Students of ICSE Class 10 should refer to The United Nations ICSE Class 10 Questions and answers below which have come in past board exams. You should always go through questions which have come in previous years so that you can understand the pattern of questions in ICSE Class 10 History and prepare accordingly. This will help you to get better marks in ICSE Class 10 Board Exams
ICSE Class 10 The United Nations Questions and Answers
Please refer to solved questions for chapter The United Nations provided below. These questions and answers are expected to come in the examinations. Students should learn these so that they are able to answer the questions properly in exams and get good marks. Refer to Important Questions for ICSE Class 10 History and Civics for all chapters on our website.
The United Nations Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions
(1) When did the United Nations Organisation officially come into existence ? Where are the headquarters of the UN located?
Ans. United Nations Organisation officially came into existence on 24th October, 1945. Headquarters of the UN are located at New York, in the U.S.A.
(2) When and where was the UN Charter signed? How many countries signed the UN Charter?
Ans. UN Charter was signed on June 26, 1945 at San Francisco. It was signed by fifty countries.
(3) Name the official languages of the United Nations.
Ans. Arabic, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and English are the official languages of the United Nations. For documentation French and English are used.
(4) Mention the colour and design of the UN flag. When was the flag of the UN adopted?
Ans. The flag is light blue in colour and consists of UN emblem in white and in its centre is the polar map of the world embraced by twin olive branches. The flag of the UN was adopted on 20th October, 1947.
(5) Name organs of the UNO.
Ans. (i) The General Assembly.
(ii) The Security Council.
(iii) The International Court of Justice.
(iv) The Secretariat.
(v) The Trusteeship Council
(vi) The Economic and Social Council
(6) Name the organisation associated with the emblem. Name the five permanent members of the organisation.
Ans. United Nations is the organisation associated with the emblem.
(iv) Great Britain
(v) United States of America.
(7) How are new nations admitted in the United Nations?
Ans. Countries are admitted in United Nations by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council by a 2/3 majority of votes.
(8) What is the current membership of United Nations ?
Ans. Almost all the countries of the world are its members now. By 2011, 193 countries became its members. The last country to be admitted in the UN is South Sudan.
(9) Which circumstances led to establishment of UN?
Ans. (i) The first half of 20th century saw two World Wars, that urged the world leaders to take some concrete steps in order to save human civilisation.
(ii) The League formed after World War I rendered valuable service during the first ten years. But it failed to deal with acts of aggression in 1930s, which led to the breaking out of the Second World War.
(iii) For the first time, atom bombs were used in Second World War. A nuclear war rightly described as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) could have occurred between two Super Powers. Hence UN was established to save the world from a Third World War.
(10) State briefly the goals of United Nations post World Wars.
Ans. (i) To save succeeding generations from the scourge of a Third World War.
(ii) To develop faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of human beings;
(iii) To develop conditions under which justice and respect for international law and treaties can be maintained;
(iv) To promote social progress and better standards of life and more freedom.
(11) What are the main objectives of UN ?
Ans. (i) Maintain international peace and security, and take effective steps for the removal of threats to peace ;
(ii) Develop friendly relations among nations, based upon equal rights and self determination of people;
(iii) Co-operate in solving international problems of economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character;
(iv) Be the centre for harmonising the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
(v) Disarm, decolonise and develop are the other objectives of the UNO.
(12) Which principles of United Nations are instrumental in acheiving it objectives?
Ans. The U.N. has laid down the principles for achieving its objectives and purpose:
(i) All the member -states of the U.N. are ‘Sovereign’ and ‘Equal’.
(ii) The member-states shall fulfill their obligations honestly under the U.N. Charter.
(iii) All member-states shall solve their mutual disputes through peaceful means. They would refrain from threat or use of force against any state. (iv) All members shall be morally bound to offer unconditional services (military or otherwise) to the U.N.O.
(v) The U.N.O. shall ensure that even non-members work for the peace and security of the world.
(vi) The U.N.O. shall not interfere in the internal affairs of any member state.
