Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to Agriculture in India ICSE Class 10 Geography Questions below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions that have come in previous years. This will help you to understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 Geography and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 Geography Agriculture in India Important Questions
Students should learn the important questions and answers given below for Chapter Agriculture in India in Geography for ICSE Class 10. These board questions are expected to come in the upcoming exams. Students of ICSE Class 10th should go through the Important questions and answers ICSE Class 10 Geography which will help them to get more marks in exams.
Board Exam Questions Agriculture in India ICSE Class 10 Geography
Agriculture in India ICSE Class 10 Geography Important Questions
State or name
a. Two plantation crops
Tea and Rubber
b. Crops grown between March and June
c. Architect of Green Revolution in India
Prof. M. S. Swaminathan
d. Crops sown in June and harvested in October
e. Type of agriculture which heralded the beginning of civilisation
f. Local name for agriculture which involves ‘slash-n-burn’
g. Type of agriculture practised by most of the farmers of India
Intensive Subsistence Type
h. Type of agriculture where farmer engages in practices like poultry or raising of livestock
i. Crop sown in October and harvested in March
j. Method of increasing agricultural yield by bringing more land under cultivation
k. Technique of growing two or more crops intermingled with each other
l. Method of growing two crops simultaneously in a field in a definite row pattern
m. Growing of different crops on a piece of land in a planned sequence
n. Agricultural practice where yield is mostly consumed by farmers’ families
o. India’s apex agricultural research institution
ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
p. Agricultural practice where yield is maximised from a small piece of land by using better seeds, machines and fertilisers for the produce to be sold to the market
Intensive Commercial Agriculture
q. Practice of growing the same crops year after year on the same land
r. Two crops grown by people practising shifting agriculture
Yam and Tapioca
Question. Why is agriculture called the mainstay of the Indian Economy?
Answer: Agriculture is called the mainstay of the Indian Economy because of the following reasons.
1. More than 70% of India’s population depends directly on agriculture to earn a living.
2. Crops grown by Indian farmers provide food for the entire Indian population.
3. Agriculture provides raw material to many industries like textiles, sugar, etc.
4. Agricultural produce fetches a large amount of foreign exchange.
Question. List the salient characteristics of the following
a. Shifting Agriculture
b. Subsistence Agriculture
c. Plantation Agriculture
d. Mixed Farming
Answer: a. Shifting Agriculture
i. A piece of land is cleared in the forest by felling trees or ‘slash-n-burn’.
ii. Seeds are directly planted without ploughing the land.
iii. Root crops like yam and tapioca, which can be preserved for a longer period of time, are grown.
iv. Tribal and nomadic people in the north-eastern states of India practise shifting agriculture.
v. After 2 or 3 years, the soil loses fertility and as a result, is abandoned. The farmers then move elsewhere.
b. Subsistence Agriculture
i. The main objective of subsistence agriculture is consumption by the farmer’s family.
ii. The farm is entirely managed by farmer’s family members.
iii. All the work is done manually and traditional methods are followed.
iv. Farms are small in size.
c. Plantation Agriculture
i. Plantation agriculture is carried on in huge estates.
ii. A single crop is grown on the estate.
iii. Requires a lot of investment and labour.
iv. The crop takes a few years to give yield.
v. Scientific methods are used.
vi. Yield is sold directly to the market and even exported.
d. Mixed Farming
i. In mixed farming, the farmer uses some part of his land to carry on additional activities like cattle rearing, poultry or fishing.
ii. The farmer earns additional income from the activities.
iii. The farmer reduces the risks associated with agriculture in this manner
Question. List three differences between Intensive and Extensive Agriculture.
Answer: Intensive Extensive Agriculture
Farm Size Small Large
Investment Less More
Labour More Less
Question.List three differences between Intensive Subsistence Agriculture and Intensive Commercial Agriculture.
Answer: Subsistence Commercial
Objective Self consumption Selling to market
Methods used Traditional Scientific
Risk taken by farmer Less More
Question. Explain the term monoculture. Explain its effect of the environment and genetic diversity.
Answer: Growing of plants of the same type in the same soil year after year is called monoculture. The effect of monoculture is depletion of soil nutrients, making the crops of the forthcoming season poor in quality and yield. In order to sustain monoculture, costlier inputs like irrigation, fertilisers and pesticides are required.
Question. What is ‘sustainable’ agriculture?
