Agro Based Industries in India ICSE Class 10 Geography Important Questions

ICSE Class 10 Geography Study Material

Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to Agro Based Industries in India ICSE Class 10 Geography Questions below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions that have come in previous years. This will help you to understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 Geography and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams

ICSE Class 10 Geography Agro Based Industries in India Important Questions

Students should learn the important questions and answers given below for Chapter Agro Based Industries in India in Geography for ICSE Class 10. These board questions are expected to come in the upcoming exams. Students of ICSE Class 10th should go through the Important questions and answers ICSE Class 10 Geography which will help them to get more marks in exams.

Board Exam Questions Agro Based Industries in India ICSE Class 10 Geography

Agro Based Industries in India ICSE Class 10 Geography Important Questions

State or name

a. Two types of industries based on the nature of products


Heavy industry and Light industry

b. Three types of industries based on size and investment


Large Scale, Medium Scale and Small Scale industry

c. Two types of industries based on location and market


Village industry and Cottage industry

d. Four types of industries based on ownership


Public Sector, Private Sector, Joint Sector and Co-operative Sector

e. Two examples of forest based industry


Paper and Timber industry

f. Two examples of animal based industry


Dairy industry and Leather industry

g. Two examples of ancillary industry


Auto parts industry and Computer peripherals industry

h. Two examples of tertiary industry


Transport industry and Banking industry

i. Two important centres in the Northern Industrial Zone


Delhi and Kanpur

j. Two important centres in the Western Industrial Zone


Mumbai and Ahmadabad

k. Two important centres in the Eastern Industrial Zone


Kolkata and Jamshedpur

l. Two important centres in the Southern Industrial Zone


Chennai and Bangalore

m. City which is known as ‘Lancashire of India’



n. City which is known as ‘Manchester of India’



o. City which is known as ‘Manchester of North India’



p. Three important centres of the jute textile industry


Kolkata, Titagarh and Serampore

q. Three important centres of woollen textile industry


Amritsar, Ludhiana and Dhariwal

r. Imported sheep which yield better quality wool


Merino and Corriedale

s. Two important centres of mulberry silk


Bangalore and Mysore

t. Two important centres of non-mulberry silk


Kamrup and Hazaribagh

u. Three types of non-mulberry silk


Tasar, Eri and Muga

v. Three major synthetic fibres


Rayon, Terylene and Dacron

w. Three centres of synthetic textile industry


Mumbai, Ahmadabad and Surat

x. Two centres of the sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh


Gorakhpur and Sharanpur

y. Two centres of the sugar industry in Maharashtra


Solapur and Nasik

z. By-product of sugar industry which is used in making shoe polish, carbon paper and wax


Press Mud

One word answer questions 

a. One silk weaving centre in each of the following states
Ans. i. Bihar          – Bhagalpur
ii. Jharkhand         – Ranchi
iii. Uttar Pradesh   – Varanasi
iv. Tamil Nadu       – Kanchipuram
v. Assam              – Navagaon
vi. Punjab             – Jallandhar

b. Three synthetic fibres and the raw material from which each is obtained
Ans. i. Rayon is obtained from cellulose
ii. Terylene is obtained from oil
iii. Nylon is obtained from coal

c. Three centres noted for rayon weaving
Ans. Mumbai, Ahmadabad and Surat

d. Two regions where the sugar industry is concentrated
Ans. i. Northern region consisting of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Bihar
ii. Peninsular region consisting of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

e. The important states which constitute the sugar belt of India
Ans. i. Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Bihar

f. Two places in each of the following states which are important for the sugar industry
Ans. i. Andhra Pradesh – Vijayawada and Nizamabad
ii. West Bengal             – Murshidabad and 24 Paraganas
iii. Tamil Nadu              – Arkot and Madurai
iv. Bihar                        – Muzzaffarpur and Darbhanga

Question. Define the term ‘industry’.
Ans. An industry is defined as ‘an enterprise which produces goods or services in order to earn profit’.

Question. What is the need for industrialisation in India?
Ans. Industries convert raw material into finished goods. By doing so, they add value to the gifts of nature. For example, a small wrist watch which may weigh a few grams of fine steel, costs much more than a tonne of iron ore. The key to India’s prosperity lies in industrialisation. The revenue generated through industrialisation can be used to provide employment, improve India’s balance of trade, alleviate poverty and improve the quality of life.

