Multiple Choice Questions:
Question 1. Put a tick mark (✓) against the correct alternative in the following statements:
(i) Which one of the following is an indigenous breed of dairy cows?
Solution: (c) Sahiwal
(ii) Which one of the following is the common breed of buffalo found in Gujarat?
Solution: (d) Mehsana
(iii) Identify the indigenous breed of poultry of India:
a. White leghorn
Solution: (c) Aseel
(iv) Which one of the following is a Rabi crop
Solution: (d) Wheat
(v) Identify the Kharif crop:
Solution: (c) Rice
(vi) One of the following is a bacterial disease of sheep and goat. Identify it.
a. Sore mouth
c. Goat pox
Solution: (d) Brucellosis
(vii) Which one of the following is a bacterial disease of cattle in which the animal gets swelling on body parts, especially on the neck?
a. Cow pox
Solution: (b) Anthrax
(viii) The plants that live for more than two years are called:
Solution: (b) Perennials
(ix) Which one of the following is a viral disease of poultry?
a. Ranikhet disease
Solution: (a) Ranikhet disease
Question 1. Fill in the blanks:
a) Cattle feed made from cereals and wheat is called_____________.
b) Rearing of birds for egg and meat is called _____________.
c) Animal food is rich in _____________.
a) Cattle feed made from cereals and wheat is called concentrates.
b) Rearing of birds for egg and meat is called poultry.
c) Animal food is rich in proteins.
Question 2. Name the following:
a. The popular indigienous breed of poultry of India. ______________
b. Rearing of honey bee. ______________
c. Architect of white revolution in India. ______________
d. A kashmiri goat which gives expensive wool. ______________
e. Scientist responsible for green revolution in India. ______________
a. The popular indigienous breed of poultry of India Aseel.
b. Rearing of honey bee is called apiculture.
c. Architect of white revolution in India Mr. Verghese Kurien.
d. A kashmiri goat which gives expensive wool kashmiri pashmina.
e. Scientist responsible for green revolution in India M.S. Swaminathan.
Question 3. Match the columns:
Question 4. Answer the following questions:
Question 1. Name any four animals which provide us food.
Buffalo, goat, pig, hen, fish give us food.
Question 2. Name any two dual purpose breeds of cattle.
Dangi and Tharparkar are dual purpose breeds of cattle.
Question 3. Give two examples of milch animals.
Cows, buffaloes, goat are milk yielding animals.
Question 4. Name any two high-yielding indigenous breeds of cow.
Gir, Sahiwal, Red sindhi are high yielding breeds of cow.
Question 5. Name four varieties of edible fishes of India.
Eel, Hilsa, Salmon, Sardine, Pomphret are edible fishes.
Question 6. Name two breeds of buffaloes.
Murrah, surti, mehsana are breeds of buffaloes.
Question 7. Name any two diseases of cattle caused by viruses.
Cow pox, foot and mouth disease.
Question 8. Name any two bacterial iiseases of cattle.
Anthrax and rinderpest are bacterial diseases of cattle.
Question 9. What are the symptoms of foot and mouth disease?
Blisters on the foot and mouth, high body temperature, reduced appetite are symptoms of foot and mouth disease.
Question 10. Name two bacterial diseases of poultry.
Fowl cholera, salmonellosis, coryze are bacterial diseases.
Question 5. Briefly explain the following terms:
1. Animal husbandry
1. Animal husbandry: Animal husbandry is the area of biology that deals with feeding, housing, caring for, and reproducing domesticated animals.
2. Sericulture: Sericulture is the artificial cultivation of silk worms for the purpose of harvesting their silk.
3. Aquaculture: Aquaculture is the cultivation and farming of aquatic animals such as fish, prawns, shrimp, mollusks, lobsters, etc.
4. Hatcheries: We maintain tiny nurseries where water is kept in tiny pits and fish seeds are planted (fish eggs). After hatching, these fish eggs produce very little fish. Then these small fish are transferred to big ponds. These small nurseries where eggs hatch to give small fish are called hatcheries.
5. Pisciculture: It deals with production and management of fishes. It is a scientific, systematic way of rising of fishes, their multiplication, their production and management. So it is used as food in a sensible way.
Question 6. What is organic farming?
Growing crops without using synthetic fertilisers and pesticides is known as organic farming. Farmers apply scientifically prepared organic manure. They combine crop rotation, hand weeding, mixed cropping, and biological management to maintain soil fertility and control weeds and pests.
Long Answer Questions:
Question 1. Differentiate between an egger and a broiler.
Below are the differences between the egger and the broiler:
Question 2. Name any two exotic breeds of fowl in India, and mention their usefulness.
Exotic bird breeds in India include:
1. White leghorn: Due to its modest size and low maintenance feed requirements. Raising it is hence economical. It produces white, oval eggs.
2. Rhode Island Red: This breed is useful for both egg production and meat production because it is a good egg layer. In Rhode Island, America, a farm was used to raise it. As a result, it is called Rhode Island red.
Question 3. What are “milch animals”? Give three examples of exotic breeds of cow.
“Milch animals” are animals that produce milk. Milk animals include cows, buffaloes, goats, and camels, among other creatures. In some cases, goat milk is preferable to cow milk because it is healthier. But goats generate significantly less milk than cows and buffaloes do. While cow milk is highly nutritious and simple to digest, cows produce less milk than buffaloes do. Our nation’s primary dairy animal is the buffalo. For Example: Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, and Jersey.
Question 4. What is the meaning of the term “aquaculture”? Name any three animals which can be cultured by this method.
Aquaculture is the practise of breeding useful aquatic organisms in many types of water bodies. This method can be used to raise a variety of creatures, including fish, prawns, lobsters, mollusks, and others.
