# Frank ICSE Class 10 Biology Solutions Chapter 12 Human Population

Question 1. Define the following:
(i) Population
(ii) Sanitation
(iii) Deforestation
(iv) Birth control
(v) Rhythm method
(vi) Abstainence
(vii) Test-tube baby
(viii) Birth rate
(ix) Death rate
(x) Population density
(xi) Natality
Solution 1:
(i) Population: The total number of individuals of a species found in a given area is referred to as the population.
(ii) Sanitation: This refers to the creation and implementation of public health measures.
(iii) Deforestation: When a forest or a stand of trees is removed from an area, the area is transformed to a non-forest usage.
(iv) Birth control: This is an attempt to limit the number of births in a family such that no more than two children are born to a couple.
(v) Rhythm method: This is a natural form of birth control in which the pair tries to have sexual relations a week before and after their menstrual cycle.
(vi) Abstinence: Abstinence is the act or practise of refraining from doing something
(vii) Test-tube baby: A test-tube baby is born from an egg fertilised outside the body and put in the uterus of the biological or surrogate mother.
(viii) Birth rate: This refers to the total number of live births per thousand persons in a given year.
(ix) Death rate: This is the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals in a given year.
(x) Population density: At any given time, it is the total number of individuals of a specific species in relation to unit area.
(xi) Natality: This refers to the number of live births per thousand individuals in a given year.

Question 2. Name the technical term used for the difference between birth rate and death rate in a population.
Solution 2:
The technical term used for the difference between birth rate and death rate in a population is growth rate.

Question 3. Name the statistical study of the human population of a region.
Solution 3:
The statistical study of the human population of a region Is Demography

Question 4. Suggest two important methods for birth control.
Solution 4:
Below are the common methods for birth control:
(i) Vasectomy
(ii) Tubectomy

Question 5. Mention any two reasons for the rapid increase of population in India recently.
Solution 5:
The following are the two factors that have contributed to India’s recent high population growth:
(i) Scientific and technological advancements
(ii) Improved health-care facilities

Question 6. What are the age restrictions for marriages by law for boys and girls in India?
Solution 6:
The age restrictions for marriages by law for boys are 21 years and for girls is 18 years in India.

Question 7. (i) “Our resources cannot keep pace with the rising population.” Give three examples in support of this statement.
(ii) Suggest any three steps which may be taken towards controlling the rapid rise in human population in India.
Solution 7:
(i) “Our resources are unable to keep up with the increasing population.”
1. While population grows geometrically, food production grows arithmetically.
2. Increasing population puts a strain on natural resources such as water, land, and forests.
3. The scarcity of fuel is worsening by the day.
(ii) The following are three things that could be adopted to control India’s rapid population growth:
1. Education: Individuals should be educated on the benefits of having a small family.
2. Marriageable age: Population control can be achieved by raising the marriageable age.
3. Planning a family: Family planning, which includes birth control and contraception, can help to limit population growth.

Question 8. What are the main drawbacks of a large population?
Solution 8:
The main disadvantages of a big population are that it may result in a scarcity of basic resources such as food, water, and fuel, which would make existence impossible. Furthermore, overcrowding can result in infections, poverty, and unemployment, among other things.

Question 9. What steps has the Indian Government taken to control population?
Solution 9:
The Indian government has taken the following steps to control population:
1. Establishment of health centres to advise and assist people with family planning.
2. Condoms and other barrier contraceptives are freely distributed.

Question 10. Give two advantages of a small family.
Solution 10:
A small family has two advantages:
(i) Children can be given with good health and education, as well as the fundamental necessities of life.
(ii) The family’s living levels may be high.

Question 11. What do you understand by population explosion? Discuss its consequences.
Solution 11:
The term “population explosion” refers to a population growth rate that is very high. Overcrowding, as well as a scarcity of resources like as food, water, land, and fuel, may be the result of population boom. Unemployment, poverty, social unrest, epidemics, and violence are all possible outcomes.

Question 12. What is meant by “population density”? What is the operation made in women to prevent the flow of eggs into oviducts?
Solution 12:
The quantity of people per square kilometre at any given time is known as population density. Tubectomy is a procedure that prevents eggs from flowing into the oviduct in women.

Question 13. Mention two reasons for the decline in death rate in India in recent times.
Solution 13:
The two explanations for the recent fall in India’s death rate are as follows:
(i) Advancement in medical knowledge, which results in a lower morality rate.
(ii) Longevity as a result of improved food and health services.

Question 14. What is the symbol of family welfare in our country?
Solution 14:

‘Inverted Red Triangle’ is the symbol of family welfare in our country.