Question. What are the requirements for setting up an industry?
Ans. To set up an industry, the following basic requirements must be met.
1. The required raw material must be available.
2. The location must be appropriate.
3. Finance and infrastructure in terms of management and human resources must be available.
4. The market for the finished goods must be identified.

Question. Mention three geographical factors that determine a viable site for setting up an industry. Give suitable  examples to support your answer.
Ans. Three fundamental geographical factors that determine a viable site for setting up an industry are
1. Raw material: Proximity to the area producing raw material is a prime requisite foe setting up an industry. For example, the iron and steel plants are concentrated in Jharkhand because this region is endowed in all the raw material (iron-ore, manganese, limestone and coal) which is used to produce steel.
2. Power supply: Power is required for any industry in order to run machines which process the raw material into finished products. This is why industries are located near Jamshedpur and Kolkata where cheap labour is available from the Damodar Valley Project.
3. Water: Although water is required for all the industries, it is particularly important for certain industries like the jute, food and chemical industries. The jute industry in West Bengal is very much benefited due to the availability of soft, running water in the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta.

Question. What is meant by ‘public’ and ‘private’ sector industries? Give two examples of each.
Ans.                 Public Sector Industries    Private Sector Industries
Owned by       Government Private           Individuals
Purpose          Public Welfare                    Profit
Examples       Chittaranjan Locomotive    Works Reliance Industries Ltd. 
                       Indian Railways                  Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd.

Question. Mention three non-geographical factors that influence the development of industries in certain regions.
Ans. Three non geographical factors that influence the development of industries in certain regions are
1. Government policies
2. Transport
3. Capital

Question. State the economic importance of the cotton textile industry in India.
Ans. The cotton textile industry is important for India in the following ways.
a. 20% of the working population is employed in the cotton textile industry.
b. Garments and textiles are essential for life.
c. It generates a substantial amount of foreign exchange through export to countries of Asia and Africa.
d. It supports other industries like dyeing and bleaching, washing powder and soaps, packaging and transport industries.

Question. Mention three problems associated with the cotton textile industry.
Ans. Following are the problems associated with the cotton textile industry.
1. Raw Material: The supply of raw cotton is very uncertain because the Indian farmers mostly depend upon rains for its cultivation. Also, India produces only medium quality cotton and has to depend on Egypt for good quality cotton.
2. Outdated Machinery: Due to outdated machinery and plants, the productivity is low and uneconomical.
3. Stiff Competition: The cotton textile industry of India has to face competition from two fronts.
a. The synthetic textile industry of India
b. Exported textiles from Taiwan, South Korea and Japan

Question. What role has the government played in improving the plight of the cotton mill workers?
The government has taken control over mills which were running inefficiently and running at a loss (‘sick’ mills). This has been done so that the mill workers can retain their employment.

Question. Explain why the Hooghly basin is the main centre for the jute textile industry.
Ans. The Hooghly basin is the main centre for the jute textile industry because of the following reasons.
1. The Hooghly basin alone cultivates more than 50 per cent jute in the country. Adjoining regions of West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa are also important producers of jute. Thus, raw material is easily available. Additional requirement of jute is met through import from Bangladesh.
2. Densely populated area of the lower Ganga basin provides cheap labour.
3. Enormous supply of water from the river Hooghly
4. Kolkata has a good network of transportation both of land and water. It has the facility of transport through- rivers, canals, railways, and roads.
5. International airport and a big port in Kolkata have also helped in the transportation of materials.
6. Coal-mines of Raniganj and Asansol provide sufficient supply of power to this industry in Kolkata.

Question. What problems is the jute industry in India facing? What measures has the government taken to overcome these problems?
Ans. The jute industry of India is facing the following problems.
1. Because of the 1947 partition of India, most of the jute producing areas fell into Bangladesh while the jute mills remained in India.
2. Jute cultivation depends on good rains. Hence the supply fluctuates from year to year.
3. Apart from Bangladesh, Malaysia, Philippines, Egypt and Brazil also offer competition to India in the international market.
4. Jute products are also being substituted by paper, hemp and synthetic products.

