Syllabus ICSE Class 10 Geography

ICSE Syllabus

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ICSE Class 10 Geography syllabus

Part – I
Map Work

1. Interpretation of Topographical Maps
a. Locating features with the help of a four figure or a six figure grid reference.
b. Definition of contour and contour interval. Identification of landforms marked by contours (steep slope, gentle slope, hill, valley, ridge / water divide, escarpment), triangulated height, spot height, bench mark, relative height/ depth.
c. Interpretation of colour tints and conventional symbols used on a topographical survey of India map.
d. Identification and definition of types of scale given on the map. Measuring distances and calculating area using the
scale given therein.
e. Marking directions between different locations, using eight cardinal points.
f. Identify: Site of prominent villages and/or towns, types of land use / land cover and means of communication
with the help of the index given at the bottom of the sheet.
g. Identification of drainage (direction of flow and pattern) and settlement patterns.
h. Identification of natural and man-made features.

2 Map of India
On an outline map of India, candidates will be required to locate, mark and name the following:
Mountains, Peaks and Plateaus: Himalayas, Karakoram, Aravali, Vindhyas, Satpura, Western and Eastern Ghats,
Nilgiris, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Mount Godwin Austin (K2), Mount Kanchenjunga. Deccan Plateau, Chota Nagpur
Plains: Gangetic Plains and Coastal plains – (Konkan, Kanara, Malabar, Coromandel, Northern Circars).
Desert: Thar (The Great Indian Desert)
Rivers: Indus, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Satluj, Ganga, Yamuna, Ghaghra, Gomti, Gandak, Kosi, Chambal, Betwa,
Son, Damodar, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauveri, Tungabhadra.
Water Bodies : Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait, Andaman Sea, Chilka Lake, Wular Lake.
Passes: Karakoram, Nathu-La Passes.
Latitude and Longitudes: Tropic of Cancer, Standard Meridian (82° 30’E).
Direction of Winds: South West Monsoons (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal Branches), North East Monsoons and
Western Disturbances.
Distribution of Minerals: Oil – Mumbai High (Offshore Oil Field) and Digboi. Iron –Singhbhum, Coal – Jharia.
Soil Distribution – Alluvial, Laterite, Black and Red Soil.
Cities – Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kochi, Chandigarh, Srinagar, Vishakhapatnam, Allahabad.
Population – Distribution of Population (Dense and sparse).

Part – II
Geography Of India

3. Location, Extent and Physical features
Position and Extent of India. (through Map only). The physical features of India – mountains, plateaus, plains
and rivers. (through Map only)

4. Climate
Distribution of Temperature, Rainfall, winds in Summer and Winter and factors affecting the climate of the area.
Monsoon and its mechanism. Seasons –March to May – Summer; June to September – Monsoon; October to November – Retreating Monsoon. December to February – Winter

5. Soil Resources
Types of soil (alluvial, black, red and laterite) distribution, composition and characteristics such as colour, texture, minerals and crops associated.
Soil Erosion – causes, prevention and conservation.

6. Natural Vegetation
Importance of forests.
Types of vegetation (tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, tropical desert, littoral and mountain),
distribution and correlation with their environment.
Forest conservation.

7. Water Resources
Sources (Surface water and ground water). Need for conservation and conservation practices (Rain water harvesting and its importance).
Irrigation: Importance and methods.

8. Mineral and Energy Resources
Iron ore, Manganese, Copper, Bauxite – uses and their distribution
Conventional Sources: Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas (distribution, advantages and disadvantages) Hydel
power (Bhakra Nangal Dam and Hirakud).
Non-conventional Sources: Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, nuclear and bio-gas (generation and advantages).

9. Agriculture
Indian Agriculture – importance, problems and reforms.
Types of farming in India: subsistence and commercial: shifting, intensive, extensive, plantation and mixed.
Agricultural seasons (rabi, kharif, zayad).
Climatic conditions, soil requirements, methods of cultivation, processing and distribution of the following
– rice, wheat, millets and pulses.
– sugarcane, oilseeds (groundnut, mustard and soyabean).
– cotton, jute, tea and coffee.

10. Manufacturing Industries
Importance and classification
Agro based Industry – Sugar, Textile (Cotton and Silk).
Mineral based Industry – Iron & Steel (TISCO, Bhilai, Rourkela,Vishakhapatnam) Petro Chemical and Electronics.

11. Transport
Importance and Modes – Roadways, Railways, Airways
and Waterways –- Advantages and disadvantages.

12. Waste Management
Impact of waste accumulation – spoilage of landscape, pollution, health hazards, effect on terrestrial, aquatic
(fresh water and marine) life.
Need for waste management.
Methods of safe disposal – segregation, dumping and composting.
Need and methods for reducing, reusing and recycling waste.

Internal Assessment
Practical/Project Work

Candidates will be required to prepare a project report on any one topic. The topics for assignments may be
selected from the list of suggested assignments given below. Candidates can also take up an assignment of
their choice under any of the broad areas given below.

Suggested list of assignments:

1. Local Geography:
(a) Land use pattern in different regions of India– a comparative analysis.
(b) The survey of a local market on the types of shops and services offered.
2. Environment:
Wildlife conservation efforts in India.
3. Current Geographical Issues:
Development of tourism in India.
4 .Transport in India:
Development of Road, Rail,Water and Air routes.
5. List different type of industries in the States and collect information about the types of raw materials used,
modes of their procurement and disposal of wastes generated. Classify these industries as polluting or
environment friendly and suggest possible ways of reducing pollution caused by these units.
6. Need for industrialization in India, the latest trends and its impact on economy of India.
7. Visit a water treatment plant, sewage treatment plant or garbage dumping or vermi composting sites in the
locality and study their working.


The assignments/project work is to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. (The External
Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty, but not teaching
the subject in the section/class. For example, a teacher of Geography of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External
Examiner for Class X, Geography projects.) The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments independently.
Award of Marks
Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner)
External Examiner
The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the Council by the Head of the school.
The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council.

Internal Assessment In Geography – Guidelines For Marking With Grades

Syllabus ICSE Class 10 Geography
Get ICSE Class 10 Geography syllabus for your exam

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