Sustainable agriculture is the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy the changing human needs, while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources.
Question. Distinguish between mixed cropping and mixed farming.
Answer: Mixed cropping is the growing of two or more crops simultaneously intermingled with each other without a definite row pattern with the object of minimising risk of crop failure. Mixed farming is a method by which the farmer uses some part of his land for additional activities like cattle rearing, poultry or fishing in order to earn additional income and minimise risks associated with agriculture.
Question. Distinguish between mixed cropping and inter cropping.
Answer: Mixed cropping is the growing of two or more crops simultaneously intermingled with each other without a definite row pattern with the object of minimising risk of crop failure. Inter cropping is growing of two or more crops simultaneously in the same field in a definite row pattern with the object of increasing the productivity per unit area.
Question. Why are leguminous plants an important component of any cropping system?
Ans. Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth. Leguminous plants are instrumental in restoring the nitrogen supply of the soil. Therefore leguminous plants are alternated with other crops, reducing fertiliser needs.
Question. Mention three advantages of intercropping over mixed cropping?
Answer: The advantages of intercropping over mixed cropping are
1. Soil erosion is checked.
2. Seeds of two crops are not mixed before sowing; hence fertilisers can be added as per the need of the crops.
3. Different crops can be harvested and threshed separately as the maturity periods of the crops vary.
4. The produce of each crop can be harvested and consumed separately.
5. Inter cropping makes better use of natural resources like sunlight, land and water.
Question. What is crop rotation? Explain with the help of an example how crop rotation helps in
Answer: a. Weed Control
b. Soil Protection
c. Saving of labour
d. Sustained supply of nitrogen
e. Reduction of risk of crop failure
The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre planned succession is called crop rotation. Most pathogens do not infect multiple crops and survive on plant residue. Therefore, by rotating winter and summer crops, the farmer fights summer weeds in winter and vice versa. Land left fallow or bare may be susceptible to leaching and erosion. Crop rotation prevents this. Several crops may be grown in succession with only one time ploughing of the soil. For example, maize stubble containing nutrients is left on the land for wheat. Crop rotation involving leguminous plants ensures a regular supply of nitrogen in the soil. Risks are distributed among several crops as a guarantee against crop failure.
Question. What do you mean by fallow land? State its advantages and disadvantages.
Answer: Fallow land is the land left bare without growing any crop for a season. Fallowing ensures that the decayed vegetative matter helped to increase the plant nutrients in the soil. Also, it helps to increase the sub-soil moisture and improves the general structure of the soil. However, land left fallow or bare may be susceptible to leaching and erosion.
Question. Write a short note on ‘Green Revolution’.
Answer: Green Revolution has caused the total yield of food crops to increase five fold since 1950. Green Revolution involves the increased use of fertilisers, irrigation and high-yielding varieties (HYV) of rice, wheat and maize. These varieties produce bumper harvests and in some cases mature faster, enabling the farmer to grow two or more crops in a year. Prof. M. S. Swaminathan, recipient of the World Food Prize, and the American agronomist Norman Borlaug, are the architects of the Green Revolution in India.
Question. Explain the following terms.
a. Dry Farming
b. Irrigated Farming
c. Humid Farming
Answer: a. Dry Farming: This is done in regions having scanty rainfall and poor irrigation facilities. Soil moisture is conserved by repeatedly ploughing the field. Crops like wheat, pulses, millets, etc, are grown. Red soil is suitable for this purpose.
b. Irrigated Faming: In regions with seasonal rainfall, irrigation compensates for the irregular rains. Thus, crops can be grown all round the year. Cash crops like sugarcane, tobacco and cotton are
mainly cultivated by this method.
c. Humid Farming: Regions with heavy rainfall raise crops without the use of irrigation. Areas with heavy rainfall grow rice, jute, tea etc. while areas with moderate rainfall grow crops like wheat, barley, millets, etc.
Question. Explain why the yield of Indian Agriculture is low compared to world standards.
Answer: The yield of Indian agriculture is low compared to world standards because of the following reasons.
1. Unreliable rainfall
The Indian farmer depends on rainfall for agriculture. Since this rainfall is uncertain and unreliable, the farmer is hesitant to take risks.
2. Soil Erosion
Long dry periods cause the soil to be exposed to agents like wind and running water, which erode a substantial amount of fertile soil.