Question. Outdated machinery causes high costs of production, thereby making jute production uneconomical and unprofitable.
Ans. To overcome these problems, the government has taken the following remedial steps.
1. The government is encouraging research in new uses and products like jute carpets, tarpaulins, garments, etc.
2. Modern machines have been installed in public sector units.
3. Effort is being made to stabilise jute prices and increase exports.

Question. Why is the Indian woollen industry not well developed?
Ans. The woollen textile industry is not well developed in India due to the following reasons.
1. India is a tropical country. Hence, the need for woollen garments is limited to the winter months only.
2. Indigenous wool is of poor quality. India has to depend on imports from USA and Australia to meet its demand for better quality raw material.
3. Wool is expensive. Garments made from synthetic textile are cheaper.

Question. What measures has the government taken to improve the situation of the woollen textile industry?
Ans. The government of India has initiated measures to produce better quality wool. Sheep breeding farms have been set up in North India where high breed sheep like Merino and Corrie dale are being imported and reared

Question. Why is Karnataka the most important centre for the silk textile industry?
Ans. The following conditions in Karnataka favour the growth of silk industry in Karnataka:
1. Suitable climatic conditions, with temperatures ranging from 16 °C to 30 °C, is well suited for raising silkworms throughout the year.
2. Availability of soft water in large amount
3. Mulberry bush is grown as a plantation crop.

Question. Enlist the factors that favour the development of the synthetic textile industry.
Ans. The following factors favour the development of the synthetic textile industry.
1. Availability of raw material like bamboo, wood and other grasses
2. Chemical industries which provide chemical essential for processing
3. Plenty of river water for processing
4. Support of research for its development
5. Sizeable market for finished goods
6. Availability of skilled and unskilled labour

Question. What are the problems of the khadi and handloom industry?
Ans. The Khadi industry is facing the following problems.
1. The quality, quantity and availability of raw material are very unsatisfactory.
2. Products do not appeal to changing tastes and fashions.
3. Most of the people lack adequate technical knowledge to modernise their equipment.
4. This industry faces stiff competition from mill made cloth.
5. Quality and standard of products is not maintained.
6. The marketing of products is not organised.

Question. The Khadi and Handloom sectors cannot be ignored. Give two reasons to justify this statement.
Ans. The Khadi and Handloom industry provides full-time or part-time employment to a large number of people who can supplement their meagre incomes. In fact, more people are employed in this sector than the number of persons employed in the organised industries and mining put together. This is why the khadi and handloom industry cannot be ignored. Moreover, this industry also earns foreign exchange for the country.

Question. What are the steps being taken by the government to promote the Khadi and Handloom industries?
Ans. Apart from establishing organisations like the All India Handloom Board, The Khadi and Village Industries Commission, etc. to improve the status of the Khadi industry, the government has also taken certain specific measures which are as under.
1. The government itself issues orders for the supply of khadi and handloom products.
2. The government levies a cess on the cotton and synthetic textile mills and uses the revenue for the promotion of the khadi and handloom industry.
3. The government also reserves certain lines of production for the khadi industry. For example, it places a limit on the saree production by mills.
4. Assistance is made available to improve techniques of production and management.
5. Financial aid is provided to the industry. Also, the government charges lesser taxes on the production of khadi and handloom products.
6. The government itself undertakes the marketing of the khadi and handloom products.

Question. What are the factors that affect the location of the sugar industry?
Ans. Factors affecting the location of the sugar industry are as follows.
1. Proximity to the sugar producing areas in order to maintain timely availability of good quality of raw material
2. Cheap labour, particularly people who are willing to work in sugar factories only for a specific time of the year
3. Uninterrupted supply of power

Question. Explain why sugar mills in the co-operative sector have an advantage over those in the private sector?
Ans. Sugar is a seasonal industry and so labour cannot be employed throughout the year. That is why sugar mills in the co-operative sector have an advantage over those in the private sector. The sugar mills are owned and managed by the farmers and so they have work throughout the year.

Question. India ranks second the world sugar production in spite of being the largest producer of sugarcane. Give  reasons.
Ans. This is because of the following reasons.
1. The sugarcane grown in India is of lower quality with low sugar content.
2. More than half of the sugarcane is used to produce gur and khandsari

Question. Name three important by-products of the sugar industry and state the commercial use of each.
Ans. The three by-products of the sugar industry are as follows.
1. Molasses: A dark brown syrup used to make industrial alcohol, fertilisers, rum and yeast
2. Bagasse: Crushed sugarcane used as an organic fertiliser, cattle feed, fuel for mills and as a raw material in the manufacture of paper and synthetic fibres
3. Press Mud: Used to make shoe polish, carbon paper, wax, etc.

