) Per 1000 people per decade
(d) Per 100 people per year

Solution :

Per 1000 people per year

Question 1: Give the technical term for the statistical study of human population of a region
Solution 1:
Demography

Question 2: Name two surgical techniques (one for the human male and another for the human female) that can be used to prevent pregnancy.
Solution 2:
Two surgical techniques (one for the human male and another for the human female) that can be used to prevent pregnancy are :
(i) Tubectomy (For Female)
(ii) Vasectomy (For Male)

Question 1: Write true (T) or false (F) for the following:
(a) Vasectomy is the surgical method of sterilization in human males………….
(b) Tubectomy is the placing of a diaphragm on the cervix……………………..
Solution 1:
(a) True
(b) False

Question 2: What is the total world population at present?
Solution 2:
It is 7 billion approximately.

Question 3: Define the following terms:
(a) Birth rate
(b) Death rate
(c) Rate of growth of population
(d) Population density
(e) Exhaustible resource
Solution 3:
(a) Birth Rate: The rate at which new individuals are born in a population per unit period is also known as the natality rate. It is the number of live births per 1000 people of population per year. It is computed by dividing the total number of offspring born by the total population members.
(b) Death Rate: The rate at which persons in a population die per unit time is known as the mortality rate. It is the number of deaths per 1000 of population per year. It’s computed by dividing the total number of fatalities by the population’s total members. Environmental factors like as predation, resource competition, and so on can affect the death rate.
(c) Rate of growth of population: It is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. As long as the birth rate exceeds the death rate, the population grows. If the birth rate is lower than the death rate, the population declines.
(d) Population density: It is the number of individuals per square kilometer (Km2) at any given time.
(e) Exhaustible resource: Exhaustible resources are the once which are perished by the prolonged us and they can never be renewed or replaced.

Question 4: Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) Give reason in support of your answer.
(a) Cow was the first domesticated animal
(b) Rapidly growing industries favoured population rise
(c) Present human population growth is following arithmetic progression
(d) Birth rate (natality is the number of live births per hundred people of population per decade.
(e) Tubectomy is a popular surgical method of contraception in human males
Solution 4:
(a) False.
Dog was the first domesticated animal.
(b) True.
Rapidly expanding industries made human life more comfortable by expanding job opportunities and increasing food output. All of this aided population growth.
(c) False.
The current rate of human population expansion follows a geometrical pattern.
(d) False.
The annual number of live births per 1000 people is known as the birth rate (natality).
(e) False.
In human males, vasectomy is the surgical method of contraception, while in females, tubectomy is the surgical procedure.

Question 5: What is the present rate of growth of population of the world and of our own country?
Solution 5:
The global population growth rate is 1.092 percent (resulting in around 145 net additions to the global population every minute or 2.4 every second, according to 2011 estimates), while India’s rate is 1.344 percent.

Question 6: What are the age restrictions for marriage by law for boys and girls in india?
Solution 6:
Boys must be 21 years old and girls must be 18 years old, according to the law.

Question 7: Give two advantages of a small family
Solution 7:
Two advantages of small family are:
(a) Parents have more time to devote to their children.
(b) Every country benefit from small families in terms of population control.

Question 8: Mention two reasons for the rapid increase of population in india
Solution 8:
(a) Illiteracy:
The vast majority of our society’s rural population is still illiterate, ignorant, and superstitious.
They also have little understanding of how the human reproductive system works.
Children are viewed as a gift from God and a symbol of success among those from lower social strata.
As a result, they make no attempt to avoid becoming pregnant.

Question 9: Some great author has said that a population explosion is far more dangerous than an atomic explosion. Justify his statement?
Solution 9:
Although population growth is not the only threat to humanity, it will play a significant role in the crises that will confront us and the planet in the coming century. Overpopulation puts all of us at risk of severe environmental and social consequences, which we are already seeing. The Earth and its resources are being severely strained by the exponential increase in human population. Each human has a distinct impact on the environment of the globe. Some people may be less harmful to the environment than others, but no one is without an ecological footprint. To put it another way, everyone need fundamental resources, but practically everyone aspires to use far more resources than are necessary by their basic needs. As a result, the Earth is seeking to enforce its own population controls.
These “checks” can be seen in the form of widespread sickness and the rise of new disease strains, food and water shortages, bad harvests, and climate change-related severe and catastrophic weather. While it should go without saying that the Earth is a finite sphere that cannot support limitless development by any single species, we must keep in mind that the existing web of life on Earth is the consequence of billions of years of complicated evolution. It can’t be replaced.
When we consider the next 40 years, we can see that the most significant population increases will occur in places of our planet where natural resources and modern infrastructure are already sparse. 95 percent of the world’s population growth occurs in countries where poverty, illiteracy, and civil upheaval already exist. It will put even more strain on already stressed ecological systems and exacerbate poverty in most of the developing world, posing new dangers to international security.
As a result, an author’s assertion that “some great author has said that a population increase is considerably more harmful than an atomic explosion” is correct.