(13) What is the composition of General Assembly?
Ans. The General Assembly may be called the World Parliament. Each member shall have not more than five representatives in General Assembly. However each state has one vote.
(14) Give two electoral functions of the UN General Assembly.
Ans. Electoral functions of General Assembly :
(i) It elects ten non-permanent members of the Security Council.
(ii) It elects members of the Economic and Social Council and Trusteeship Council. It also participates in the election of ICJ judges.
(iii) It elects a President, 21 Vice Presidents and Chairmen of six major committees for itself.
(15) How does the General Assembly conduct its session?
Ans. (i) The regular session of the General Assembly begins each year on the third Tuesday in September and continue usually until the third week of December.
(ii) Special sessions are convened by the Secretary-General at the request of the Security Council or by a special request by a majority of members.
(16) State briefly functions of General Assembly?
Ans. (i) It holds discussions and makes recommendations on principles of cooperation, peace and security.
(ii) It considers and passes the annual budget of the U.N.O. (iii) Receive and consider reports from Security Council and other organs.
(vi) General Assembly appoints the Secretary General on recommendation of Security Council.
(17) Under which circunstances General Assembly is empowered to take military action?
Ans. Under the “Uniting for Peace” resolution adopted by the General Assembly in November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity of its permanent members, fails to act in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. The Assembly is empowered to consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to members for collective measures, including the use of armed force.
(18) What is the composition of Security Council?
Ans. Security Council is the executive body or ‘Enforcement Wing’ of the United Nations. It has fifteen members. There are two types of members of the Security Council, namely, Permanent and Non-permanent. Five Permanent members are the U.S.A., the U.K., France, Russia, China (People’s Republic). Ten non- Permanent members are elected for a term of two years by 2/3rd majority.
(19) How are non-permanent members of the Security Council elected ?
Ans. The ten non-permanent members of the Security Council are elected by the General Assembly by two-thirds majority for a two year term. The regional representation of the ten non-permanent members is
(i) Afro- Asian countries – 5;
(ii) Latin American countries -3;
(iii) West European and other countries – 2;
(iv) East European countries-1.
(20) Veto Power is enjoyed by the five permanent members of the United Nations. What is this power ?
Ans. The decisions in the Security Council are taken by the majority. Each member of the Security Council has one vote. If any permanent member exercises Veto on a decision of the Security Council it cannot be carried out, even if all the other members agree. This is called the Veto Power of the Big Five Permanent Members. A negative vote by a permanent member of a Security Council is called a Veto power; by this a decision can be halted by a Permanent member.
(21) If one of the permanent members is absent and all others have voted in favour of a decision, can the decision be implemented in Security Council? Justify your answer.
Ans. Each member of the Security Council has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of nine members, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. The negative vote of a permanent member is called a veto. The Council is powerless to act if any of the five permanent members uses the veto power. However abstinence from voting does not amount to a negative vote or veto.
(21) How does the General Assembly ensure equitable representation through presidency?.
Ans. To ensure equitable geographical representation, the presidency of the Assembly rotates each year among five groups of States: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Caribbean, and Western Europe and other States.
(22) How does the Security Council maintain international peace and security?
Ans. To discharge its foremost reponsibility to maintain international peace and security,the Security Council can do the following :
(i) It can investigate disputes among nations and recommend ways and means for peaceful settlement.
(ii) It can impose an embargo (i.e., stoppage of trade) on nations that do not act according to its directions.
(iii) It can order military action against an aggressive nation. It can also recommend to the General Assembly to expel a state from the membership of the U.N.O.
(iv) If fighting has actually started, the Security Council may call for ceasefire or for cutting off communication links with the aggressor nation, or breaking diplomatic relations with it.
(23) Name the judicial organ of the United Nations. Where is it located?
Ans. International Court of Justice is judicial organ of the United Nations. It is located at Hague (Netherlands).
(24) Mention in brief the function of ICJ?
Ans. (i) If the treaties provide, then it can hear cases of dispute between two or more nations and decide it.