Question. Why are more than 60% of the sugar factories located in the sugar belt comprising of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab?
Ans. This is due to the following reasons.
a. The Ganga plain has fertile soil and heavy rainfall suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
b. Cheap labour is easily and regularly available from this densely populated plain of India.
c. Coal, the main source of energy used in sugar factories, is available from nearby coal mines of Bihar.
d. This sugar belt is also a large consumer of sugar. So, easy market is available.

Question. Recently, the sugar industry has shown a tendency to shift towards the south. List four reasons for this trend.
Ans. a. Sugar mills in the south are in the co-operative sector. Thus, people do more work and get better dividends here under co-operative movement.
b. Labour is comparatively cheaper in south India.
c. In south, sugar mills are closer to the fields. This proximity prevents the loss of sugar content in transportation.
d. There is a strong sugar lobby in Maharashtra which invests in sugar industry and tries to get maximum returns.

Question. Explain the following terms.
a. Sericulture
b. Ancillary industry
c. ‘Sick’ Mills
d. Mulberry silk
Ans. a. Sericulture: The rearing of silkworms to produce raw silk is known as sericulture. Fresh mulberry leaves are fed to the silkworms and thread is unravelled from the cocoons on small spinning machines. Sericulture is of two types— mulberry and non-mulberry. The mulberry sector accounts for nearly 90 % of the natural silk produced in India.
b. Ancillary industry: Industries whose products are not meant for the consumer but are raw material or assemblages for other industries are known as ancillary industries. An auto parts manufacturing company which sells its parts to a car maker, or a cloth producing unit which sells cloth to the garment industry are good examples of ancillary industries.
c. ‘Sick’ Mills: This is a term used for those textile mills which have become uneconomical and ceased to make any profit on a sustained basis. Nowadays, the government has taken control over such ‘sick’ mills in order to protect the plight of the mill workers.
d. Mulberry Silk: This type of silk is obtained from the silkworm which feeds on the mulberry leaves. The mulberry sector is better organised and accounts for nearly 90 % of the natural silk produced in India. It is produced in Karnataka, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

Question. Name one commercial product obtained from each of the following:
(i) Press mud
(ii) Molasses 
Ans. (i) Shoe polish
(ii) Alcohol

Question.  State one town famous for -each of the following cottage industries.
(i) Woollen shawls
(ii) Bidri ware
Ans. (i) Amritsar
(ii) Bidar (Kamataka).

Question. State two ways by which the government has encouraged cottage industries. 
Ans. (i) Improved tools and equipments are provided at subsidized rates.
(ii) Government provides loans, give incentives and provides raw materials.

Question. Give two reasons to explain why cottage industries are important in India’s economy. OR What is the importance of cottage industries in India’s economy? 
Ans. (i) Cottage industries provide jobs to millions of people in rural areas because they use local raw materials and need less investment.
(ii) Their products earn a lot of foreign exchange for the country.

Question. Name two textile industries using animal fibres and another two using plant fibres. Write against each one of them an important centre of the respective industry. 
Ans. Using animal fibres —
(i) Woollen textile industry; Jammu,
(ii) Silk textile industry; Bangalore. Using plant fibre —
(i) Cotton textile; Ahmadabad.
(ii) Jute textile; Hooghly Basin.

Question. What makes Khadi and Handloom sector of the textile industry still very important even in this modern large-scale industrial era? Give two reasons to justify your answer. 
Ans. Khadi and Handloom textiles produce durable and colourful patterns which are cheap when compared with the products of the modern large scale industries. The reasons for their importance are:
(i) They bring pride to the country.
(ii) They provide money to the workers.

Question. Which agro-based industry has a tendency to migrate towards the south in India? Give reasons to justify your answer.
Ans. Sugar industry. The main reasons are:
(i) Black soil is more fertile which is suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
(ii) Sugarcane produced in the tropical climate contain more content of sugar.
(iii) Long crushing season.
(iv) Maritime climate of south India.