3. Unscientific methods of cultivation
Most of the farming in India is of the intensive subsistence type. The farmers use traditional methods which are not very effective. Hence the yield per hectare is very low compared to world standards.
4. Human factors
a. Most of the Indian farmers do not own the land which they plough. Hence, they have little incentive to grow more and better.
b. Most farmers are poor and cannot afford the cost of better seeds, fertilisers and machines.
c. Farmers have no security against the failure of crops.
Question. Describe the steps taken by the government to increase the yield of crops.
Answer: In recent times, the Government of India has taken the following measures to increase agricultural yield per hectare.
1. The government has made good quality seeds available to the farmer at subsidised costs.
2. The government buys certain crops at fair prices in order to protect the farmer against exploitation.
3. Loans and credit cards are now available to the farmer to buy farming equipment and constructing wells.
4. The government has encouraged consolidation of farms making them economical to cultivate.
5. Commodity exchanges like MCX (Multi Commodity Exchange) and NCDEX (National Commodities and Derivatives exchange) have been set up to appreciate the prices of agricultural produce and also to ensure that the Indian farmer gets a minimum price for his produce.
Question. Which is the popular method of rice cultivation? What are the unique features of this method?
Answer: Japanese method (the improved version of Transplantation method) is the best method of rice cultivation. The unique features are :
(i) High Yield Variety Seeds are used. (Japonica)
(ii) Saplings are raised in Nurseries by seed germination.
(iii) Transplantation is done when the saplings are about 20 cm to 25 cm tall. This enables fertilizing and weeding at regular intervals.
(iv) A good network of irrigation is provided.
(v) Right amount of manure is used both in nurseries and in the transplanted field.
(vi) Japonica seeds give a higher yield in this method.
Question. What is meant by the term ‘subsistence agriculture?
Answer: Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families.
Question. How does the lack of education affect agriculture?
Answer: Due to lack of education many farmers do not use new and better quality seeds, fertilisers and pesticides to protect the crops against diseases.
Question. Explain two economic factors that affect Indian agriculture.
Answer: (i) Subsistence Agriculture : Subsistence type of agriculture is mainly practiced in India. This is because the per capita cultivable land is a mere one-fourth hectare and the farm produce is just enough to sustain the farmer.
(ii) Human Elements : Farmers are poor, debt-ridden and uneducated. They do not follow the modern techniques of farming, nor can they purchase modern equipment. Due to the lack of marketing facilities and non-availability of loans on fair rate of interest, the farmers are not able to invest the requisite resources in agriculture. They have no security against failure of crops; neither do they have capital to invest in agriculture.
Question. Explain institutional factors that affect Indian agriculture.
Answer: (i) Small and Fragmented Landholdings : Majority of landholdings in India are very small. Out of 98 million landholdings in India 75 million are small or marginal landholdings. The average size of holdings in India is very low, less than 2 hectares or 5 acres. These small and fragmented holdings cannot promote modern agriculture. They do not generate enough income to buy new agricultural inputs or make heavy inve stme nt. The re fore , no scie ntifi c cul ti vation with impro ved techniques and seeds can take place. Small sized holdings also lead to waste of time, labour and under utilisation of irrigation facilities.
(ii) Exploitation of Farmers : Land tenure system is another important reason for low productivity in India. Under the Zamindari system, the cultivator was only a tenant who could be turned out of the land. Even though Zamindari system has been abolished but its effects have not been completely wiped out. There is a section of landowners who act as absentee landlords and get their cultivation done through tenants and sharecroppers. Besides the tenants, a large number of landless labourers also exits. They are paid paltry sum as wages and have to work as bonded labourers. Thus, neither the owners nor the tenants have the urge to raise production.
Question. What is mixed farming?
Answer: Cultivation of crops and raising of animals simultaneously is called mixed farming.
Question. What are the advantages of ‘Japanese method of Rice cultivation’ ?
Answer: The following are the advantages of Japanese method of rice cultivation:
(i) The transplanted plants are more resistant to insects and pests.
(ii) They are more resistant against the extreme, vagaries of climate.
(iii) They enable weeding even at the time of transplantation.
(iv) Though labour intensive, their yield is higher than that under other methods.
Question. Which soil is suitable for Bajra cultivations ?
Answer: Bajra is grown on the red or the sandy loams. It also grows well in black soil.
Question. What is India’s position in the production of cereal crops in the world ?