Question 10: Explain briefly the relationship between poverty and population and how one affects the other.
Solution 10:
Since the globe has changed due to significant revolutions, poverty and population have been inextricably intertwined. Poverty has its own consequences on the population, as well as the other way around. Poverty prevails in the economically disadvantaged strata due to ignorance and conventional beliefs. People in this strata consider children as a gift from God and a symbol of success due to illiteracy and archaic beliefs. They saw children as helping hands in boosting family income, thus they continue to produce more children, oblivious to the fact that their existing status would be detrimental to the children and would contribute to the already overburdened poverty strata. As a result, both the population and poverty continue to rise. As the population grows, so does the quality of life.

Question 11: List three major landmarks in human history which contributed to the sudden rise in population of the world.
Solution 11:
(i) Tool making revolution.
(ii) Agricultural revolution.
(iii) Scientific industrial revolution.

Question 12: What was the approximate Indian population according to the 1981 census? What was it in 1991?
Solution 12:
The Indian population was 685 million in 1981, and 846 million in 1991, according to census data.

Question 13: Sterilization in men means preventing the flow of sperms into the seminal vesicles by cutting or ligaturing the vas deferens. Can there be a corresponding operation made in women? If yes, where?
Solution 13:

Yes, a similar operation might be performed on women. In females, the surgical treatment is known as a ‘tubectomy.’ Tubectomy involves opening the abdomen and cutting or ligating the fallopian tubes (oviducts) to prevent the egg from passing through.

Question 14: What is meant by family welfare centres? What is the symbols of family welfare in our country?
Solution 14:

Family welfare centres are locations where anyone can get free aid or counselling on family planning. These locations could include hospitals, dispensaries, and other medical facilities. In India, the inverted red triangle represents family welfare

Question 15: List the advantages of having small families.
Solution 15:
Some of the benefits of having a small family are listed below:
(i) The size of the family has a significant impact on the family’s financial situation. A large family’s living expenses are unquestionably higher than those of a small household. A large family spends more on clothing, toys, education, and food, whereas a tiny family spends very little.
(ii) One or two children’s requirements can be easily met by parents. They can provide them the best education and care for them, however when there are many children to look after, parents are unable to meet even the most basic demands of the children. As a result, children, parents, and the nation all suffer as a result of this.
(iii) A child from a small family receives greater parental support than a child from a large household. Because parents in large families have many children to care for, they are unable to provide the best possible assistance to all of them, but parents in small families can provide greater support to children because they only have one or two children to care for.
(iv) Family size has an impact on health, particularly the health of the mother and child. Both the mother and the children may become unwell as a result of many pregnancies. It has the potential to harm women’s health. It jeopardises the health of both the mother and the child. As a result, having a small family ensures a healthy and happy family.

Question 1: Our resources cannot keep pace with the rising population. Give three examples in support of this statement.
Solution 1:
(i) Food: Food is the first and most important need of humans (or any other living entity). However, while food production rises in arithmetic progression and population rises in a geometric development, the number at each level multiplies. At the same time, as the population grows, more agricultural land is being used to build residences. As a result, it is clear that food will become scarce as the world’s population continues to grow unchecked.
(ii) Land: Man is cultivating an increasing amount of land while also devoting more space to the construction of residential colonies, factories, and industries. As a result, available land would become scarcer.
(iii) Water: The availability of clean, germ-free water for drinking purposes will become increasingly scarce as the population grows; the primary cause will be contamination of rivers, ponds, lakes, and other bodies of water.

Question 2: How can the knowledge of processes of reproduction help people in limiting the size of their families? Give two concrete examples
Solution 2:
(i) With education, the traditional notion of having at least one son, especially in Indian society, should be adjusted. People should be taught that their desire for a son can lead to a large number of children in the home, compromising their family’s health and riches. They should concentrate on providing a good upbringing for the child, whether it is a son or a daughter.
(ii) Married couples should be taught to postpone the birth of their first kid, space the second with enough space for healthy upbringing, and avoid having a third child. They should also be taught how to use family planning strategies to avoid having more than two children. Condoms, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and oral tablets are examples of these devices for both men and women.

Question 3: What is the idea behind the phrase “ population explosion”?
Solution 3:
For developing countries like India, population explosion is a plague that is jeopardising the country’s and society’s progress. The developing world already has a scarcity of resources, and as the population grows, the resources available per person shrinks even more, resulting in increased poverty, starvation, and other large-scale population-related issues. The exact definition of population is “the total number of people or occupants in a country or region,” and the literal definition of population explosion is “the pyramiding of biological population numbers. Poverty, greater medical facilities, and immigration from neighbouring nations are all contributing factors to this population growth. India’s population continues to rise at an alarming rate. The repercussions of this population growth can be seen in rising poverty, unemployment, air and water pollution, and food, health, and educational resource shortages.

#### Structured / Application /Skills Type:

Question 1: Given below are hypothetical figures in regard to population (in crores) of two countries A and B during the last three decades.

#### Fill in the blanks:

(a) Rate of growth of population of country ……….. has declined between years …………
and ………….

Solution :

B; 1981; 1991.

(b) The country …………… shows negative population growth between years and
…………

Solution :

B; 1981; 1991.

(c) The country …………….. shows zero population growth between years and
………………….

Solution :

B; 1971; 1981.