Question. What are the four special features of the cotton textile industry in India?
Ans. The four special features of cotton textile industry in India are:
(i) It is oldest and largest industry in India.
(ii) It is widespread industry found almost in all states of India.
(iii) This industry provides employment opportunities both in rural and urban areas.
(iv) This industry accounts for the largest proportion of foreign exchange.

Question. State two economic advantages of the handloom industry.
Ans. (i) Handloom industry provides employment to the people.
(ii) Handloom products have traditional designs and colourful variety which is in great demand.

Question. Explain why: (i) Carpet-making as a cottage industry has developed in the Kashmir valley.
(ii) The pure silk handloom industry is important In Bangalore.
Ans. (i) Carpet-making as a cottage industry has developed in Kashmir valley because in this area, sheep are reared for wool which is essential material for weaving the carpets.
(ii) The pure silk industry is important in Bangalore because of the large scale rearing of silk-worms on the mulberry

Question. Give two reasons why the cotton textile industry has developed around Mumbai.
Ans. (i) Harbour facilities (ii) Availability of raw cotton from Maharashtra.

Question. Give two reasons to explain why there is a need for rapid industrialization in India.
Ans. The two reasons for need for rapid industrialization in India are:
(i) To raise national and per capita income.
(ii) To remove unemployment and under employment.

Question. Why is there an increasing demand for handloom materials?
Ans. Demand for handloom materials is increasing because of the following reasons:
(i) Traditional art/rich culture
(ii) They are colourful, durable and attractive.

Question. Name a state famous for mulberry silk. 
Ans. Kamataka.

Question. Mumbai-Pune region is the most important industrial region of India. Substantiate the statement giving two reasons. 
Ans. Mumbai-Pune region is the most important industrial region of India because of the following reasons:
(i) Availability of raw materials
(ii) Sufficient power resources.

Question. Give two reasons to show why the sugar industry has flourish in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. 
Ans. (i) The Ganga plain has fertile soil and heavy rainfall suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
(ii) Cheap labour is easily and regularly available from these densely populated states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Question. Give two reasons for the following: “The silk handloom industry is important in Mysore,” 
Ans. (i) The raw material for silk handloom is available in plenty
(ii) Soft water is available in large amount

Question. With the help of an example, explain how agro-based industries are different from mineral-based industries.
Ans. Those industries which use agricultural products as their raw materials are known as agro-based industries, for example, cotton textiles, vegetable oil and sugar industries. Industries which depend for their raw materials on minerals are known as mineral-based industries, for example, iron and steel, and ship-building industries.

Question. Give four reasons to justify that the rayon textile industry in India has a great future, 
Ans. The following points will bring out to show the great future of rayon textile industry in
India: (i) The sufficient quantity of bamboo, grass and cotton waste which are necessary for the production of pulp.
(ii) Availability of sufficient amount of chemicals,
(iii) Availability of skilled and unskilled labour.
(iv) Research and training centres for the production of synthetic silks have been set up in most of the rayon production cities.

Question. Why is the woollen textile industry not as well developed as the cotton textile industry in India?
Ans. The woollen industry is not as well developed as the cotton textile industry in India because of the following reasons:
(i) Pour quality of local wool
(ii) Low demand as only northern India has cold winters
(iii)Woollen clothes are expensive than cotton clothes.

Question. With the help of an example each, differentiate between Basic and Consumer Industries. 
Ans. Basic industries are those industries on which various other industries depend. Example: Iron and steel industry. Consumer industries are those industries which produce various items to fulfil the day-to-day requirement of the consumers. Example: Sugar industry/Plastic industry.

Question. The ‘Khadi and Handloom Sectors of the Textile Industry cannot be ignored’. Give two reasons justifying this statement. 
Ans. (i) It employs a large number of people
(ii) It is a good source of foreign exchange.

Question. Give reasons why: (i) The woollen industry is concentrated in North India.
(ii) Tree plantation is essential in and around Heavy Industrial areas. 
Ans. (i) Woollen industry is concentrated in North India since winters are very severe here and there is a great demand for woollen products. Secondly, climatic conditions favour sheep rearing, hence, there is no dearth of raw materials.
(ii) Tree plantation is essential in industrial regions for purification of the atmosphere. Industrial smoke causes atmospheric pollution and the trees absorb excess CO2 and replenish the O2 level of the air.