Question 5. Differentiate between food crops and cash crops and give two examples of each.
Question 6. What are Kharif crops? Give the name of the most important cereal plant of such crops. Briefly describe any three methods for cultivation of Kharif crops.
Kharif crops typically flourish during the wet season. The most significant Kharif crop grown in India is rice. It takes up the most space in India. It requires 150 to 200 cm of rain. During its growth, it needs fields that are submerged. Alluvial loamy soil is needed.
Techniques for cultivating Kharif crops:
1. Broadcasting: Rice seeds are tossed into the fields once the fields have been prepared for the crop. In regions with little rainfall, this technique is used. There isn’t an overflow of water in the fields. China and Japan are both using this approach.
2. Dabbling: Using this technique, seeds are plopped into the plough’s furrows at regular intervals.
3. Planting: The seeds are soaked for 24 hours in this step and sprouting of the seeds. After that, nurseries receive these seeds. The seeds are grown here until they are 6 to 9 inches tall, at which point the seedlings are moved to specially prepared, ploughed, flooded fields. The seedlings then begin to emerge throughout the fields. The fields are then periodically watered and fertilized. The crop eventually reaches maturity and needs a temperature between 16 and 20 degrees Celsius to ripen. Crops are harvested manually or with the aid of combines when they are fully mature and the plants have turned a golden yellow.
Question 7. Name the two main crop seasons of India. Give three examples of the crops grown during each season.
India has two primary growing seasons:
1. Kharif season: The Kharif Season is the rainy season, which lasts from July to October. Milles, also known as Bajra and Jowar, paddy, maize, and cotton, are the main kharif crops.
2. Rabi season: From November through April is the winter season, which is referred to as Rabi season. Rabi crops include wheat, gramme, peas, linseed, and mustard.
Question 8. List the uses of bacteria in the food industry.
The following industrial processes require bacterial activity.
1. In the production of cheese, butter, and vinegar.
2. The preparation of sponges and the tanning of hides in the production of leather.
3. The separation of hemp and flax fibres, which are used to make ropes and linen fabric.
4. The fermentation of green plants to provide ensilage for use in animal feeding.
5. Lactic acid, vinegar, citric acid, and vitamins are produced by bacteria.
6. Vitamin B complex is required for the production of vaccinations, serums, and antibiotics.
Question 9. Name any one variety of edible mushrooms.
The two types of edible mushrooms are paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella) and white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporous). The common edible mushroom is grown in five main processes, which are listed below:
1. Composting: By combining the following ingredients in specific ratios, compost is created.
• Paddy straw or wheat,
• Chicken manure
• Fertilizer that is both organic and inorganic For about a week, this compost is stored at 50 degrees Celsius.
2. Spawning: Mycelium from the chosen type of mushroom is placed into the compost and allowed to spread for a few days.
3. Casting: To support the mushroom and add humidity, a thin layer of earth is put over the compost. Additionally, it delays the compost’s rapid drying and aids in temperature control.
4. Cropping and Harvesting: There are three stages of growth:
(a) Mycelium grows within two to six weeks (a network of fibrous material).
(b) Tiny pin heads.
(c) A growing button stage that reaches a marketable size. The mature mushrooms are removed.
5. Preserving: Mushrooms have a short shelf life. They have a longer shelf life thanks to a number of techniques.
(i) Vacuum cooling
(ii) Gamma radiation with storage at 15 °C
(iii) Freeze drying in a brine, ascorbic acid, and citric acid solution, etc.
Question 10. Mention the benefits of “Green revolution” in our country.
1. Green revolution was sparked by scientific knowledge, which greatly increased the output of grains, pulses, and other crops. One of the causes of it is the creation of high-yielding varieties.
2. The creation of early-maturing varieties.
3. disease-resistant genetic variants
4. Using insecticides and fertilizers.
5. Creation of dwarf and drought-resistant varieties.
In India, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan is credited for starting the “green revolution,” which has greatly increased the output of hybrid varieties of wheat and rice (wheat – Kalyan Sona and Sonalika, Rice – IR – 8 Padma, Jaya and Pusa 215, Maize – Ganga 101 and Rankit).
Question 11. Mention the benefits of “White revolution” in our country.
Below are the advantages of the “White Revolution” in our nation are:
1. This program’s goal was to connect dairy farmers in rural areas with metropolitan consumers.
2. Cooperatives of rural farmers were arranged at the village level and linked to urban consumers.
3. It made guaranteed that the dairy farmer received a sizable portion of the price that consumers pay for milk.
Question 12. Write briefly the processes of
1. Wine (alcohol) making and
2. Bread making
1. Wine (alcohol): Grapes are typically used to make wine. Grapes are crushed, and juice is drawn out. Wild yeast and sugar can be found in the juice. Alcohol is produced as a result of the sugar’s slow fermentation by the yeast.
2. Bread Making: To make bread, combine some flour and water with some sugar and yeast. The result is dough. After that, place the dough somewhere warm for about an hour. During this time, the living yeast cells multiply and release carbon dioxide gas as they ferment sugar to produce alcohol. The dough rises as a result of the gas created, about doubling in size. The heat from the oven kills the yeast and evaporates the alcohol when you bake the dough.
Question 13. Give any five features of good shelter for milch animals.
1. An animal shelter needs to be spotless, airy, and well-lit.
2. Cattle should have suitable shelters to protect them from the elements (rain, cold, and heat).
3. The floor should be properly sloped to allow for the easy removal of urine and excrement.
4. Animals need to have adequate feeding and drinking facilities.
5. There should not be excessive crowding and the animal shelter should be roomy.