(ii) Disputes between Nations relating to reparation or interpretation of International law are heard by it.
(iii) The other U.N. Organs and Agencies may ask the ICJ to give its advice within the scope of their activities.
(iv) It codifies the International law by thoroughly examining International conventions, customs, judicial decisions and general principles of law.
(v) It evolves the procedure of peaceful settlement of disputes.
(25) Describe the term and composition of judges in International Court of Justice?
Ans. The Court is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council sitting independently of each other. It may not include more than one judge from any nationality. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be re-elected.
(26) What is the advisory role of the International Court of Justice ?
Ans. It gives an advisory opinion in the legal matters to the Security Council and the General Assembly on their request.
(27) How are the judges of the International Court of Justice appointed?
Ans. The Judges of the International Court of Justice are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council voting independently.
(28) When can judicial matter be taken to Security Council?
Ans. The decision of the Court is made by the majority of the judges present. A member of the United Nations is obliged to comply with the decision of the Court in any case to which it is party. If any party fails to comply and fulfill its obligation, the other party may take up the matter in the Security Council.
(29) How does the ICJ codify international law?
Ans. The Court has played a sigificant role in the codification of international law. It examines international conventions, international customs, judicial decisions and general principles of law in the process of codification.
(30) By which methods can the Security Council solve a dispute ?
Ans. The Security Council can solve a dispute with the help of the following methods:
(a) Negotiations, Mediation and Arbitration.
(b) The Security Council can use the services of certain agencies for dealing with any situation.
(c) The Security Council may take a stronger action like complete or partial interruption of economic relations.
(d) If peaceful measures fail, the Security Council may resort to military action.
(1) With reference to the formation of the UN explain :
(i) Reasons for establishment of UN.
(ii) Objectives of UN.
(iii) Guiding principles of the UN.
Ans. (i) Disastrous World Wars :
(a) Two World Wars left a legacy of misery and depression in nearly every country. Millions lost their lives and many people became disabled, homeless and unemployed.
(b) Therefore, they stated thinking international organisation to maintain peace in the world.
Failure of the League of Nations :
(a) The League of Nations (1920-1939) was born after the First World War with a promise of peace but it failed to prevent another World War.
(b) Many leaders of the world felt the need for an orgainsation which would be more powerful than the League of Nations.
Fear of Third World War :
(a) The peace treaties signed after First World War sowed the seeds of bitterness and conflict leading to the Second World War
(b) All the countries feared that the Second World War could be the cause of a Third World War which might lead to the end of the world.
Division of the World into Two Blocs :
(a) At the end of the Second World War, the world was divided into two power blocs, one led by the USA and the other by the erstwhile USSR.
(b) Both of them had opposite ideologies and, therefore, had no faith in each other. A transparent and impartial organisation was required so that they would be able to resolve their differences amicably rather than resorting to war.
Destructive Weapons :
(a) The destructive weapons, like atom bombs, were invented and used during the Second World War. These could bring the end of the whole world in no time. They also led to an armament race for more destructive weapons.
(b) Different countries of the world felt that they could meet and discuss methods by which they could save themselves and mankind from destruction.
(ii) The purpose of the United Nations was defined in Article I of the Charter as :
(a) To maintain international peace and security; to take collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace, to suppress acts of aggression or other breaches of peace.
(b) To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
(c) To achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms.
(d) To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
(iii) In order to fulfill the purposes for which UNO was established, the members shall act in accordance with the following prinicples:
(a) To respect the sovereign equality of all its members.
(b) All members should fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them.
(c) They should settle their international disputes by peaceful means.
(d) They would refrain from the threat or use of force against any State.
(e) They should give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes.
(2) The General Assembly is considered as the Parliament of the UN. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) Financial Functions
(b) Electoral Functions
(c) Supervisory Functions
(d) Recommendary Functions
Ans. (a) Financial Functions : The General Assembly considers and approves the budget of the UNO and also determines the amount of funds to be contributed by the different members in accordance with their capacities.