Answer: India ranks third in the world in the production of cereals after China and the USA.
Question. How is agriculture a consumer of industrial products?
Answer: Agriculture needs industrial goods especially the farm inputs like fertilisers, pesticides, implements machinery etc.
Question. Explain briefly the environmental factors which affect Indian agriculture.
Answer: Environmental factors affecting Indian agriculture :
(i) Unreliable Rainfall : Indian agriculture is dependent to a large extent on the monsoons, which are uncertain, irregular and unequally distributed. That is why when rains fail agricultural production is badly affected, resulting in scarcity of foodgrains.
(ii) Lack of Irrigation Facilities : A large per cent of net cropped area lacks irrigation facilities and is dependent on monsoon. The failure of monsoon is the failure of agriculture.
(iii) Soil Erosion : Soil erosion is not only a major cause for decreasing soil fertility but also results in loss of valuable crop land. Loss of soil fertility is responsible for the low crop yields.
(iv) Methods of Cultivation : Through a number of crops are grown in India their average productivity is low. This is because of old and ineffecient methods and techniques of farming.
(v) Faulty Cultivation of Crops : In India, agriculture is practised by repetitive cultivation of the main two food crops – rice and wheat. These two crops deplete the soil fertility.
(vi) Reduction in Net Sown Area : In the recent decades there has been a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oil-seeds and industrial crops. This has resulted in the reduction of net sown area under cereals and pulses.
Question. ‘Intensive farming and Extensive farming’.
Question. Where is intensive commercial farming done in India?
Answer: Intensive commercial farming is done in Punjab and Haryana.
Question. What are the three methods of sowing of rice seeds ?
Answer: (i) Broadcasting Method (ii) Drilling Method
(iii) Dibbling Method
Question. ‘Commercial farming and Subsistence farming’.
Question. Name three states leading in the production of wheat.
Answer: Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana are leading states in the production of wheat.
Question. What is meant by the term ‘agriculture?
Answer: Agriculture is defined as the cultivation of the soil in order to grow crops and rear livestock.
Question. Why is Government of India promoting use of organic fertilisers?
Answer: Government of India is promoting use of organic fertilisers to reduce the burden on the chemical fertilizers and to increase the yield of organic food
whose demand is growing in the world market.
Question. How does the cultivation of pulses usually help in restoration of fertility of the soil ?
Answer: Being leguminous crops pulses fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and increase the natural fertility of soil.
Question. Mention the three names of crops of rice grown in West Bengal.
Answer: Aus, Aman and Boro.
Question. ‘Plantation farming and Mixed farming’.
Question. Wheat grows well in loamy soil.
Answer: Wheat grows well in loamy soil because loamy soil has good moisture retention capacity and during germination wheat needs sufficient soil moisture.
Question. Drilling is the best method for sowing of seeds.
Answer: Drilling is the best method for sowing of seeds because in drilling method seeds fall in the furrows in a systematic way. Therefore germination rate
of these seeds is high and the wastage of seeds is minimal
Question. Name three jowar producing states.
Answer: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka.
Question. Name two leading states in production of Jowar.
Answer: Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
Question. Mention the advantages of mixed farming.
Answer: Mixed farming ensures a steady income for the farmers because if the agriculture fails due to adverse climate or any other reasons they can look back to the other means like cattle raising for income.
Question. In which part of the year is wheat grown in India?
Answer: Wheat is grown in winter (rabi) season. i.e. it is sown on the onset of winter and harvested in April.
Question. Government has tried to discourage Shifting agriculture.
Answer: (i) Shifting Agriculture is wasteful and leads to soil erosion.
(ii) It adversly affects the environment as it leads to degradation of land due to deforestation.
Question. What are the local names of shifting cultivation in various parts of the country?
Answer: It is known with the following names :
Question. Mixed farming ensures a steady income for the farmers.
Answer: (i) Cutivation of crops and raising of animals simultaneously is done in mixed farming.
(ii) So, if agriculture fails due to adverse climatic conditions or any other reason farmers can look to the other means like cattle raising for income.
Question. Why is wheat not grown in the eastern and in the extreme southern parts of India?
Answer: High heat and excessive rainfall is unsuitable for wheat crop therefore it is not grown in eastern and extreme southern part of India.
Question. Mention any two problems faced by the farmers on account of small landholdings.
Answer: (i) Small landholdings cannot promote modern agriculture.