Question. State four geographical factors which should be kept in mind while setting up an agro-based industry.
Ans. Four geographical factors to be considered are as follows:
(i) Proximity to growing areas,
(ii) A well developed transport system.
(iii) Facilities for proper storage of the raw materials as well as finished products.
(iv) There should be a good demand for the product.

Question. Mention three main problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India.
Ans, Three major problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India are:
(i) Competition from synthetic fibres which are cheaper and easy to maintain.
(ii) Old and obsolete machinery and technology of production.
(iii) It being an agro based industry, is exposed to the vagaries of nature. Any year there is a crop failure. The supply of raw cotton gets affected.

Question. Name three by-products of the sugar industry. Give one important use of each. 
Ans. Three by-products of sugar industry are:
(i) Molasses — used for distilling alcohol
(ii) Bagasse — used for making cardboards
(iii) Press mud — used for making wax and shoe polishes.

Question. Which two states are collectively called the ‘Sugar-belt of India’?
Answer: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are collectively called the sugar belt of India. Together they account for almost half of India’s total sugarcane production.

Question. Sericulture flourished in Karnataka.
Answer: Sericulture flourished in Karnataka because
(i) It has favourable climate for rearing silkworms.
(ii) Many mulberry trees are grown here as the climate is suitable for the growth of mulberry trees.

Question. Explain why sericulture is an important cottage industry in Assam.
Answer: Sericulture is an important cottage industry in Assam because :
(i) It provides sustenance to thousands of people.
(ii) About Question.43 percent of India’s total silk output comes from Assam.
(iii) Assam is one of the largest producers of non-mulberry silk (tasar, eri and muga)
(iv) It is also the only muga producing region of India.

Question. Name any three major sugar producing centres in Maharastra.
Answer: The major centres in Maharashtra are : Ahmednagar, Kolhapur, Solapur, Satara, Sangli, Pune and Nashik.

Question. In what way does the cotton industry contribute to the economy of India? Mention-any three relevant factors. OR
Mention any three special features of cotton textile industry in India.
Answer: (i) Cotton textile is a major industry in India.
(ii) It directly or indirectly supports more than nearly 40 per cent of the country’s labour force.
(iii) It also contributes to export of the country on a large scale.

Question. What are the problems faced by Handloom and Khadi industries ?
Answer: The handloom and khadi industry faces a number of problems. These include the following:
(i) The raw materials available for this industry are neither adequate nor of satisfactory quality.
(ii) The craftsmen employed in this industry belong to poor families and have no technical skills.
(iii) The technology used in these industries is old and obsolete, the goods produced by these industries are no match to the modern fast changing fashions and designs.
(iv) These industries have to face competition from mill-made cloth.
(v) These industries lack capital few facilities exist for providing cheap credit.

Question. Small-scale industries are important in India.
Answer: Small-scale industries are important in India because they can be started up by less capital investment and provides employment to large number of people.

Question. Which are the main centres of sugar industry in Bihar (Any four)?
Answer: Main centres in Bihar are West Champaran, East Champaran, Sitamarhi, Muzzaffarpur and Bhagalpur.

Question. Why is Uttar Pradesh and Bihar called the ‘Sugar-belt of India’?
Answer: The chief reasons are :
(i) Large quantity sugarcane is produced here, specially in the Ganga- Yamuna doab region and in the Terai region.
(ii) Availability of ample supply of coal from the nearby coalfields for processing.
(iii) Ample supply of cheap skilled and unskilled labour.
(iv) A good network of various modes of transport (Kanpur is the main distribution centre).
(v) Abundant supply of water for irrigation and for other purposes.

Question. Classify the industries on the importance of finished products and services.
Answer: (i) Key or basic industries : Most other industries depend upon them. Eg. Iron and steal, heavy machinery, cement etc. They indicate the economic health of the nation.
(ii) Consumer / Secondary industries : Goods are for the direct use of the consumers. For example, Processed food, textile, paper etc.
(iii) Public utility based / Tertiary industries : These include transport, health, / insurance, education, etc. They do not produce any goods but provide services.
(iv) Ancillary industries : Provide spare components for other larger industries such as automobiles, aircraft industry etc.