Question 15. What is meant by family welfare centres?
Solution 15:
In hospitals and other health facilities, family welfare centres are established to advocate for small families and to encourage family welfare and planning. These centers provide free counseling on topics such as family planning, child spacing, and so on.

Question 16. Suggest some methods of fertility control in men and women.
Solution 16:
Men and women can use the following strategies to manage their fertility:
Vasectomy is a male fertility control procedure. A tiny part of the vas deferens is cut and knotted at both ends in this approach.
Tubectomy is a fertility control procedure in which the fallopian tubes are cut and tied at both ends in women.

Question 17. Name the surgical method of contraception in human female.
Solution 17:
The surgical method of contraception in human female tubectomy.

Question 18. Give the appropriate term for the following:
(i) The number of persons per square kilometre (km2) at any given time.
(ii) Death rate.
Solution 18:
(i) The number of persons per square kilometre (km2) at any given time:- Population density
(ii) Death rate:- Mortality

Question 19. Why resources cannot keep pace with the rising population? Give two reasons.
Solution 19:
(i) Demand for resources is far greater than the supply. We cannot keep resources with the expanding population. The population is increasing geometrically like 1 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 8, while resources can only expand arithmetically like 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4.
(ii) The villages are converted into new towns and cities for accommodate population. It is putting over burden on agricultural lands.

#### Question 20. State whether the following statements are true or false:

(i) Birth rate is the number of live births per hundred of the population.

Solution :

False

(ii) Present human population growth is following arithmetic progression.

Solution :

False

(iii) Rapidly growing industries favoured population rise.

Solution :

True

(iv) Use of a condom for contraception is a barrier method.

Solution :

True

(v) Tubectomy is performed on females.

Solution :

True

#### Question 21. Fill in the blanks:

(i) The last census in India was taken in the year ______.

Solution :

2011

(ii) ______ is the size of the population in relation to unit area at a given time.

Solution :

Population density

(iii) Sex ratio is the number of ______ per thousand ______.

Solution :

females / males .

(iv) Primitive man began existence about ______ million years back.

Solution :

(v) ______ is the total number of live births per thousand people per year.

Solution :

(vi) ______ is the total number of deaths per thousand people per year.

Solution :

(vii) ______ is simply the number of individuals belonging to different age groups.

Solution :

Age ratio

Question 22.  The diagram shown below represents a surgical sterilization method in males. Study the same and answer the Qs that follow:
(i) Name the parts marked A, B, C, D and E.
(ii) Give the name of the surgical method represented in the diagram.
(iii) Which part is ligated or cut?
(iv) Name the corresponding surgical method conducted on females.
(v) Name the part which is ligated in females and why?

Solution 22:
(i)

(ii) The surgical method represented in the diagram vasectomy.
(iii) The part is ligated or cut is Vas deferens.
(iv) The corresponding surgical method conducted on females Tubectomy.
(v) The part which is ligated in females is Fallopian tube. This is done to prevent the flow of eggs into the oviduct and its fusion with the sperm.

#### Question 23. Choose the correct answer:

(i) Birth rate in developing countries is
(a) 10
(b) 20
(c) 30
(d) 39

Solution :

20

(ii) World population doubles in
(a) 15 years
(b) 20 years
(c) 30 years
(d) 35 years

Solution :

35 years

(iii) The present world population is about
(a) 500 million
(b) 100 million
(c) 5 billion
(d) 7 billion

Solution :

7 billion

(iv) In 1991 population of India was:
(a) 680 million
(b) 550 million
(c) 840 million
(d) 1000 million

Solution :

840 million

(v) Maximum physiological ability to produce offspring is
(a) birth rate
(b) carrying capacity
(c) biotic potential
(d) population growth

Solution :

biotic potential

(vi) Zero population growth means
(a) no new births
(b) no immigration
(c) loss and gain are equal
(d) no emigration

Solution :

Loss and gain are equal

(vii) Reasons for increase in human population are
(a) few diseases and good health.
(b) low child mortality and few diseases.
(c) decrease in death rate and increase in longevity.
(d) availability of medicines and few diseases.

Solution :

Decrease in death rate and increase in longevity

(viii) An IUCD is
(a) pill
(b) casectomy
(c) condom
(d) copper-T

Solution :

Copper-T

(ix) The oral contraceptive contains
(a) thyroxine
(b) LH
(c) GH
(d) Progesterone

Solution :

Progesterone

(x) The purpose of vasectomy is
(a) to make the tests atrophy.
(b) to stop the production of sperms.
(c) to prevent the presence of sperms in the semen.
(d) to kill the sperms present in the semen.

Solution :

To prevent the presence of sperms in the semen