(ii) They do not generate enough income to buy new agricultural inputs or make heavy investments
(iii) They also lead to waste of time, labour and under utilisation of irrigation facilities.
Question. What are the geographical conditions suitable for the cultivation of rice?
Answer: Geographical conditions suitable for the cultivation of rice :
(i) Temperature : 18ºC to 32ºC
(ii) Rainfall : 150 cm to 300 cm
(iii) Soil requirement : Deep fertile clayey or loamy soils are well suited for rice cultivation.
Question. Mention the two groups of rice in India.
Answer: (i) Upland Rice (ii) Lowland Rice
Question. Where is Shifting Agriculture practised in India?
Answer: Shifting Agriculture is practiced in Assam, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Himalayan region, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.
Question. Which is a useful ‘rotation crop’? Why?
Answer: Pulses as they are useful for rotation as they increase nitrogen in the soil which increases natural fertility of the soil.
Question. Write a short note on upland rice.
Answer: (i) Upland rice is grown on mountainous regions.
(ii) Upland rice is sown in March-April and harvested in September-October.
(iv) This type of rice cultivation depends on the distribution of rainfall.
(iv) The entire crop is used locally.
Question. Transplantation Method and the Japanese Method of Rice Farming.
Question. What do you understand by the term Cereals.
Answer: The term, ‘Cereals’ denotes all kinds of grass-like plants, which have starchy, edible seeds.
Question. What improved methods of cultivation can help raise rice production in India?
Answer: Transplanting method and Japanese Method.
Question. What is Triticum aestivum and triticum durum ?
Answer: (i) Triticum aestivum is common wheat grown in northern India. It is also known as ‘bread wheat’. It growns on alluvial soils.
(ii) Triticum durum is also known as Macaroni wheat. It is grown in central and in southern parts of India.It grown on black or red soils.
Question. Why is north India famous for wheat cultivation ?
Answer: North India is famous for wheat cultivation for the following reasons :
(i) Availability of ideal moisture retentive soil
(ii) Low winter rainfall.
(iii) Ideal 10ºC to 25ºC temperature with cooler winter in comparison to the winter temperature of south.
(iv) Good network of irrigation facilities.
Question. Cereals and Pulses.
Question. Tropical monsoon lands are ideal for rice cultivation.
Answer: Rice requires high temperature, high humidity and stagnant water in the field till about a week before its harvest. These climatic conditions are ideally met in tropical regions receiving ample of seasonal rainfall. Therefore tropical monsoon lands are ideal for rice cultivation.
Question. What do you understand by ‘commercial farming’?
Answer: This system of agriculture involves cultivation of crops for sale in the market, and not for self consumption.
Question. What type of farming is practised in areas where population is sparse and land is in plenty ? Name one area where such type of farming is practised.
Answer: (i) Extensive farming is practice on farms of large size with the help of
machines and the input of labour per unit area is low. The emphasis is
laid on increased production.
(ii) The main crops grown are, rice, wheat and sugarcane.
(iii) This type of farming is practised in the Terai region of Sub Himalayas
and in parts of North-Western India.
Question. The deltaic regions of India are popular for rice cultivation.
Answer: (i) Deltaic regions are abundant in alluvial soil and have high water-table.
(ii) These regions receives ample sunshine, have high temperature and humid climate.
(iii) These being the prerequisites for rice cultivation, it is largely grown in the deltaic regions of India.
Question. Kharif and Rabi crops.
Question. Mention the advantages of commercial farming.
Answer: The advantages of commercial farming are as follows :
(i) Since this type of farming is being performed in spacious land, so it gives consequently a considerable output, also.
(ii) Farmers use modern scientific methods of farming as it to enhance the quality and quantity of the crops, bilaterally.
(iii) Commercial farming keeps the farmers better off as they grow the crops for market.
Question. Study the picture given below and answer the following questions:
(i) Name the crop which is being planted. Give one benefit of this method of planting this crop.
(ii) Mention the climatic conditions which favour the cultivation of the crop being planted.
Answer: (i) Rice is being planted in the given picture. The process of transplantation allows better penetration of the roots in the soil.
(ii) Climatic conditions :
(a) Temperature : Rice requires a mean annual temperature 24ºC with a range of 18ºC to 32ºC.
(b) Rainfall : It requires 150 cm to 300 cm of annual rainfall.