Short Notes ICSE Class 10 Geography

Study Material

Students should refer to Short Notes ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.

ICSE Class 10 Geography Short Notes Revision Notes

Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Short Notes in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.

Short Notes ICSE Class 10 Geography

Topic -1 Soils In India

Meaning of soil- Soil is the thin layer of loose mixture of small rock particles and decaying organic matter.

Types of soil in India

Soil Erosion

Meaning – It is removal of top layer of soil by human activities or by forces of nature such as wind and water.
Causes of Soil Erosion – Sheet erosion, Rill erosion, Gully erosion, Stream bank erosion, by wind, deforestation.
Sheet Erosion – It is caused by running water when a thin layer of soil on the surface is removed over a large area.
Rill Erosion – When sheet erosion continues for long the silt laden run off forms many finger shaped rills.
Gully Erosion – Gully erosion takes place when running water cuts deep soil in absence of vegetation.
Stream Bank Erosion – Streams change their courses by cutting one bank of depositing the silt loads on the others.
Landslide – It is a sudden downward movement of larger portion of land. It is also called Slip Erosion.
Deforestation – Cutting of trees exposes the soil to water and wind, which leads to soil erosion.
Wind Erosion – It is caused by wind. Under this top fertile soil blows away by high speed wind.

Soil Conservation

Meaning – Soil conservation means the methodology to maintain soil fertility and prevent soil erosion. 
Methods of Soil Conservation – Terrace farming, Shelter Belts, Strip Cropping, Construction of dams, Afforestation.
• Terrace Farming- It is a method of farming when step-like structures are created on hilly slopes.
• Shelter Belts- Farmer plant trees in several rows on the outer part of their agricultural land to stop soil erosion.
• Strip Cropping- Crops are grown in alternate strips of land to check the impact of the winds.
• Constructing Dams- River cause soil erosion, Dams are built in upper course of rivers to control soil erosion.
• Contour Ploughing- It is a farming technique which is used in hilly areas. It involves ploughing along the outline of the fields in a circular manner.

Give Reasons Questions- Note- (Questions are in normal font and Answers in Italic font from word because)
1. Alluvial soil can hold moisture and is very fertile because it is made up of fine particles and rich in potash & lime.
2. The percentage of organic matter in desert soil is very low because of the dry climate and absence of vegetation.
3. Red soil is ideal for dry farming because red soil does not require much moisture.
4. Laterite soil is not suitable for cultivation because it is acidic in nature and lack in minerals.
5. Alluvial soil is differs in texture because it is transported soil it is coarse in upper and fine grained in lower course.
6. Black soil does get leached because it becomes sticky after rain.
7. Khadar soil is more fertile than Bhangar because Khadar is new alluvial soil and it replenished every year.
8. Black soil is suitable for growth of cotton because cotton grows that soil which have good water retention Capacity which is the main feature of black soil.
9. Desert soil contains high proportion of salts because it is alkaline in nature as there is no rainfall to wash away Soluble salts.
10. Soil erosion occurs in arid regions of India because in arid regions there is less vegetation cover.

Some Short Notes-
IN SITU SOIL- The soil which are found where they formed is called in situ soil. It is also called Residual soil.
SOIL PROFILE – A soil profile is a section showing the successive layers of the soil .
PEDOGENESIS – Pedogenesis is the science to study of the processes that lead to the formation of soil.
HUMUS – It is the organic matter present in the soil formed by the decomposition of plants and animals.
TRANSPORTED SOIL – These are soils which are carried down by agents of gradation such as river. E.g. Alluvial soil

Topic- 2 Natural Vegetation Of India

Meaning- Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has been grown naturally without human aid.

Types of Natural vegetation in India

Relation of Forest with environment

1. Forest moderate the climate of the region by affecting temperature, humidity and precipitation in the region.
2. Forest purify the air around us by absorbing the atmospheric Carbon di oxide. It minimizes the air pollution.
3. Trees act as a wind breaker as they break the velocity of wind and running water to minimize soil erosion.
4. Trees reduce run off and increase percolation, it increases ground water level.

Forest Conservation

Need of Forest Conservation-
1. To maintain environmental stability and to restore forests where ecological balances were disturbed.
2. To prevent soil erosion and reduction of floods and droughts.
3. To increase productivity of forests to make timber, fuel, fodder, food available to rural people.

Forest Conservation Methods –
1. Increase forest cover by undertaking reforestation and afforestation.
2. Total ban on Shifting cultivation and restriction on overgrazing.
3. Increasing people participation in this regard by bringing the necessary awareness among them regarding the needs and benefits of forest.

Social Forestry- It is management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands for environmental, Social and rural development. It is described as forestry of the people, forestry by the people and forestry for the people.

Agro Forestry- Agro forestry is the part of social forestry and represents the intermediate stage between forestry and agriculture. It means raising of trees and agriculture crops on the same land. The main objective of agro forestry is to reduce pressure on natural forests to meet demand for various forest products.

Use of important Trees.

1. Sandalwood- It is used for making statues, ornaments and its oil used in cosmetics industry and perfumes.
2. Teak- It is used for manufacturing of furniture, ship building. Its wood is hard and durable.
3. Sal- It is considered most suitable for railway sleepers, doors and windows of houses.
4. Sundari- The sundari trees provide hard durable timber for making boat.
5. Shisham- It is used for constructing purposes for making furniture, bullock carts, musical instruments etc.
6. Mahogany- It is a hard durable timber used for ship building and furniture making.
7. Deodar- It is medium weight wood which is used for making beams, window frames and railway sleepers.
8. Tendu- Tendu leaves are uses as wrappers for Bidi making.
9. Neem- It is a medicinal tree. Its leaves are used to manufacture health and beauty products.