Question. Classify the industries on the basis of size, manpower and capital investment.
Answer: (i) Large scale : Greater workforce and large amount of investment is involved. Eg.: Aircraft Industry, automobile, railway manufacturing, defence equipment etc
(ii) Medium scale : Neither too big nor too small. Eg.: Paper, small textile mills etc.
(iii) Small scale : Relatively less number of people work. Generally owned by individuals. They require less capital. Eg.: Bicycles, food processing, confectioneries etc.

Question. India produces very little cane-sugar though it is one of the largest producers of sugarcane in the world.
Answer: India produces very little cane-sugar though it is one of the largest producers of sugarcane because the sucrose content of the cane in India is very low and also the per hectare production of sugarcane in India is low.

Question. What is meant by ‘Agro-based industry’? Name the leading agro-industry in India.
Answer: Agro-based industries are those industries which use agricultural produce as their raw material. Cotton and sugar are the leading agro-industries in India.

Question. It is necessary to crush sugarcane within 24 hours of havesting.
Answer: It is necessary to crush sugarcane within 24 hours of havesting because its sucrose content goes on decreasing with time.

Question. What are cottage industries?
Answer: (i) These are also known as household industries and are organized by individuals with private resources and with the help of members of the households.
(ii) They use locally available resources and skills.
(iii) For example, carpet weaving, handloom and handicrafts industry, etc.

Question. Mention the problems faced by silk industry.
Answer: The main problems being faced by the silk industry are the following:
(i) Competition from artificial silk is the main problem faced by the Indian silk industry. Artificial silk is cheaper and better in quality.
(ii) Import of better quality and cheaper raw silk from China is also detrimental for the Indian silk industry.
(iii) The changes in prices of raw silk badly affect both the growers and the silk industry.
(iv) There is no systematic testing and grading of silk as in advanced countries like Japan.(v) The industry needs modern power looms for increasing production.

Question. Mention any two problems of small-scale and cottage industries.
Answer: The problems of small-scale and cottage industries are as follows :
(i) Small-scale and cottage industries lack modern technology.
(ii) They cannot complete in terms of quality and price with the large scale industries.
(iii) Unorganized marketing makes the products unprofitable.

Question. ‘The handloom industry is important for our history and development of our country.’ Why ?
Answer: (i) The handloom industry is one of the oldest in India.
(ii) The industry today provides employment to about 10 million people and contributes over 23 percent of the total cloth production in the country.
(iii) The number of handlooms is estimated to be about 38 lakhs and of power looms 34 lakhs.

Question. How can silk industries be bought at international standards ?
Answer: Suggestions :
(i) Systematic testing and grading of silk should be done as in developed countries like Japan.
(ii) Modern power looms for increasing production.

Question. Name two important centres for each of the following industries and state the facilities they are enjoying at these centres:
(i) Cotton Industry (ii) Silk Industry
Answer: (i) Maharashtra and Gujarat are the foremost cotton textile manufacturing states. In these states, Mumbai and Ahmedabad contribute about 50
percent of the total installed looms and nearly half of India’s cotton mill cloth. Mumbai and Ahmedabad have emerged as the most important cotton-manufacturing centres for the following reasons :
(a) Proximity to raw material.
(b) Favourable climatic conditions
(c) Transport facilities
(d) Port facilities
( e ) Labour
(ii) Silk Industry is an important industry of India due to international demands. Main centres are Bangalore, Kanchipuram, Varanasi, Mysore, Murshidabad etc. Silk worms are reared mainly on mulberry plants. It is both developed as handloom and machines manufacturing. Thesecentres get the raw material easily and there are expert workers rather traditional, which are well trained in weaving and design making.

Question. What factors have favoured the localisation of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai and Ahmedabad ? OR Why have Mumbai and Ahmedabad emerged as the important cotton manufacturing centres ?
Answer: (i) Proximity to Raw Material : The supply of raw cotton for the mills is supplied by the cotton producing areas of the Deccan Plateau that lie close to these mills.
(ii) Climatic Conditions : The humid coastal climate favours the textile making without breaking the thread.
(iii) Transport Facilities : Mumbai and Ahmedabad are well connected through rail and road links with cotton growing areas of Maharashtra and Gujarat, respectively and also through sea routes with the foreign markets.
(iv) Port Facilities : Mumbai is a leading port with export and import facilities from Kandla. The location of port facilities from Kandla. The location of ports facilitate import of capital goods, chemicals etc. and the export of finished goods.
(v) Labour : Mumbai and Ahmedabad have enough labour force from within or nearby states.(vi) Capital : Both Mumbai and Ahmedabad being the financial and commercial centres of the country have easy access to capital and financial resources. A large number of banks and other financial institutions exist in these cities which provide loans and other credit facilities to the manufacturers.
(vii) Power : Power is of utmost need for the development of any industry. The cotton mills in Mumbai are supplied electricity by the Tata Hydroelectric system located in the Western Ghats whereas electricity is supplied in Gujarat by the Ukai and Kakrapara hydroelectric projects. 
(viii) Market : There is a huge market for the cotton cloth in these states as well as in the southern and coastal areas of the country because of the hot climate which prevails in these areas. Besides internal demand, a huge market for the India cotton cloth exists outside the country, especially in the Middle East countries which are located comparatively near to Mumbai and Ahmedabad.