(b) Electoral Functions : It elects the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of Trusteeship, Economic and Social Council. It also elects the judges of International Court of Justice. On the recommendations of the Security Council, the Secretary General of the United Nations is appointed by General Assembly.
(c) Supervisory Functions : The General Assembly regulates the working of other organs and agencies of the UN. It can bring changes in the working of any of its agencies, if required.
(d) Recommendatory Functions :
(i) To consider and make recommendations on the principles of cooperation, in the maintnance of international peace and security;
(ii) To discuss any question relating to international peace and security and (except where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council) to make recommendations on it;
(iii) To discuss and make recommendations on any question within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations.
(iv) To initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political, social, and economic cooperation.
(v) To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of disputes.
(3) The Security Council is the most important organ of the UNO which looks after the security and peace of the world. In this context, describe the following :
(i) Its composition.
(ii) Its decision making procedure.
(iii) Its functions.
Ans. (i) It is the executive body of the UNO with 15 members. It has five permanent members :
(d) Great Britain
(e) United States of America . The 10 non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly by two-thirds majority for a two year term. A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election. States which are not the members of the Security Council but are party to a dispute may participate in it deliberations with no voting right. Each member of the Security Council is its President in turn for a month according to the English alphabetical listing of its member States.
(ii) Each member of the Council has one vote. The ordinary matters are decided by an affirmative vote of 9 members out of 15. Decisions on important matters require nine votes including the votes of all the 5 permanent members. The permanent members have the right of ‘Veto Power’. By exercising this power, any of the permanent members can reject the decision of the Security Council.
(iii) The functions of the Security Council are :
(a) To maintain international peace and security.
(b) To investigate any dispute or situation which may lead to friction.
(c) To recommend methods of settling such disputes.
(d) To formulate plans for the regulation of armaments.
(e) To determine the existence of a threat to peace or act of aggression and to recommend action against such a threat.
(f) To call upon members to apply economic sanctions and other measures to stop aggression.
(g) To take military action against an aggressor.
(h) To recommend admission of new members.
(i) To exercise trusteeship functions of the United Nations.
(j) To elect judges of the International Court of Justice.
(k) To recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary General.
(4) The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. In this context, answer the following questions :
(i) Its composition.
(iii) Advisory Opinions
Ans. (i) Its composition : The Court is composed of 15 judges elected to nineyear terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council sitting independently of each other. It may not include more than one judge from any nationality. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be reelected.
(a) Voluntary Jurisdiction : The Court is competent to entertain a dispute if the States concerned agree to take the issue to it.
(b) Compulsory Jurisdiction : The Court has compulsory Jurisdiction in the following areas:
(i) Against the background that a large number of treaties provide that disputes are submitted to the Court.
(ii) Its Jurisdiction extends to: – disputes pertaining to the interpretation of international law, and – reparation, i.e., compensation to be made for the breach of an international obligation.
(iii) Advisory Opinions
(a) The advisory procedure of the Court is open solely to international organisations. The only bodies at present authorised to request advisory opinions of the Court are five organs of the United Nations and 16 specialised agencies of the United Nations family.
(b) Since 1946 the Court has given 24 Advisory Opinions, concerning reparation for injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations, territorial status of South-West Africa (Namibia) and Western Sahara, etc.
Notes for The United Nations
• 24-12-1945: set up.
• Headquarters: New York
• Members: 193
Purpose And Objectives of the U.N.O
• To maintain peace and security
• To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect and equality of its members.
• To achieve international cooperation among members of UNO and promoting respect and equality.
• To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations.
Principles of The UNO
• It is based on equality of its members.
• Its member should perform duty according to the charter.
• Its members should settle disputes by peaceful means.
• Its members will not make use threat and violence.
• It will not intervene in the internal matters of any nation.
• It will also see that its members work to maintain peace.
Composition and Functions of the U.N.O
• It has six main organs.
• The General Assembly
• 193 members
• Its regular session held in once a year.
• It elects a new president and vice presidents(21) and chairperson in each session.