Name the Natural Vegetation

Topic- 3 Water Resources In India

Irrigation – Irrigation refers to the process of watering of agricultural plants through artificial means as well, tanks.
Need for Irrigation in India-
1. Uncertainty of rainfall 2. Uneven distribution of rainfall 3. Some crops require more water than other
4. Some soils don’t absorb as much water as others 5. To maximize agricultural productivity.

Means of Irrigation

a. WELLS – A well is a small hole dug in the surface of the earth to obtain water from subsoil for irrigation.
Suitable conditions – 1. Higher water table, not more than 10-15 mt deep 2. Softer soil which can be easily dug.
Areas- Northern Plains, U.P. Bihar, Haryana etc.
Why in Northern Plains? a. Underground water table is high.
b. Region has alluvial soil which is soft and easy to dig.
Advantages – 1. Wells can be dug at a very low cost it is helpful for poor farmers.
2. It occupies less space.
Disadvantages – 1. Evaporation is high for unlined wells.
2. Open well irrigates relatively small area in comparison to tube wells and canals.

b. TUBE WELLS – These are deep bores drilled into the ground manually or with a machine.
Areas- U.P. Bihar, Haryana, West Bengal etc.
Advantages – 1. Can irrigate larger area of land- 300 hectares at a time.
2. Salinity level in these wells is low due to zero evaporation.
Disadvantages – 1. It is costlier than open wells.
2. It Needs electricity.

c. CANAL – There are two types of canals- i. Perennial Canals ii. Inundation or Seasonal Canals
i. Perennial Canals- These canals are taken out from the perennial rivers by constructing barrages.
Advantages – 1. These canal provide water for irrigation throughout the year.
2. They provide a mode of cheap inland water transport.
Disadvantages – 1. Canal construction involves greater construction cost.
2. Lots of cultivable land is wasted by means of constructing canals.
ii. Inundation Canals- These are also known as ‘flood canals’ or ‘Non Perennial canals’.
Advantages – 1. They are useful in controlling floods.
Disadvantages – 1. Water supply is seasonal. They supply water only during flood season.
Areas – Rajasthan, UP, Haryana, Bihar, Punjab.

d. TANKS – A tank is generally a hollow area or depression on the ground where rainwater gets collected.
Areas – Peninsular India especially Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka etc.
Why in Peninsular Plateau? because in peninsular India-
i. Existence of hard bedrock make it difficult to dig cannals and wells.
ii. limited percolation due to hard rock structure.
Advantage – 1. Tanks conserve rainwater by minimizing surface run off
2. Construction cost of a tank is generally low as compared to canals.

Disadvantages- 1. Tanks are large open spaces where rain water is stored, much of water is evaporated.
2. They depend on monsoon for water. If monsoon fails, tank irrigation fails.

FURROW IRRIGATION – water is made to flow through narrow channel made between the rows of cultivated crops.

Advantages- 1. Ensure even distribution of water 2. More scientific method

Disadvantages- 1. Takes more time to construct. 2. It is costlier method.

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION- It comprises a long hose whose one end is joined to a water resource while the other end is joined to the sprinklers.
Advantages- 1. Less wastage of water. 2. Field leveling is not necessary
Disadvantages- 1. It can irrigate lesser area. 2. It is costlier mode of irrigation.

DRIP IRRIGATION- Water is provided directly to the roots of the plants by means of thin pipes.
Advantages- 1. It is most advanced and efficient method. 2. Least evaporation and wastage of water.
Disadvantages- 1. Can be only used for commercial farming. 2. Very costly.

Need for Water Conservation-
1. The over exploitation of underground water often results in the lowering of water table.
2. Irrigation utilizes more than 90% of the total fresh water.

Watershed Management- Watershed management refers to the efficient management and conservation of both the surface and groundwater resources. It includes prevention of runoff water and storage and recharge of groundwater by various methods like recharge wells, bore wells.

Rainwater Harvesting- A technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rain water.

Methods of RWH- 1. Surface runoff harvesting 2. Rooftop rainwater harvesting

Objectives or Need for RWH – 1. To meet increasing demand for water 2. To raise underground water tables. 3. To reduce ground water pollution 4. To reduce soil erosion.

Advantages of RWH- 1. Provide self-sufficiency to water supply.
2. Reduces soil erosion in urban areas.
3. Improves the quality of groundwater through dilution when recharged to ground water.
4. It reduces the loss of fresh water by surface run-off.

Methods of Groundwater Recharge- 1. Recharge Pits 2. Borewells Dugwells recharge
3. Percolation Pits 4. Recharge Trenches
Major states where Rainwater Harvesting is practiced-
Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Karnataka etc.
Note- RWH= Rain Water Harvesting

Topic-4 Mineral And Energy Resource

TYPES OF COAL- Coal is also called Black gold. The major types of coal are as follows-
1. Anthracite (90 % carbon) – it given maximum heat and less smoke. in India mostly found in Jammu & Kashmir.
2. bituminous (60 – 80% carbon) – this type of coal is more found in India than others. (Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh)
3. lignite (40 – 60) – it is third in quality. it is also know as brown coal. (Tamil nadu, Rajasthan).
4. peat (less than 40% carbon)- it is inferior to the other three varieties of coal.
major coal site – jharia, bokaro and dhanbad (jharkhand), ranjganj west bengal nevaly (tamil nadu). major oil refineries – jamnagar (Gujrat), Barauni ( Bihar) Guwahati (Assam), Mumbai (Maharashtra).

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