Question. List the problems faced by sugar industry.
Answer: The sugarcane industry suffers from a number of problems. These are the following :
(i) The sugarcane cultivated in India is of poor quality low yield per hectare and low sucrose content.
(ii) The cost of production is quite high because of the inefficient and uneconomic nature of production, low yield, short crushing season and location of sugarcane producing areas far away from the factories.
(iii) About whole of sugarcane is harvested at the same time, as a result there is excess pressure on factories during harvest time and some amount of cane goes waste. This adds to the cost of production.
(iv) The supply of raw materials to sugar factories is irregular as no plantation industry exists around the factory. Moreover, sugarcane is grown by small farmers who sell their produce to sugar factories.
(v) The output of cane also depends on the price offered for the sugarcane. Farmers sell the cane to the factories at prices fixed by the government. If the prices offered are not attractive, farmers switch over to other crops.
(vi) The by-products of sugar like molasses and bagasse are not utilised completely. These can be converted into other useful products to reduce the cost of production.(vii) Old and obsolete machinery is used in sugar industry. This should be replaced by new technology and new machinery.
(viii) Instead of sugar, in rural areas, the demand for gur and khandsari is more.

Question. State two economic advantages of the handloom industry.
Answer: (i) The industry today provides employment to about 10 million people
(ii) It contributes over 23 per cent of the total cloth production in the country.

Question. What are the problems of the cotton textile industry?
Answer: The cotton textile industry suffers from the following problems : 
(i) Shortage of Raw Material : There is a shortage of raw material, particularly of long staple cotton, which is imported from Pakistan, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Egypt, USA and Peru.
(ii) Sick Industrial Units : The cotton industry faces constant threat of sickness and consequent closure, because of –
(a) uncertainly of raw material; (b) low productivity of machines and labour; (c) increasing competition from powerloom sector; (d) lack of modernisation; and (e) management problems. These sick units require heavy financial investments for replacement and modernization purposes. Many of these sick units have been taken over by the government.
(iii) Shortage of Power : The cotton textile mills are facing acute shortage f power. Supplies of coal are difficult to obtain and frequent cuts in
electricity and load shedding affect the industry badly. This leads to loss of man hours, low production and loss in the mills.

Question. Name any two large sugar producing states, one each in north and south India.
Answer: The two large sugar producing states in India are
(i) North – Uttar Pradesh
(ii) South – Tamil Nadu

Question. Name the major sugar producing centres in Tamil Nadu.
Answer: Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruchchirapalli and Villupuram.

Question. What are the solutions to the problems of cotton textile industries ?
Answer: Solutions :
(i) Government should provide continuous power to industries.
(ii) India should export garments/spun cloth instead of yarn so that we can meet local demands as well as earn more foreign exchange.
(iii) Machine should be ungraded.
(iv) Output per labourer should be increased

Question. Kolkata is an important cotton manufacturing centre even though West Bengal is not a leading producer of cotton.
Answer: Kolkata is an important cotton manufacturing centre even though West
Bengal is not a leading producer of cotton because :
(i) Kolkata has a humid climate which helps in weaving.
(ii) Water, coal, cheap labour is easily available
(iii) Port facilities are available here.

Question. Which are the main centres of sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh (Any four)?
Answer: The main centres of sugar production in Uttar Pradesh are Kanpur, Gorakhpur Bulandshahar, Meerut, Gaziabad, Muzaffarnagar, Bagpat, Saharanpur, Gonda and Basti.

Agro Based Industries in India ICSE Class 10 Geography