• Each nation can send 5 representative with one vote.
• In order to ensure equal representation the presidency of assembly rotates among 5 groups of states i.e. African Asian East European West European and American states.
• To discuss matters of international peace and security.
• To promote international cooperation among members.
• To promote friendly relations among nations.
• To elect members of UNO and its other organs.
• To appoint the Secretary General.
• The Security Council
• Executive body of the U.N.O.
• 15 members(each one vote)
• 5 permanent
• 10 non-permanent
• Non-permanent members are elected for 2 years.
• The permanent members thus have right to Veto.
• The presidency of council is held turn for 1 month for each council members
• Member nation of the council have permanent representative in New York.
• To maintain international peace and security.
• To investigate any dispute.
• To formulate plans relate to armaments.
• To take military action against an aggressor.
• To elect Judges of the International court of Justice.
• The Economic and Social council
• 54 members
• Elected for 4 years by the General Assembly.
• 1/3rd members retire after 3 years.
• Held two session in a year.
• To solve the Economic, Social and Cultural problems.
• Works for the Economic and Social development.
• To promote social progress.
• Works for upliftment of Women.
• Forms various institutions to achieve aims.
• 1946: The Commission in the status of Women.
• To welfare of Children.
• The Trusteeship council
• Consist permanent members of security council.
• Countries were still not free looked after by it.
• The international Court of Justice
• 15 Judges elected by the general assembly.
• Term of Judges – 9 years
• Chief Justice elected for 3 years and have casting vote.
• Seat – The Hague(Netherland)
• To settle disputes among nation in peaceful means.
• The Secretariat
• Secretary General is its head who elected for 5 years.
• It is divided into 8 parts.
• António Guterres is the current UN Secretary-General
• It keeps the record of all the organs of the U.N.O.
MAJOR AGENCIES OF THE U.N.O.
• WWII leads huge loss in every sphere of life.
• Thus U.N.O. forms various institutions to development of many nations.
• Stand for – United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund.
• 1946: created by General Assembly to help children’s of Europe and China.
• 1950: Its programme extend to works for all developing countries.
• Headquarters: New York(USA)
• It has a board of 30 members.
• It provide aid to needy countries.
• It depends on contributions made by different nations.
• Its main objective is to look after the children.
• It makes planning of benefit for children with consultation of many nations.
• It provides funds for welfare of Childs.
• It provides technical supplies and other aids, medicine etc.
• It provides low cost community based services in child field.
• It makes efforts to prevent diseases by which children grow healthy.
• 1979: International Year of The Child
• India receive much aid from UNICEF.
• 1990: WORLD SUMMIT held to protect child from exploitation.
• 2-12-1992: India adopted the convention of WORLD SUMMIT.
• Cooperation between UNICEF and India is carried out by a MASTER PLAN OF OPRATION(MO) which makes every 5 years.
World Health Organisation
• Its objective to provide highest level of healthcare to all people.
• 7-4-1948: set up.
• Members – 26
• 7-4: World health Day
• Governing body of WHO called world health assembly.
• All member of UNO members of it.
• Executive board members – 31
• Headquarter – Geneva (Switzerland)
• It helps to countries to build system of health by building up infrastructure and other things.
• It promotes research.
• It helps to provide safe drinking water.
• 1981 – 1990: International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade
• WHO brings out health journals for awareness like ‘Bulletin of the WHO’.
• It aims to prevent diseases.
• Stand for – United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation
• 1946: set up.
• Headquarter – Paris
• Meeting of General Assembly – Once in 2 years
• Executive board members – 51
• Executive meets 2 times in a year.
• To promote peace and security by education, Science etc.
In the Field of Education
• It opens school.
• Helps to train teachers.
• Open libraries.
• Remove illiteracy.
In the Field of Science
• It helps to establish Scientific institutions.
• Promote human rights.
• In the Field of Culture
• It encourages national and culture values.
• In the Field of Communication
• It tries to improve quality of press.
• It makes efforts to free press.